Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.792
Filtrar
1.
J Immunol Res ; 2022: 4864950, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35928630

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease characterized by immune dysregulations. Different viruses may act as MS triggering agents. MS patients respond differently to distinct viruses. The aim of our study is to verify the association between the polyomavirus BKPyV and MS, together with other neurological diseases, through the investigation of serum IgG antibodies against the virus. Sera were from patients affected by MS and other neurologic diseases, both inflammatory (OIND) and noninflammatory (NIND). Control sera were from healthy subjects (HS). Samples were analyzed for IgG antibodies against BKPyV with an indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides mimicking the viral capsid protein 1 (VP1) antigens. As control, ELISAs were carried out to verify the immune response against the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) of patients and controls. In addition, we assessed values for total IgG in each experimental groups. A significant lower prevalence of IgG antibodies against BKPyV VP 1 epitopes, together with a low titer, was detected in sera from MS patients and other inflammatory neurologic diseases than HS. In MS patients and OIND and NIND groups, the EBV-antibody values and total IgG did not differ from HS. Experimental data indicate that patients affected by neurological diseases, including MS, are poor responders to BKPyV VP 1 antigens, thus suggesting specific immunologic dysfunctions for this polyomavirus. Our findings are relevant in understanding the immune reactions implicated in neurological disorders.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Esclerose Múltipla , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Polyomavirus , Anticorpos Antivirais , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico
2.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35891513

RESUMO

BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is a human DNA virus generally divided into twelve subgroups based on the genetic diversity of Viral Protein 1 (VP1). BKPyV can cause polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) after kidney transplantation. Detection of BKPyV DNA in blood (viremia) is a source of concern and increase in plasma viral load is associated with a higher risk of developing PVAN. In this work, we looked for possible associations of specific BKPyV genetic features with higher plasma viral load in kidney transplant patients. We analyzed BKPyV complete genome in three-month samples from kidney recipients who developed viremia during their follow-up period. BKPyV sequences were obtained by next-generation sequencing and were de novo assembled using the new BKAnaLite pipeline. Based on the data from 72 patients, we identified 24 viral groups with unique amino acid sequences: three in the VP1 subgroup IVc2, six in Ib1, ten in Ib2, one in Ia, and four in II. In none of the groups did the mean plasma viral load reach a statistically significant difference from the overall mean observed at three months after transplantation. Further investigation is needed to better understand the link between the newly described BKPyV genetic variants and pathogenicity in kidney transplant recipients.


Assuntos
Vírus BK , Nefropatias , Transplante de Rim , Infecções por Polyomavirus , Polyomavirus , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus , Vírus BK/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Variação Genética , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Polyomavirus/genética , Transplantados , Viremia
3.
J Virol ; 96(14): e0206121, 2022 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35770990

RESUMO

Several studies reported the presence of a recently discovered polyomavirus (PyV), Lyon IARC PyV (LIPyV), in human and domestic animal specimens. LIPyV has some structural similarities to well-established animal and human oncogenic PyVs, such as raccoon PyV and Merkel cell PyV (MCPyV), respectively. In this study, we demonstrate that LIPyV early proteins immortalize human foreskin keratinocytes. LIPyV LT binds pRb, accordingly cell cycle checkpoints are altered in primary human fibroblasts and keratinocytes expressing LIPyV early genes. Mutation of the pRb binding site in LT strongly affected the ability of LIPyV ER to induced HFK immortalization. LIPyV LT also binds p53 and alters p53 functions activated by cellular stresses. Finally, LIPyV early proteins activate telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene expression, via accumulation of the Sp1 transcription factor. Sp1 recruitment to the hTERT promoter is controlled by its phosphorylation, which is mediated by ERK1 and CDK2. Together, these data highlight the transforming properties of LIPyV in in vitro experimental models, supporting its possible oncogenic nature. IMPORTANCE Lyon IARC PyV is a recently discovered polyomavirus that shows some structural similarities to well-established animal and human oncogenic PyVs, such as raccoon PyV and Merkel cell PyV, respectively. Here, we show the capability of LIPyV to efficiently promote cellular transformation of primary human cells, suggesting a possible oncogenic role of this virus in domestic animals and/or humans. Our study identified a novel virus-mediated mechanism of activation of telomerase reverse transcriptase gene expression, via accumulation of the Sp1 transcription factor. In addition, because the persistence of infection is a key event in virus-mediated carcinogenesis, it will be important to determine whether LIPyV can deregulate immune-related pathways, similarly to the well-established oncogenic viruses.


