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1.
J Clin Virol ; 143: 104944, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450559

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Human polyomaviruses (HPyVs) cause disease in immunocompromised patients. BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) for instance persistently infects the kidneys. In kidney transplant recipients, (KTRs) BKPyV can cause allograft nephropathy. JCPyV, MCPyV, TSPyV and HPyV9 reside in the kidneys too, or have been detected in urine. In this study, we investigate exposure to JCPyV, MCPyV, TSPyV and HPyV9 after kidney transplantation by serological means. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum samples from 310 KTR collected before and 6 months after transplantation (n = 620), from 279 corresponding kidney donors collected before transplantation, and from blood donor controls collected one year apart (n = 174) were assessed for HPyV species-specific IgG responses using a multiplex immunoassay. KTR HPyV IgG kinetics were compared to those of healthy blood donors by linear mixed modeling, and related to those of their donors by linear regression. RESULTS: In the KTR, increased IgG levels during follow-up were observed for JCPyV (14.8%), MCPyV (7.1%), TSPyV (10.6%), and for HPyV9 (8.1%), while blood donor antibody levels remained stable. Seroconversion was observed for JCPyV (6.5%), MCPyV (2.3%), TSPyV (1.3%), and for HPyV9 (6.5%). The linear mixed model analysis showed that antibody increase was significant for JCPyV (p < 0.001) and HPyV9 (p < 0.001). Post-transplant JCPyV and HPyV9 antibody responses were associated with donor antibody levels against these HPyVs, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: KTR are exposed to JCPyV and HPyV9 after transplantation. Whether the allograft serves as the source, as indicated by the donor serostatus association, deserves further study.


Assuntos
Vírus BK , Vírus JC , Transplante de Rim , Infecções por Polyomavirus , Polyomavirus , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus , Doadores de Sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Polyomaviridae
2.
Virol J ; 18(1): 24, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human polyomavirus 6 (HPyV6) and HPyV7 are two of the novel polyomaviruses that were originally detected in non-diseased skin. Serological studies have shown that these viruses are ubiquitous in the healthy adult population with seroprevalence up to 88% for HPyV6 and 72% for HPyV7. Both viruses are associated with pruritic skin eruption in immunocompromised patients, but a role with other diseases in immunoincompetent patients or malignancies has not been established. METHODS: PCR was used to determine the presence of HPyV6 and HPyV7 DNA in urine samples from systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 73), multiple sclerosis (n = 50), psoriasis vulgaris (n = 15), arthritic psoriasis (n = 15) and HIV-positive patients (n = 66). In addition, urine from pregnant women (n = 47) and healthy blood donors (n = 20) was investigated. RESULTS: HPyV6 DNA was detected in 21 (28.8%) of the urine specimens from SLE patients, in 6 (9.1%) of the urine samples from the HIV-positive cohort, and in 19 (40.4%) samples from pregnant women. HPyV7 DNA was only found in 6 (8.2%) of the urine specimens from SLE patients and in 4 (8.5%) samples from pregnant women. No HPyV6 and HPyV7 viruria was detected in the urine samples from the other patients. CONCLUSIONS: HPyV6, and to a lesser extend HPyV7, viruria seems to be common in SLE and HIV-positive patients, and pregnant women. Whether these viruses are of clinical relevance in these patients is not known.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/urina , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Polyomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Polyomavirus/urina , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Polyomaviridae/classificação , Polyomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Gravidez
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008718, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797103

