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3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833551

RESUMO

The upcoming agricultural revolution, known as Agriculture 4.0, integrates cutting-edge Information and Communication Technologies in existing operations. Various cyber threats related to the aforementioned integration have attracted increasing interest from security researchers. Network traffic analysis and classification based on Machine Learning (ML) methodologies can play a vital role in tackling such threats. Towards this direction, this research work presents and evaluates different ML classifiers for network traffic classification, i.e., K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Support Vector Classification (SVC), Decision Tree (DT), Random Forest (RF) and Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD), as well as a hard voting and a soft voting ensemble model of these classifiers. In the context of this research work, three variations of the NSL-KDD dataset were utilized, i.e., initial dataset, undersampled dataset and oversampled dataset. The performance of the individual ML algorithms was evaluated in all three dataset variations and was compared to the performance of the voting ensemble methods. In most cases, both the hard and the soft voting models were found to perform better in terms of accuracy compared to the individual models.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Agricultura , Análise por Conglomerados , Política
4.
J Hist Ideas ; 82(4): 661-682, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34840193

RESUMO

This article examines the sociologist Daniel Bell's interest in future research. Future research, to Bell, had as its particular purpose to ensure forms of coordination and steering acceptable to a liberal society. By examining Bell's interest in future research and the activities of the Commission on the Year 2000, the essay proposes that future research played a role in Cold War intellectual history as a particular form of planning for the liberal polity. This idea of planning a liberal society changed decisively, however, between 1965 and 1975.


Assuntos
Paralisia de Bell , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Política , Estados Unidos
5.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45(5): 395-400, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841842

RESUMO

Politics is facing the need to make important decisions about anti-COVID-19 vaccination campaign in uncertain and changing contexts. With reference to the time frame between the administration of the first and second dose, the scientific evidence is still weak and comes from different contexts. New ways to collect and synthesize expert knowledge and opinions are needed with the direct involvement of the citizens in order to explain the uncertainties and maintain trust in institutions and their decisions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Política , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Itália , Confiança
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21751, 2021 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741109

RESUMO

Adoption of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) remains critical to curtail the spread of COVID-19. Using self-reported adherence to NPIs in Canada, assessed through a national cross-sectional survey of 4498 respondents, we aimed to identify and characterize non-adopters of NPIs, evaluating their attitudes and behaviours to understand barriers and facilitators of adoption. A cluster analysis was used to group adopters separately from non-adopters of NPIs. Associations with sociodemographic factors, attitudes towards COVID-19 and the public health response were assessed using logistic regression models comparing non-adopters to adopters. Of the 4498 respondents, 994 (22%) were clustered as non-adopters. Sociodemographic factors significantly associated with the non-adoption cluster were: (1) being male, (2) age 18-34 years, (3) Albertans, (4) lower education level and (5) higher conservative political leaning. Participants who expressed low concern for COVID-19 and distrust towards several institutions had greater odds of being non-adopters. This information characterizes individuals at greatest odds for non-adoption of NPIs to inform targeted marketing interventions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alberta/epidemiologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , COVID-19/psicologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Letramento em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distanciamento Físico , Política , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Public Health Res Pract ; 31(4)2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753161

RESUMO

Are we repeating the mistakes of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in our approach to combating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)? Is the world's emphasis on developing vaccines overshadowing investment in the health systems that can deliver them? We analyse a report on the politics of investing in health policy and systems research (HPSR) and conclude by outlining three critical actions, using the Stuckler-McKee model of social change in health. These are: exploiting a political window of opportunity; changing the conversation; and mobilising a campaign to drive the agenda. When implemented together, these actions could help accelerate investment in health systems to combat the immediate COVID-19 pandemic and prepare health systems for the next crisis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Política , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Public Health Res Pract ; 31(4)2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753166

