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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(1): 299-314, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35043909

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance is a global problem that puts the population's health at risk. This paper aims to identify and evaluate strategies for the prevention and control of antimicrobial resistance, and barriers to their implementation in Primary Health Care (PHC) services. We developed an evidence brief for policies. The search for evidence occurred in 13 databases from November to December 2018. A deliberative dialogue was performed to validate the results and we identified barriers and facilitators to implementing the strategies. The 13 systematic reviews included evidenced that the interventions focused on education, use of electronic systems and biomarkers reduced antimicrobial consumption and prescription. User/caregiver's expectation to receive antibiotic prescriptions was the main obstacle to implementing strategies, while education actions involving health professionals were facilitators. The rational use of medications in the PHC services is crucial to prevent antimicrobial resistance to antibiotics. The interventions identified in this study can be implemented alone or combined, according to local context.


A resistência aos antimicrobianos é um problema mundial que põe em risco a segurança da saúde da população. O objetivo deste artigo é identificar e avaliar estratégias para prevenção e controle de resistência microbiana, bem como barreiras para sua implementação em serviços de Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS). Realizou-se uma síntese de evidências para políticas. As buscas de evidências foram realizadas entre novembro/dezembro de 2018, em 13 bases de dados. Um diálogo deliberativo foi realizado para validação dos resultados e levantamento de barreiras e facilitadores para implementação das estratégias. As 13 revisões sistemáticas incluídas mostraram que intervenções com foco em educação, uso de sistemas eletrônicos e biomarcadores reduziram o consumo e prescrição de antimicrobianos. É um obstáculo à implementação a expectativa de usuários/cuidadores em receber prescrição de antibióticos, e são facilitadores as ações educativas que envolvem profissionais de saúde. O uso racional de medicamentos se impõe na APS com vistas à prevenção da resistência dos microrganismos aos antibióticos. As intervenções identificadas neste estudo podem ser implementadas isoladamente ou em conjunto, conforme o contexto local.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Políticas , Atenção Primária à Saúde
2.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 20(1): 9, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35033107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adaptive models of healthcare delivery, such as telehealth consultations, have rapidly been adopted to ensure ongoing delivery of essential healthcare services during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there remain gaps in our understanding of how clinicians have adapted to telehealth. This study aims to explore the telehealth experiences of specialists, based at a tertiary hospital in the Hunter Region, and general practitioners (GP), including barriers, enablers and opportunities. METHODS: An interpretative qualitative study involving in-depth interviews explored the telehealth experiences of specialists, based at a tertiary hospital in the Hunter Region of Australia, and GPs, including barriers, enablers and opportunities. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic approach with constant comparison. RESULTS: Individual interviews were conducted with 10 specialists and five GPs. Key themes were identified: (1) transition to telehealth has been valuable but challenging; (2) persisting telehealth process barriers need to be addressed; (3) establishing when face-to-face consults are essential; (4) changes in workload pressures and potential for double-up; (5) essential modification of work practices; and (6) exploring what is needed going forward. CONCLUSIONS: While there is a need to rationalize and optimize health access during a pandemic, we suggest that more needs to be done to improve telehealth going forward. Our results have important policy implications. Specifically, there is a need to effectively train clinicians to competently utilize and be confident using this telehealth and to educate patients on necessary skills and etiquette.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Telemedicina , Austrália , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Políticas , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Health Organ Manag ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35038255

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This illustrative case study describes and evaluates drivers of effective inter-organizational collaboration to mitigate the impact and spread of COVID-19 among homeless people in two cities in the Netherlands. The aims of this study are: (1) to explore the strategic and operational policy responses in two local integrated care settings at the start of the crisis, (2) to identify best policy practices and lessons learned. The authors interpret and evaluate the findings by combining insights from the population health management (PHM) and collaborative governance literature. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The authors describe and illustrate the experiences of two Dutch municipalities, Rotterdam and The Hague, in the early policy responses to sudden operational challenges around the impact of COVID-19 on homeless people as experienced by local decision-makers, medical doctors and clients. FINDINGS: The authors show that best policy practices revolve around (1) using data and risk stratification methods for identifying and targeting populations at-risk in local policy making, and (2) having an inter-organizational data sharing architecture in place ex ante. These two factors were clear prerequisites for tailor-made policy responses for newly-defined groups at risk with the existing and well-documented vulnerable population, and executing crisis-induced tasks efficiently. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This paper is among the first to illustrate the potential of combining collaborative governance and PHM perspectives to identify key drivers of effective local governance responses to a healthcare crisis in an integrated care setting.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Políticas , Formulação de Políticas , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Yonsei Med J ; 63(Suppl): S56-S62, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35040606