RESUMO

APOBEC3 enzymes are innate immune effectors that introduce mutations into viral genomes. These enzymes are cytidine deaminases which transform cytosine into uracil. They preferentially mutate cytidine preceded by thymidine making the 5'TC motif their favored target. Viruses have evolved different strategies to evade APOBEC3 restriction. Certain viruses actively encode viral proteins antagonizing the APOBEC3s, others passively face the APOBEC3 selection pressure thanks to a depleted genome for APOBEC3-targeted motifs. Hence, the APOBEC3s left on the genome of certain viruses an evolutionary footprint. The aim of our study is the identification of these viruses having a genome shaped by the APOBEC3s. We analyzed the genome of 33,400 human viruses for the depletion of APOBEC3-favored motifs. We demonstrate that the APOBEC3 selection pressure impacts at least 22% of all currently annotated human viral species. The papillomaviridae and polyomaviridae are the most intensively footprinted families; evidencing a selection pressure acting genome-wide and on both strands. Members of the parvoviridae family are differentially targeted in term of both magnitude and localization of the footprint. Interestingly, a massive APOBEC3 footprint is present on both strands of the B19 erythroparvovirus; making this viral genome one of the most cleaned sequences for APOBEC3-favored motifs. We also identified the endemic coronaviridae as significantly footprinted. Interestingly, no such footprint has been detected on the zoonotic MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 coronaviruses. In addition to viruses that are footprinted genome-wide, certain viruses are footprinted only on very short sections of their genome. That is the case for the gamma-herpesviridae and adenoviridae where the footprint is localized on the lytic origins of replication. A mild footprint can also be detected on the negative strand of the reverse transcribing HIV-1, HIV-2, HTLV-1 and HBV viruses. Together, our data illustrate the extent of the APOBEC3 selection pressure on the human viruses and identify new putatively APOBEC3-targeted viruses.


Assuntos
Citidina Desaminase/metabolismo , Genoma Viral/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Seleção Genética/genética , Replicação Viral/genética , Desaminases APOBEC , Coronaviridae/genética , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Papillomaviridae/genética , Parvoviridae/genética , Polyomaviridae/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
4.
J Gen Virol ; 101(10): 1119-1130, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644038

RESUMO

Polyomaviruses (PyVs) are small, circular dsDNA viruses carried by diverse vertebrates, including bats. Although previous studies have reported several horseshoe bat PyVs collected in Zambia and China, it is still unclear how PyVs evolved in this group of widely dispersed mammals. Horseshoe bats (genus Rhinolophus) are distributed across the Old World and are natural reservoirs of numerous pathogenic viruses. Herein, non-invasive bat samples from European horseshoe bat species were collected in Hungary for PyV identification and novel PyVs with complete genomes were successfully recovered from two different European horseshoe bat species. Genomic and phylogenetic analysis of the Hungarian horseshoe bat PyVs supported their classification into the genera Alphapolyomavirus and Betapolyomavirus. Notably, despite the significant geographical distances between the corresponding sampling locations, Hungarian PyVs exhibited high genetic relatedness with previously described Zambian and Chinese horseshoe bat PyVs, and phylogenetically clustered with these viruses in each PyV genus. Correlation and virus-host relationship analysis suggested that these PyVs co-diverged with their European, African and Asian horseshoe bat hosts distributed on different continents during their evolutionary history. Additionally, assessment of selective pressures over the major capsid protein (VP1) of horseshoe bat PyVs showed sites under positive selection located in motifs exposed to the exterior of the capsid. In summary, our findings revealed a pattern of stable intrahost divergence of horseshoe bat PyVs with their mammalian hosts on the African and Eurasian continents over evolutionary time.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Quirópteros/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Polyomaviridae/genética , Polyomavirus/genética , Polyomavirus/isolamento & purificação , África , Animais , Ásia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , China , Quirópteros/classificação , Europa (Continente) , Genoma Viral , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Hungria , Filogenia , Polyomaviridae/classificação , Polyomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Seleção Genética
5.
J Virol ; 94(18)2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581107