RESUMO

Objectives and importance of study: The importance of health policy and systems research (HPSR) has been acknowledged since 2004 and was recognised by the United Nations World Health Assembly in 2005. However, many factors influence its development. This paper aims to analyse the impact of politics and political determinants on HPSR funding in selected countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS: Using a standardised protocol, we performed an analysis of available data and financing structures for health research and HPSR, based on research in eight countries, including interviews with key stakeholders (n = 42). RESULTS: Dollar depreciation and gross national product growth in the region may play a role in how governments fund research. There have been shifts in the political spectrum in governments, which have affected research coordination and funding in positive and negative ways. HPSR funding in some countries was dependent on budget decisions and although some have improved funding, others have regressed by decreasing funding or have completely cancelled financing mechanisms. Caribbean countries rely mainly on institutional funding. HPSR is recognised as important but remains underfunded; stakeholders believed it should be used more in decision making. CONCLUSION: Although HPSR is recognised as valuable for decision making and policy development, it does not have the financial support required to flourish in Latin America and the Carribean. Data on health research financing were not easy to access. There was little or no evidence of published reports or papers about research financing, health research funding, and HPSR funding in particular in the studied countries. Because of the fragility of health systems highlighted by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, HPSR should be of great relevance and value to both policy makers and funders.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Política de Saúde , Região do Caribe , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , América Latina , Política , SARS-CoV-2
11.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258871, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731208

RESUMO

COVID-19 continues to pose a threat to global public health. Multiple safe and effective vaccines against COVID-19 are available with one-third of the global population now vaccinated. Achieving a sufficient level of vaccine coverage to suppress COVID-19 requires, in part, sufficient acceptance among the public. However, relatively high rates of hesitance and resistance to COVID-19 vaccination persists, threating public health efforts to achieve vaccine-induced population protection. In this study, we examined longitudinal changes in COVID-19 vaccine acceptance, hesitance, and resistance in two nations (the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland) during the first nine months of the pandemic, and identified individual and psychological factors associated with consistent non-acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination. Using nationally representative, longitudinal data from the United Kingdom (UK; N = 2025) and Ireland (N = 1041), we found that (1) COVID-19 vaccine acceptance declined in the UK and remained unchanged in Ireland following the emergence of approved vaccines; (2) multiple subgroups existed reflecting people who were consistently willing to be vaccinated ('Accepters': 68% in the UK and 61% in Ireland), consistently unwilling to be vaccinated ('Deniers': 12% in the UK and 16% in Ireland), and who fluctuated over time ('Moveable Middle': 20% in the UK and 23% in Ireland); and (3) the 'deniers' and 'moveable middle' were distinguishable from the 'accepters' on a range of individual (e.g., younger, low income, living alone) and psychological (e.g., distrust of scientists and doctors, conspiracy mindedness) factors. The use of two high-income, Western European nations limits the generalizability of these findings. Nevertheless, understanding how receptibility to COVID-19 vaccination changes as the pandemic unfolds, and the factors that distinguish and characterise those that are hesitant and resistant to vaccination is helpful for public health efforts to achieve vaccine-induced population protection against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
14.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 3): 5361-5370, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787225

RESUMO

The article aims to raise reflections about the necropolitics directed to HIV/AIDS in Brazil from a set of rationalities that permeate the processes of configuration of the governmental agenda, treatment of the disease, and the policies and technologies involved. For this purpose, a non-systematic theoretical review was carried out from a threefold aspect: the stigma of AIDS, necropolitics, and life politics. We concluded that life politics, as opposed to necropolitics, contributes to the defense of human rights and health, above all, to the demystification of stigma and the politics of enmity historicized in AIDS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Brasil , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Política , Estigma Social
15.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258220, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618837

RESUMO

A politics of resentment has shaped a low-dialogue political environment in the United States, feeding into populism, and characterized by perceived distributive injustice, detachment between politicians and "the people", and political polarization. In this political environment, independent of editorial lines, news can spread based on populist content features and drive the political divide even further. However, we still do not understand well, how the forces of political disconnect as well as potentially unifying elements such as political knowledge and the willingness to connect with the other (political) side predict audience interest in populist news featuring people-centrism, anti-elitism, restoring popular sovereignty, and the exclusion of others. To better understand what drives (dis-)interest in populist news features, we combined self-report data from a non-student US sample (N = 440) on political attitudes with unobtrusively measured data on their selective exposure to populist news. We analyzed the data using zero-inflated negative binomial regression models, in which we simultaneously modeled selective exposure to and avoidance of populist news. The findings indicate that especially the will to connect with others explained exposure to news about anti-elitism, especially among Democrats, while Republicans' news avoidance seems to be specifically geared toward people-centrism. Populist communication features promoting "us" vs. "them" dichotomies seem to not automatically resonate with the views of resentful voters and their motivated reasoning.