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to build a direction for government policies regarding strategies for the commercialization of digital therapeutics in Korea, as well as its globalization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 37 participants from the Korea Digital Health Industry Association (KODHIA). The data was based on a survey conducted in 2020 targeting employees of companies engaged in the digital health industry in Korea. Participants were asked about their involvement in product development of digital therapeutics and their opinion about the growing motivator for digital therapeutics in Korea and the global market. RESULTS: According to our data, among subjects not involved in making digital therapeutics products, the main reason for not being involved was the lack of experts (73.9%) and difficulty in licensing (73.9%). Responses concerning the priority area in need of national support were R&D funding (43.2%), and the next was licensing guidance and simplifying regulations (24.3%). Possible difficulties of overseas market expansion were the unfamiliarity in digital therapeutics technology verification and licensing structures of foreign countries (73%), and concerns regarding the level of recognition of clinical trials and technology in Korea from overseas (70.3%). Overall, respondents were hesitant in starting a related business due to the lack of government support and the complexity of the regulation process. Moreover, concerns about global market entry were similar. Being unfamiliar with the novel process and worrying about the achievement despite existing challenges were the biggest drawback. CONCLUSION: For the digital therapeutics industry to evolve domestically and internationally, government support and guidance are essential.


Assuntos
Governo , Internacionalidade , Humanos , Políticas , República da Coreia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
NASN Sch Nurse ; 37(1_suppl): 3S-14S, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34974775

RESUMO

For decades, school-located vaccinations clinics (SLVs) have successfully offered influenza and routine childhood immunizations that have contributed to lowering the morbidity and mortality of vaccine-preventable diseases. These SLVs laid the foundation for state and local health departments and school districts to quickly implement SLVs in response to COVID-19. To support school nurses and immunization programs in implementing future SLVs during the COVID-19 pandemic, we explored the landscape of SLVs between August 2019 and late summer 2021 using publicly available information from school and health department websites, news articles reporting on SLVs, and internal documents provided by school nurses and immunization programs who hosted SLVs. Our scan identified variability in the reach, scope, and approach to SLVs, but consistent themes persist such as the importance of partnerships and SLVs as an opportunity to promote equitable access to vaccinations. Useful documents and resources for planning and hosting SLV clinics were compiled into a table. With COVID-19 vaccines now available to all school-age children, SLVs provide an even greater opportunity to improve school and community health. The included resources are designed to provide support for those interested in SLV implementation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Serviços de Enfermagem Escolar , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Criança , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Pandemias , Políticas , SARS-CoV-2 , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Instituições Acadêmicas , Vacinação
7.
N C Med J ; 83(1): 22-25, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980648

RESUMO

Given the extensive research on the impact of paid leave on increased access, decreased disparities, and improvement in health and economic outcomes, passing a universal statewide program that covers all working North Carolinians would promote Healthy North Carolina 2030 targets.


Assuntos
Políticas , Humanos , North Carolina
8.
J Environ Manage ; 305: 114413, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991025

RESUMO

The public's stated value and heterogeneous preferences are crucial for formulating policies and financing approaches to promote the control of agricultural non-point-source pollution (ANSP). This study aims to investigate urban residents' willingness to pay (WTP) for ANSP control and analyse the source of preference heterogeneity using a choice experiment method. Survey data were obtained from face-to-face interviews with 595 respondents in south Shaanxi Province, China. We found that respondents' average WTP for the attributes of ANSP control schemes were 2.34 yuan ($0.36) and 5.42 yuan ($0.83) per year per household for a 1% reduction in fertiliser and pesticide use, respectively. We also found significant impacts of WTP from individuals' socio-economic characteristics (i.e., gender, age, education, and income) and cognitive factors (i.e., policy understanding, and government trust). Thus, to improve the efficiency and universality of ANSP control policy, the public's willingness and preference heterogeneity should be thoroughly taken into policy formulation.