RESUMO

Wild birds are major natural reservoirs and potential dispersers of a variety of infectious diseases. As such, it is important to determine the diversity of viruses they carry and use this information to help understand the potential risks of spillover to humans, domestic animals, and other wildlife. We investigated the potential viral causes of paresis in long-standing, but undiagnosed, disease syndromes in wild Australian birds. RNA from diseased birds was extracted and pooled based on tissue type, host species, and clinical manifestation for metagenomic sequencing. Using a bulk and unbiased metatranscriptomic approach, combined with clinical investigation and histopathology, we identified a number of novel viruses from the families Astroviridae, Adenoviridae, Picornaviridae, Polyomaviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Parvoviridae, and Circoviridae in common urban wild birds, including Australian magpies, magpie larks, pied currawongs, Australian ravens, and rainbow lorikeets. In each case, the presence of the virus was confirmed by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. These data revealed a number of candidate viral pathogens that may contribute to coronary, skeletal muscle, vascular, and neuropathology in birds of the Corvidae and Artamidae families and neuropathology in members of the Psittaculidae The existence of such a diverse virome in urban avian species highlights the importance and challenges in elucidating the etiology and ecology of wildlife pathogens in urban environments. This information will be increasingly important for managing disease risks and conducting surveillance for potential viral threats to wildlife, livestock, and human health.IMPORTANCE Wildlife naturally harbor a diverse array of infectious microorganisms and can be a source of novel diseases in domestic animals and human populations. Using unbiased RNA sequencing, we identified highly diverse viruses in native birds from Australian urban environments presenting with paresis. This research included the clinical investigation and description of poorly understood recurring syndromes of unknown etiology: clenched claw syndrome and black and white bird disease. As well as identifying a range of potentially disease-causing viral pathogens, this study describes methods that can effectively and efficiently characterize emergent disease syndromes in free-ranging wildlife and promotes further surveillance for specific pathogens of potential conservation and zoonotic concern.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Aves/virologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Metagenoma , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária , Transcriptoma , Adenoviridae/classificação , Adenoviridae/genética , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Astroviridae/classificação , Astroviridae/genética , Astroviridae/isolamento & purificação , Austrália/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Circoviridae/classificação , Circoviridae/genética , Circoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Cidades , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/virologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Paramyxoviridae/classificação , Paramyxoviridae/genética , Paramyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Parvoviridae/classificação , Parvoviridae/genética , Parvoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Picornaviridae/classificação , Picornaviridae/genética , Picornaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Polyomaviridae/classificação , Polyomaviridae/genética , Polyomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/virologia
7.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(5): 719-725, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423916

RESUMO

Aves polyomavirus 1, psittacine beak and feather disease virus, and psittacid herpesvirus 1 are important pathogens of psittacine birds with the potential to cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Using publically available nucleotide sequences, we developed and validated a triplex real-time PCR (rtPCR) assay to rapidly detect these 3 viruses. The assay had high analytical sensitivity, detecting <6 copies of viral DNA per reaction, and 100% analytical specificity, showing no cross-reactivity with 59 other animal pathogens. Archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from psittacine birds diagnosed at postmortem as infected with each of the viruses as well as virus-negative birds were used to validate the utility of the assay. Birds were selected for the positive cohort if they showed histologic evidence of infection (i.e., characteristic inclusion bodies in tissues); birds in the negative cohort had final diagnoses unrelated to the pathogens of interest. The triplex rtPCR assay confirmed 98% of histopathology-positive cases, and also identified subclinical infections that were not observed by histologic examination, including coinfections. Birds that tested positive only by rtPCR had significantly higher cycle threshold values compared to those with histologic evidence of infection. Positive, negative, and overall percentage agreements as well as the kappa statistic between the results of the assay and histopathology were high, demonstrating the usefulness of the assay as a tool to confirm disease diagnoses, and to improve detection of subclinical infections.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Vírus de DNA/isolamento & purificação , Herpesviridae/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/veterinária , Psittaciformes/virologia , Alphaherpesvirinae/genética , Alphaherpesvirinae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Circovirus/genética , Circovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/diagnóstico , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/virologia , Vírus de DNA/genética , DNA Viral , Herpesviridae/genética , Papagaios/virologia , Polyomaviridae/genética , Polyomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Polyomavirus/genética , Polyomavirus/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária
8.
J Med Virol ; 91(6): 1142-1147, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) persistently infects the urinary tract and causes viremia and nephropathy in kidney transplantation (KTx), recipients. In a previous study, we observed an increased incidence and load of BKPyV viremia in KTx patients coinfected with human polyomavirus 9 (HPyV9). Here we sought confirmation of this observation and explored whether novel HPyVs that have been detected in urine (HPyV9 and trichodysplasia spinulosa polyomavirus [TSPyV]) potentially aggravate BKPyV infection. METHODS: A well-characterized cohort of 209 KTx donor-recipient pairs was serologically and molecularly analyzed for HPyV9 and TSPyV coinfection. These data were correlated with the occurrence of BKPyV viremia and BKPyVAN in the recipients within a year after KTx. RESULTS: Seropositivity for HPyV9 (19%) and TSPyV (89%) was comparable between donors and recipients and did not correlate with BKPyV viremia and BKPyVAN that developed in 25% and 3% of the recipients, respectively. Two recipients developed TSPyV viremia and none HPyV9 viremia. Modification of the predictive effect of donor BKPyV seroreactivity on recipient BKPyV viremia by HPyV9 and TSPyV was not observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide no evidence for a promoting effect of HPyV9 and TSPyV on BKPyV infection and BKPyVAN in renal allograft patients. Therefore, we do not recommend including HPyV9 and TSPyV screening in KTx patients.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/virologia , Nefropatias/virologia , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Polyomavirus/etiologia , Viremia/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Vírus BK/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polyomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Polyomavirus/urina , Doadores de Tecidos , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/etiologia
9.
Int J Dermatol ; 58(4): 383-387, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537078