Assuntos
Atitude , Cultura , Hostilidade , Jornais como Assunto , Política , Justiça Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0256675, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624039

RESUMO

Online messaging app Telegram has increased in popularity in recent years surpassing Twitter and Snapchat by the number of active monthly users in late 2020. The messenger has also been crucial to protest movements in several countries in 2019-2020, including Belarus, Russia and Hong Kong. Yet, to date only few studies examined online activities on Telegram and none have analyzed the platform with regard to the protest mobilization. In the present study, we address the existing gap by examining Telegram-based activities related to the 2019 protests in Hong Kong. With this paper we aim to provide an example of methodological tools that can be used to study protest mobilization and coordination on Telegram. We also contribute to the research on computational text analysis in Cantonese-one of the low-resource Asian languages,-as well as to the scholarship on Hong Kong protests and research on social media-based protest mobilization in general. For that, we rely on the data collected through Telegram's API and a combination of network analysis and computational text analysis. We find that the Telegram-based network was cohesive ensuring efficient spread of protest-related information. Content spread through Telegram predominantly concerned discussions of future actions and protest-related on-site information (i.e., police presence in certain areas). We find that the Telegram network was dominated by different actors each month of the observation suggesting the absence of one single leader. Further, traditional protest leaders-those prominent during the 2014 Umbrella Movement,-such as media and civic organisations were less prominent in the network than local communities. Finally, we observe a cooldown in the level of Telegram activity after the enactment of the harsh National Security Law in July 2020. Further investigation is necessary to assess the persistence of this effect in a long-term perspective.


Assuntos
Dissidências e Disputas , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Redes Sociais Online , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Hong Kong , Humanos , Jurisprudência , Polícia , Política
17.
Indian J Med Ethics ; VI(4): 273-278, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666963

RESUMO

This paper distils the key insights from thematic and inter-thematic deliberations of the Global Symposium on Citizenship, Governance and Accountability in Health. It describes the evolution of the symposium theme on linking accountability to citizenship and governance in health while providing an overview of the symposium. The paper further synthesises the key discussions of the core-themes, then lays out analytical reflections that have emerged from the deliberations that touch upon the issues of power and politics surrounding accountability, viz civil society, democracy, power, civic space and the role of private non-state actors that affect health rights of the marginalised.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Política , Responsabilidade Social
18.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257631, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610016

RESUMO

The humans of modern society are enjoying the luxuries and comforts today but future generations will be facing a more polluted environment and scarcity of natural resources. So the effects of global warming and climatic changes are a major policy concern nowadays around the world. The majority of the literature treats the Carbon Dioxide emissions as an indicator of environmental deterioration but this paper considers the environmental performance index as an indicator of environment. This paper addresses the role of institutional reforms for environmental performance that is hardly discussed in the earlier literature. It is argued that a novel approach of institutional reforms can provide some useful insights for environmental performance in developing countries. There is wide agreement that institutional quality is crucial for economic sustainability but rarely focused to explore the impacts of institutional reforms on environmental performance. The institutional reforms are generally divided into two categories; economic and political reforms. This paper investigated the impact of each category of institutional reforms for environmental performance by using panel data of 122 developing economies for a period of 1996-2020. Difference in differences technique is applied to determine the impact of each category of reforms on the environment. It is found that economic and political reforms significantly contribute to protecting the environment in developing countries, and it will be a good policy option to reform the economic and political institutions to preserve the environment in these countries along with sustainable development.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Poluição Ambiental/economia , Humanos , Política
19.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 54(Suppl 2): 138-143, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623481

RESUMO

In the final article the authors focus on the concept of "flourishing life". The core results of the preceding articles are summarized and placed in this concept in the context of a critical discussion. Against the background, recommendations are formulated for the political and societal shaping of framework conditions, which are conducive for and promote a good life in very old age.


Assuntos
Política , Humanos
20.
Lima; Perú. Presidencia de Consejo de Ministros; 20211016. 6 p.
Monografia em Espanhol | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1337796

RESUMO

El documento contiene la Política General de Gobierno para el periodo 2021- 2026, el cual desarrolla sobre diez ejes, que se encuentran interrelacionados y que guardan consistencia con el marco de políticas y planes del país. Estos ejes cuentan con lineamientos y líneas de intervención que orientan las acciones de las distintas entidades públicas para el alcance de estos objetivos.


Assuntos
Política , Guias como Assunto , Tomada de Decisões
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