Assuntos
Poluição Difusa , China , Características da Família , Humanos , Políticas , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 49, 2022 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elderly care service projects (ECSPs) aim to provide care services with the help of market forces on the supply side to satisfy the huge demand of the elderly. Subsidies play an important role in motivating the investors to invest in the ECSPs immediately. The optimal subsidy scheme should balance the policy costs and the investors' interests. METHODS: Based on the policy background of China, this study applied the real options theory to compare the effects of construction subsidy and operating subsidy on achieving policy goals from the perspective of uncertain actual demand. It introduced numerical examples to identify the optimal subsidy scheme and embedded the data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) to verify the uncertainty of actual demand. RESULTS: The results showed that in the context of uncertain actual demand, operating subsidy has greater advantages in reducing investment thresholds, saving subsidy costs and increasing spillover values. Moreover, a sound quality supervision system, a differentiated operating subsidy scheme and a sustainable growth market demand environment are conducive to increasing the long-term interests of the government and the investors. CONCLUSIONS: The study emphasized the importance of subsidy selection in the context of uncertain actual demand, and provided a practical reference for policy designers in China and other developing countries to choose the optimal subsidy scheme for the ECSPs.


Assuntos
Políticas , Idoso , China , Humanos , Incerteza
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(2)2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35062504

RESUMO

Cybersecurity is a critical issue that must be prioritized not just by enterprises of all kinds, but also by national security. To safeguard an organization's cyberenvironments, information, and communication technologies, many enterprises are investing substantially in cybersecurity these days. One part of the cyberdefense mechanism is building an enterprises' security policies library, for consistent implementation of security controls. Significant and common cybersecurity policies of various enterprises are compared and explored in this study to provide robust and comprehensive cybersecurity knowledge that can be used in various enterprises. Several significant common security policies were identified and discussed in this comprehensive study. This study identified 10 common cybersecurity policy aspects in five enterprises: healthcare, finance, education, aviation, and e-commerce. We aimed to build a strong infrastructure in each business, and investigate the security laws and policies that apply to all businesses in each sector. Furthermore, the findings of this study reveal that the importance of cybersecurity requirements differ across multiple organizations. The choice and applicability of cybersecurity policies are determined by the type of information under control and the security requirements of organizations in relation to these policies.


Assuntos
Segurança Computacional , Atenção à Saúde , Comércio , Políticas
11.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261929, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025903

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of COVID-19 vaccine intention among Bangladeshi adults. METHODS: Secondary data from the COVID-19 Beliefs, Behaviors & Norms Survey conducted by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Facebook were analyzed. Data were collected from 2,669 adult Facebook users in Bangladesh and was collected between February 15 and February 28, 2021. Binomial logistic regression examined the relationship between COVID-19 vaccination intent and demographic variables, risk perception, preventive behaviors, COVID-19 knowledge, and likelihood of future actions. RESULTS: Seventy-nine percent of respondents reported intent to get the COVID-19 vaccine when it becomes available. Intent to get vaccinated was highest among females, adults aged 71-80, individuals with college or graduate-level degrees, city dwellers, and individuals who perceived that they were in excellent health. Results of the binomial logistic regression indicated that predictors of vaccination intent include age (OR = 1.39), high risk perception of COVID-19 (OR = 1.47), and intent to practice social distancing (OR = 1.22). DISCUSSION: Findings suggest that age, perceived COVID-19 risk, and non-pharmaceutical COVID-19 interventions may predict COVID-19 vaccination intent among Bangladeshi adults. Findings can be used to create targeted messaging to increase demand for and uptake of COVID-19 vaccines in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinação/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bangladesh , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Políticas , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Environ Manage ; 302(Pt A): 113949, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34872171

RESUMO

Social distancing policies (SDPs) implemented in response to the COVID-19 pandemic have led to temporal and spatial shifts in water demand across cities. Water utilities need to understand these demand shifts to respond to potential operational and water-quality issues. Aided by a fixed-effects model of citywide water demand in Austin, Texas, we explore the impacts of various SDPs (e.g., time after the stay home-work safe order, reopening phases) using daily demand data gathered between 2013 and 2020. Our approach uses socio-technical determinants (e.g., climate, water conservation policy) with SDPs to model water demand, while accounting for spatial and temporal effects (e.g., geographic variations, weekday patterns). Results indicate shifts in behavior of residential and nonresidential demands that offset the change at the system scale, demonstrating a spatial redistribution of water demand after the stay home-work safe order. Our results show that some phases of Texas's reopening phases had statistically significant relationships to water demand. While this yielded only marginal net effects on overall demand, it underscores behavioral changes in demand at sub-system spatial scales. Our discussions shed light on SDPs' impacts on water demand. Equipped with our empirical findings, utilities can respond to potential vulnerabilities in their systems, such as water-quality problems that may be related to changes in water pressure in response to demand variations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Água , Humanos , Pandemias , Distanciamento Físico , Políticas , Dinâmica Populacional , SARS-CoV-2 , Abastecimento de Água
13.
Water Res ; 210: 117972, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952454