RESUMO

A number of pruritic skin conditions arising in immunocompromised patients are associated with viral infection. Recently, human polyomavirus 7 (HPyV7) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of eruptive pruritic parakeratotic and dyskeratotic dermatoses with distinct "peacock plumage" histology. While expression of HPyV7 viral protein, namely small tumor (sT) antigen, is prominent within lesional tissue, the functional role of HPyV7 in cutaneous pathobiology is not yet known. In this study, we demonstrate a novel role for HPyV7 sT antigen in pathways important for the maintenance of keratinocyte structure and function. In particular, HPyV7 sT was found to dysregulate protein phosphatase 2A through physical interactions that led to activation of MEK/ERK/c-Jun and 4E-BP1 (proteins that contribute to disorganized keratinocyte growth as well as hyperproliferative and inflammatory states). Given that HPyV7 actively infects keratinocytes and sT antigen is highly expressed in pruritic dyskeratotic/parakeratotic dermatoses, our data provide important mechanistic evidence supporting a pathogenic role for HPyV7 in cutaneous disease.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Antígenos Virais de Tumores/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Polyomaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/complicações , Proteína Fosfatase 2/metabolismo , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/complicações , Antígenos Virais de Tumores/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Dermatopatias/metabolismo , Dermatopatias/virologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia
10.
J Vet Sci ; 19(6): 782-787, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304886

RESUMO

Goose hemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV) is not a naturally occurring infection in geese in China; however, GHPV infection has been identified in Pekin ducks, a domestic duck species. Herein, we investigated the prevalence of GHPV in five domestic duck species (Liancheng white ducks, Putian black ducks, Shan Sheldrake, Shaoxing duck, and Jinyun Sheldrake) in China. We determined that the Jinyun Sheldrake duck species could be infected by GHPV with no clinical signs, whereas no infection was identified in the other four duck species. We sequenced the complete genome of the Jinyun Sheldrake origin GHPV. Genomic data comparison suggested that GHPVs share a conserved genomic structure, regardless of the host (duck or geese) or region (Asia or Europe). Jinyun Sheldrake origin GHPV genomic characterization and epidemiological studies will increase our understanding of potential heterologous reservoirs of GHPV.


Assuntos
Patos/virologia , Gansos/virologia , Polyomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Polyomavirus/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/veterinária , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções por Polyomavirus/genética , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/epidemiologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia
11.
Arch Virol ; 163(10): 2913-2915, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29931397

RESUMO

The nearly complete genome sequence of a novel polyomavirus from blood samples of Akodon montensis and Calomys tener collected in Brazil was determined by high-throughput sequencing. This virus showed a typical polyomaviruses genome organization, and it was classified as a member of the genus Betapolyomavirus. Our results expand the host range and viral diversity of the family Polyomaviridae.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais de Tumores/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Polyomaviridae , Sigmodontinae/virologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Brasil , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Filogenia , Polyomaviridae/classificação , Polyomaviridae/genética , Polyomaviridae/isolamento & purificação
12.
J Virol ; 92(7)2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29343574

RESUMO

Human polyomavirus (HPyV) DNA genomes contain three regions denoted the early viral gene region (EVGR), encoding the regulatory T-antigens and one microRNA, the late viral gene region (LVGR), encoding the structural Vp capsid proteins, and the noncoding control region (NCCR). The NCCR harbors the origin of viral genome replication and bidirectional promoter/enhancer functions governing EVGR and LVGR expression on opposite DNA strands. Despite principal similarities, HPyV NCCRs differ in length, sequence, and architecture. To functionally compare HPyV NCCRs, sequences from human isolates were inserted into a bidirectional reporter vector using dsRed2 for EVGR expression and green fluorescent protein (GFP) for LVGR expression. Transfecting HPyV NCCR reporter vectors into human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells and flow cytometry normalized to archetype BKPyV NCCR revealed a hierarchy of EVGR expression levels with MCPyV, HPyV12, and STLPyV NCCRs conferring stronger levels and HPyV6, HPyV9, and HPyV10 NCCRs weaker levels, while LVGR expression was less variable and showed comparable activity levels. Transfection of HEK293T cells expressing simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (LTag) increased EVGR expression for most HPyV NCCRs, which correlated with the number of LTag-binding sites (Spearman's r, 0.625; P < 0.05) and decreased following SV40 LTag small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown. LTag-dependent activation was specifically confirmed for two different MCPyV NCCRs in 293MCT cells expressing the cognate MCPyV LTag. HPyV NCCR expression in different cell lines derived from skin (A375), cervix (HeLaNT), lung (A549), brain (Hs683), and colon (SW480) demonstrated that host cell properties significantly modulate the baseline HPyV NCCR activity, which partly synergized with SV40 LTag expression. Clinically occurring NCCR sequence rearrangements of HPyV7 PITT-1 and -2 and HPyV9 UF1 were found to increase EVGR expression compared to the respective HPyV archetype, but this was partly host cell type specific.IMPORTANCE HPyV NCCRs integrate essential viral functions with respect to host cell specificity, persistence, viral replication, and disease. Here, we show that HPyV NCCRs not only differ in sequence length, number, and position of LTag- and common transcription factor-binding sites but also confer differences in bidirectional viral gene expression. Importantly, EVGR reporter expression was significantly modulated by LTag expression and by host cell properties. Clinical sequence variants of HPyV7 and HPyV9 NCCRs containing deletions and insertions were associated with increased EVGR expression, similar to BKPyV and JCPyV rearrangements, emphasizing that HPyV NCCR sequences are major determinants not only of host cell tropism but also of pathogenicity. These results will help to define secondary HPyV cell tropism beyond HPyV surface receptors, to identify key viral and host factors shaping the viral life cycle, and to develop preclinical models of HPyV persistence and replication and suitable antiviral targets.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais de Tumores , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Rearranjo Gênico , Genoma Viral , Modelos Genéticos , Polyomaviridae , Antígenos Virais de Tumores/genética , Antígenos Virais de Tumores/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , MicroRNAs/genética , Polyomaviridae/genética , Polyomaviridae/metabolismo , RNA Viral/biossíntese , RNA Viral/genética
13.
Nat Med ; 23(9): 1080-1085, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28759053

RESUMO

Much attention has been focused on the role of the bacterial microbiome in human health, but the virome is understudied. Although previously investigated in individuals with inflammatory bowel diseases or solid-organ transplants, virome dynamics in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and enteric graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remain unexplored. Here we characterize the longitudinal gut virome in 44 recipients of HSCT using metagenomics. A viral 'bloom' was identified, and significant increases were demonstrated in the overall proportion of vertebrate viral sequences following transplantation (P = 0.02). Increases in both the rates of detection (P < 0.0001) and number of sequences (P = 0.047) of persistent DNA viruses (anelloviruses, herpesviruses, papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses) over time were observed in individuals with enteric GVHD relative to those without, a finding accompanied by a reduced phage richness (P = 0.01). Picobirnaviruses were detected in 18 individuals (40.9%), more frequently before or within a week after transplant than at later time points (P = 0.008). In a time-dependent Cox proportional-hazards model, picobirnaviruses were predictive of the occurrence of severe enteric GVHD (hazard ratio, 2.66; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.46-4.86; P = 0.001), and correlated with higher fecal levels of two GVHD severity markers, calprotectin and α1-antitrypsin. These results reveal a progressive expansion of vertebrate viral infections over time following HSCT, and they suggest an unexpected association of picobirnaviruses with early post-transplant GVHD.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Enteropatias/imunologia , Intestinos/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anelloviridae/genética , Anelloviridae/imunologia , Fezes/química , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Herpesviridae/genética , Herpesviridae/imunologia , Humanos , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/metabolismo , Masculino , Metagenômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/genética , Papillomaviridae/imunologia , Picobirnavirus/genética , Picobirnavirus/imunologia , Polyomaviridae/genética , Polyomaviridae/imunologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transplante Homólogo , Adulto Jovem , alfa 1-Antitripsina/metabolismo
14.
J Med Virol ; 89(12): 2230-2234, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28667764