RESUMO

Governments have formulated stricter wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge standards to address water pollution; however, with the cost of aggravating the refractory of the discharges. These policies are not in line with the classic co-metabolism theory; thus, we evaluated the effects of an easily biodegradable substrate on the removal efficiency of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the receiving water. In this study, reactor with 8 d of hydraulic retention time (HRT) was constructed to simulate a receiving river, and several antibiotics (0.30 mg/L each) were continuously discharged to the reactor (tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, and sulfamethoxazole). Sodium acetate (NaAc) was used as a representative easily biodegradable substrate, and treatment protocols with and without a co-substrate were compared. The attenuation of the antibiotics in the simulated river and the production and dissemination of ARGs were analyzed. The results showed that 50 mg/L NaAc activated non-specific enzymes (a log2-fold change of 3.1-8.8 compared with 0 mg/L NaAc). The removal rate of the antibiotics was increased by 4-32%, and the toxicity of the downstream water was reduced by 35%. The upregulation of antioxidant enzymes caused the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROSs) decreased by up to 47%, inhibiting horizontal gene transfer and reducing mobile genetic element-mediated ARGs (mARGs) by 18-56%. Furthermore, NaAc also increased the alpha diversity of the microbial community by 5-15% (Shannon-Wiener Index) and reduced the abundance of human bacterial pathogens by 22-36%. In summary, easily biodegradable substrates in the receiving water are crucial for reducing antibiotic risk.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Águas Residuárias , Carbono , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Políticas , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
14.
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol ; 34(1): 21-28, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467476

RESUMO

External ventricular drain (EVD) placement and management pose risks to neurocritically ill patients. Yet, little is known about EVD management or hospital EVD management practices and policies in US hospitals. A narrative review was conducted to describe EVD-related publications reported in PubMed and Embase between 1953 and 2019, and a survey was used to examine US hospital EVD practices and policies, including adherence to EVD guideline recommendations. Overall, 912 relevant articles were published between 1953 and 2019 (average 21; range, 0 to 102 articles, per year), primarily related to indications for EVD placement (n=275, 30.2%), EVD-associated complications (n=206, 22.6%), and EVD care (n=200, 21.9%). The number of EVD publications increased over time (R2=0.7), and most publications addressed EVD-associated infection (n=296, 73.4%) and EVD insertion (n=195, 45.2%). Survey responses were received from 30 hospitals (37.5% response rate), and reported use of antimicrobial-impregnated catheters in 80% of hospitals, preinsertion antibiotic administration in 70%, collection of cerebrospinal fluid samples for suspicion of ventriculitis in 73.3%, tracking of EVD-associated infection in 86.7%, routine EVD clamping during transport in 66.7%, and monitoring of intracranial pressure during transport in 33.3%. Adherence to hospital policies was high for recommendations related to flushing an EVD and changing cerebrospinal fluid drainage systems (100% [range, 0% to 100%] each), but low for intrahospital transportation (16.7% [0% to 83.3%]), EVD removal (0% [0% to 66.7%]), patient and family education (0% [0% to 100%]), and administration of intraventricular medication (0% [0% to 100%]). In summary, the published literature related to EVD insertion and maintenance, and reported EVD hospital practices and policies, primarily focus on reducing EVD-associated infections. Still, overall adherence of hospital EVD policies to guideline recommendations is modest. To promote a culture of EVD safety, clinicians should focus on reducing all EVD-associated adverse events.