RESUMO

Human polyomaviruses such as JC polyomavirus and BK polyomavirus have long been well known pathogens of immunocompromised patients. Several new members of this viral family have been described during the last decade. Human polyomavirus 9 seems to be a novel pathogen of transplanted patients according to some studies. The aim of our study was to determine the presence of human polyomavirus 9 in patients after kidney or stem cell transplantation (SCT) at the University Hospital in Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic. Overall 100 patients, 65 after kidney transplantation and 35 after SCT, were included into the study. At least three follow-up samples from each patient were examined for human polyomavirus 9 DNA presentation with the two previously described in-house PCR protocols. Despite the frequent reactivation of human CMV (14.3% in kidney transplantation and 63.3% after SCT) or BK polyomavirus in our patient group, there was no positivity for human polyomavirus 9 either in blood samples or urine samples. One of the possible reasons for this discrepancy versus previous published studies could be a relatively low proportion of patients treated by induction therapy before kidney transplantation in our study cohort.


Assuntos
Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Polyomaviridae/genética , Polyomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Polyomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polyomaviridae/patogenicidade , Transplante de Células-Tronco/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Gen Virol ; 98(6): 1159-1160, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28640744

RESUMO

The Polyomaviridae is a family of small, non-enveloped viruses with circular dsDNA genomes of approximately 5 kbp. The family includes four genera whose members have restricted host range, infecting mammals and birds. Polyomavirus genomes have also been detected recently in fish. Merkel cell polyomavirus and raccoon polyomavirus are associated with cancer in their host; other members are human and veterinary pathogens. Clinical manifestations are obvious in immunocompromised patients but not in healthy individuals. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Polyomaviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/polyomaviridae.


Assuntos
Polyomaviridae/classificação , Polyomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Polyomavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/veterinária , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia , Animais , Aves , Peixes , Humanos , Mamíferos , Infecções por Polyomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Polyomavirus/patologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/complicações , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/patologia
16.
Arch Virol ; 161(6): 1739-50, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26923930

RESUMO

Many distinct polyomaviruses infecting a variety of vertebrate hosts have recently been discovered, and their complete genome sequence could often be determined. To accommodate this fast-growing diversity, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Polyomaviridae Study Group designed a host- and sequence-based rationale for an updated taxonomy of the family Polyomaviridae. Applying this resulted in numerous recommendations of taxonomical revisions, which were accepted by the Executive Committee of the ICTV in December 2015. New criteria for definition and creation of polyomavirus species were established that were based on the observed distance between large T antigen coding sequences. Four genera (Alpha-, Beta, Gamma- and Deltapolyomavirus) were delineated that together include 73 species. Species naming was made as systematic as possible - most species names now consist of the binomial name of the host species followed by polyomavirus and a number reflecting the order of discovery. It is hoped that this important update of the family taxonomy will serve as a stable basis for future taxonomical developments.