Assuntos
Drenagem , Ventriculostomia , Cateteres , Hospitais , Humanos , Políticas , Estados Unidos
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 810: 152272, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902410

RESUMO

The massive agricultural sector in the Northeast Plain, which is of great importance for the food security in China, results in a huge amount of crop residues and thus substantial concern on haze pollution due to biomass burning (BB). To seek for effective control measures on BB emissions, a dramatic transition of open burning policy occurred in Heilongjiang Province, from the "legitimate burning" policy released in 2018 to the "strict prohibition" policy implemented in 2019 and beyond. Here we explored the BB aerosols during 2020-2021 in Harbin, the capital city of Heilongjiang. Although open burning was strictly prohibited by mandatory bans, agricultural fires were not actually eliminated, as indicated by the levoglucosan levels and fire count results. In general, the BB aerosols in Harbin were attributed to the overlaying of household burning and agricultural fire emissions. The former factor laid the foundation of biomass burning impacts, with BB contributions to organic carbon and elemental carbon (fBBOC and fBBEC) of 35 and 47%, respectively. The latter further enhanced the BB impacts during specific episodes breaking out in the spring of 2021 as well as the fall of 2020, when fBBOC and fBBEC increased to 64 and 57%, respectively. In addition, comparing to the fires of 2018-2019 which occurred in winter (in response to the "legitimate burning" policy), the agricultural fires were shifted to spring and fall in the 2020-2021 campaign, accompanied with an increase of combustion efficiency. This study illustrated how the agricultural fire emissions were influenced by the transition of open burning policy.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Incêndios , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Biomassa , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Políticas , Estações do Ano
16.
Health Soc Care Community ; 30(1): 353-359, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970550

RESUMO

Vaccination is a vital health care initiative to prevent individual and population infection. To increase vaccination rates the federal government implemented the 'No Jab, No Pay' policy, where eligibility for several government benefits required children to be fully vaccinated by removing 'conscientious objections' and expanding the age range of children whose families receive benefits. This study assesses the impact of this policy at a local area within a single medical practice community in NSW, Australia. A retrospective clinical audit was performed between 2012 and 2017 on a single general practice's vaccination records for children ≤19 years. Catch-up vaccinations were assessed based on age at vaccination. Incidence of catch-up vaccinations was assessed for each of four years before and two years after the implementation of the 'No Jab, No Pay' policy in January 2016, along with the age of children and vaccination(s) given. Catch-up vaccinations were assessed temporally either side of implementation of 'No Jab, No Pay'. Comparing the average annual vaccination catch-up incidence rate of 6.2% pre-implementation (2012-2015), there was an increase to 9.2% in 2016 (p < .001) and 7.8% in 2017 (p = .027). Secondary outcome measurement of catch-up vaccination incidence rates before (2012-2015) and after (2016-2017) 'No Jab, No Pay' implementation showed statistically significant increases for children aged 8-11 years (3.2%-5.6%, p = .038), 12-15 years (7.5%-14.7%, p < .001) and 16-19 years (3.3%-10.2%, p < .001) along with a statistically significant reduction in children aged 1-3 years (11.4%-6.2%, p = .015). Also, catch-up rates for DTPa significantly increased after program implementation. This study demonstrates that the Australian federal government vaccination policy 'No Jab, No Pay' was coincident with an increase in catch-up vaccinations within a rural NSW community served by one medical practice, especially for older children.


Assuntos
Políticas , Vacinação , Adolescente , Austrália , Criança , Auditoria Clínica , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Waste Manag ; 138: 262-273, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34911022

RESUMO

The reveal of express packaging waste recycling behavior evolution trend is crucial to waste management. Current models are mostly based on the classic expected utility theory, without considering groups are susceptible to internal and external factors. To address this drawback, we construct an evolutionary game model of express packaging waste recycling behavior by considering information policy and reference dependence factors to explore groups' decision-making with different initial adoption rates. A system dynamics simulation model based on survey data is then built, and simulation experiments are also designed to reveal the impacts of key factors on the evolution path of recycling behavior. The results show that, without information policy, groups cyclically oscillate around the initial state. The stable trend depends on the information intensity, and the information effect is marginal diminishing. Groups with a lower initial adoption rate will evolve to an ideal stable strategy only when information intensity exceeds the threshold of ten. Reference points can change behavior strategies and are characterized by significant loss aversion. The benefits and costs affect groups' adoption or rejection behaviors. These findings can provide new ideas for related research and offer a reference for the government to formulate efficient waste management policies.