Assuntos
Polyomaviridae/classificação , Polyomaviridae/genética , Animais , Antígenos Virais de Tumores/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Filogenia , Polyomaviridae/imunologia , Terminologia como Assunto
17.
J Clin Virol ; 76: 40-3, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26809132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) and trichodysplasia spinulosa (TS) are two proliferative cutaneous diseases caused by the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) and trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSPyV) respectively. Recently, studies have elucidated a key role of the small tumor (sT) antigen in the proliferative pathogenic mechanisms of MCPyV and likely TSPyV. While both sT antigens have demonstrated a capacity in regulating cellular pathways, it remains unknown whether MCPyV and TSPyV sT antigens contribute similarly or differentially to cell proliferation. OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to explore the proliferative potential of MCPyV and TSPyV sT antigens by investigating their regulatory effects on the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) tumor suppressor. STUDY DESIGN: Inducible cell lines expressing MCPyV sT or TSPyV sT were created using a lentiviral packaging system. Cellular proteins were extracted and subjected to SDS-PAGE followed by Western blot detection and densitometric analysis. RESULTS: Expression of TSPyV sT markedly enhanced the phosphorylation of pRb in Western blot experiments. In contrast, expression of MCPyV sT did not alter pRb phosphorylation under the same experimental conditions. Densitometric analysis revealed that TSPyV sT antigen expression nearly doubled the ratio of phosphorylated to total pRb (P<0.001, Student's T-test), while MCPyV sT antigen expression did not cause significant change in pRb phosphorylation status. CONCLUSION: Given that hyperphosphorylation of pRb is associated with dysregulation of the cell cycle, S-phase induction, and increased cell proliferation, our findings support an important role of TSPyV-mediated pRb deactivation in the development of TS. The observation that the pRb tumor suppressor is inactivated by TSPyV sT but not MCPyV sT provides further insights into the distinct pathobiological mechanisms of MCC and TS.


Assuntos
Antígenos Transformantes de Poliomavirus/fisiologia , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/virologia , Ciclo Celular , Doenças do Cabelo/virologia , Ictiose/virologia , Poliomavírus das Células de Merkel/patogenicidade , Polyomaviridae/patogenicidade , Proteína do Retinoblastoma/metabolismo , Antígenos Transformantes de Poliomavirus/genética , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/fisiopatologia , Linhagem Celular , DNA Viral , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Poliomavírus das Células de Merkel/genética , Fosforilação , Polyomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Polyomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas
18.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 84(2): 123-4, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26602950

RESUMO

A new real-time PCR assay for trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSPyV) DNA detection was designed, and blood samples from kidney transplant recipients and healthy individuals were screened. TSPyV-DNA was not detected in blood from healthy individuals, but 26.8% of kidney recipients presented TSPyV-DNA. This is the first report of TSPyV viremia.


Assuntos
Sangue/virologia , DNA Viral/sangue , Doenças do Cabelo/virologia , Polyomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polyomaviridae/genética , Transplantados , Viremia/diagnóstico
19.
J Vet Med Sci ; 78(4): 705-7, 2016 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26672624

RESUMO

Japanese eel endothelial cells-infecting virus (JEECV) has spread in eel farms and caused serious economic loss. In this study, we examined the prevalence of JEECV infection in 100 wild Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) elvers caught from Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan, using quantitative PCR and conventional PCR. Total genomic DNA was obtained from the cranial quarter of the body in 70 of 100 eels and from the gill in the remaining. Of 30 gill samples, 20 were analyzed after pooling with other samples, and the remaining 10 were analyzed separately. A single positive result for JEECV was detected following analysis of the 10 separately analyzed samples. This result constitutes the first report of JEECV infection in wild A. japonica elvers.


Assuntos
Anguilla/virologia , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Polyomaviridae , Infecções por Polyomavirus/veterinária , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/veterinária , Animais , Pesqueiros , Japão
20.
J Cutan Med Surg ; 19(1): 66-8, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25775666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trichodysplasia spinulosa (TS) is a rare skin affection seen in immunocompromised patients, mainly those with solid organ tranplants. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of a patient with classic clinical and pathologic findings for the disease so that physicians caring for this population are aware of the clinical presentation. METHOD: We report the case of a female patient we saw at our clinic with a diagnosis of TS. RESULTS: The diagnosis of TS was confirmed by pathologic findings. CONCLUSION: TS should be considered in any immunocompromised patient with a papular facial eruption reminiscent of acne vulgaris and with keratotic spiny papules as a distinctive feature.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Polyomavirus/etiologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/etiologia , Adulto , Face/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Polyomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Polyomavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/patologia , Imunologia de Transplantes , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/imunologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/patologia
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