Assuntos
Reciclagem , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Custos e Análise de Custo , Políticas , Embalagem de Produtos
18.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118380, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666098

RESUMO

Evaluation for the controlling policy's effectiveness to mitigate criteria air pollutants (CAPs) in South Korea during December 1, 2019-March 31, 2020 is difficult because of its coincidence with the COVID-19 social distancing. In this study, we differentiated the influence of three major driving factors (intensive controlling policy by the government, meteorological conditions, and social distancing) to the CAP variation in Ulsan, the largest industrial city in South Korea. In 2013-2019, the concentrations of PM2.5 (2015-2019), PM10, SO2, and NO2 decreased by 6.7, 1.6, 4.2, and 3.3%/year, respectively, whereas the O3 concentration slightly increased by 0.7%/year. Trend analysis was used to predict the CAP concentrations before (January 1-February 21) and during (February 22-March 31) the social distancing in 2020. The difference between the measured and predicted concentrations was designated as the contribution of the three factors. The controlling policy was the most important driver of the CAP reductions. In particular, its contributions were 94.1% (January 1-February 21) and 87.4% (February 22-March 31) to the PM2.5 decrease. The change in meteorological conditions considerably affected the CAP reductions, with the highest contributions of 35.2% (January 1-February 21) and 39.2% (February 22-March 31) to the O3 decrease. On February 22-March 31, the effects of social distancing were 1.6, 0.6, 1.3, and 1.4% to the reduction of SO2, NO2, PM10, and PM2.5, respectively. Overall, a decrease in the CAP concentrations was apparent during January-March 2020 in Ulsan primarily due to the intensive controlling policies, not by the COVID-19 social distancing.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Políticas , República da Coreia , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Int J Health Serv ; 52(1): 23-29, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672836

RESUMO

The impact of public health measures on the coronavirus-2019 pandemic was analyzed by comparing mandatory versus voluntary nonpharmaceutical interventions between 2 comparable European countries and among 3 U.S. states. Using an ecological retrospective cohort study design, we examine differences in mortality, economic impact, and equity. Compared to voluntary policies, mandatory shelter-in-place policies were associated with a 3- to 5-fold lower population-adjusted mortality in the U.S. model and between 11- to 12-fold lower in the European one. Voluntary shelter-in-place measures were associated with overall increased mortality cost, as measured by value of a statistical life; somewhat greater decreases in gross domestic product; and substantial negative impacts on minority communities, who experienced markedly increased mortality rates (the percentage of minority deaths was 2.3 and 4 times greater in the U.S. model and 14.5 times higher in the European one) and mortality cost (2.7- and 4.5-fold higher in the U.S. model and 11.1-fold higher in the European one). We conclude that voluntary policies are less effective than mandatory ones, based on historical precedent and the current analysis. Negative effects on health equity mirrored the increased mortality outcomes of voluntary policies, and there was no apparent economic benefit associated with voluntary measures.


Assuntos
Coronavirus , Equidade em Saúde , Humanos , Políticas , Saúde Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149947, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487905

RESUMO

The popular concept of wellbeing has added multiple dimensions to the current socio-economic measures of vulnerability from natural hazards. Due to the wellbeing concept's relevance in various policy agendas, there is a need for a stronger integration of what is predominantly a socio-economic concept into the natural hazards space. Graphical methods have been used as transdisciplinary engagement tools to translate verbal descriptions of socio-ecological systems into simulation models able to test hypotheses. The purpose of this article is to identify the graphical methods that have been used in the literature to graphically represent, structure and model different segments of the hazard risk chain. A thorough review of the literature on natural hazards was performed using a set of keywords and filters that resulted in a total of 94 articles, which were then categorised based on the graphical methods used, broad families, properties, hazard types, and segments along the risk chain considered. A case study on volcanic hazards in Mount Taranaki, New Zealand showcased ways forward by conceptually combining methods to link hazards to impacts on wellbeing. Out of the review it was identified that the most widely used methodologies in the natural hazards space are probabilistic graphs (e.g. Bayesian networks) representing the random nature of hazards while mapping methods based on System Dynamic principles (SD) (e.g. causal loop diagrams) are used to characterise the dynamically emergent behaviours of socio-economic agents. While studies linking hazards to wellbeing using graphs are scarce, there is a nascent literature on the characterisation of wellbeing's multi-dimensionality using networks and SD diagrams. Hence, the possibilities to use common methods, or combinations of these, are numerous potentially enabling the creation of graph-based, distilled simulation models that can be used by experts from different backgrounds to quantitatively model the wellbeing impacts exerted by natural hazards.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Políticas , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Nova Zelândia
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