Assuntos
Poliomavírus das Células de Merkel , Infecções por Polyomavirus , Polyomavirus , Telomerase , Animais , Carcinogênese , Humanos , Poliomavírus das Células de Merkel/genética , Polyomavirus/genética , Polyomavirus/metabolismo , Guaxinins , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/metabolismo , Telomerase/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
5.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35632780

RESUMO

An aetiological role of human papillomavirus (HPV) and/or human polyomaviruses (HPyVs) has been proposed in adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC). Moreover, HPV-related multiphenotypic carcinoma (HMSC) was recently introduced as an emerging entity of the sinonasal region. Here, we primarily want to study the role of HPV/HPyV in a large AdCC cohort and, secondly, possibly identify and characterize HMSC. Tumour DNA from 68 patients initially diagnosed with AdCC between 2000 and 2012 was, therefore, tested for 27 HPV types and 10 HPyVs. HPV DNA-positive samples were micromorphologically re-evaluated, further stained for p16INK4a, S100, p63 and CD117 and tested for the presence of the MYB-NFIB fusion transcript. Notably, no samples were HPyV-positive, while one sinonasal and two tonsillar carcinomas were HPV- and p16-positive. After re-evaluating the micromorphology, immunohistochemistry and presence of fusion transcripts, all tumours had the same appearance and fitted within the diagnosis of HMSC, but in all these three cases, the morphology of the HMSC and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma was overlapping. We conclude that HPV and HPyV have no major role in AdCC. However, based on our data, we also suggest that HMSC should be considered as a basaloid variant of squamous cell carcinoma, and not its own entity, until better characterized.


Assuntos
Tonsila Faríngea , Alphapapillomavirus , Carcinoma Adenoide Cístico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias dos Seios Paranasais , Polyomavirus , Tonsila Faríngea/patologia , Carcinoma Adenoide Cístico/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Adenoide Cístico/genética , Carcinoma Adenoide Cístico/patologia , Humanos , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias dos Seios Paranasais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias dos Seios Paranasais/patologia , Polyomavirus/genética
6.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(5)2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35627238

RESUMO

Although genetic transformation has opened up a new era for cotton molecular breeding, it still suffers from the limitation problem of long transformation periods, which slows down the generation of new cotton germplasms. In this study, LT gene (SV40 large T antigen), which promotes the transformation efficiency of animal cells, was codon-optimized. Its overexpression vector was transformed into cotton. It was observed that EC (embryogenic callus) formation period was 33% shorter and transformation efficiency was slightly higher in the LT T0 generation than that of control. RNA-seq data of NEC (non-embryonic callus) and EC from LT and control revealed that more DEGs (differential expression genes) in NEC were identified than that of EC, indicating LT mainly functioned in NEC. Further KEGG, GO, and transcription factor analyses showed that DEGs were significantly enriched in brassinosteroid biosynthesis pathways and that bHLH, MYB, and AP2/ERF were the top three gene families, which are involved in EC formation. In addition, the key genes related to the auxin pathway were differentially expressed only in LT overexpression NEC, which caused early response, biosynthesis, and transportation of the hormone, resulting in EC earlier formation. In summary, the results demonstrated that LT can promote somatic embryogenesis in cotton, which provides a new strategy for improving cotton transformation and shortening EC formation time.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Polyomavirus , Fibra de Algodão , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Proteínas Oncogênicas/genética , Polyomavirus/metabolismo
7.
Arch Virol ; 167(8): 1721-1724, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35633392

RESUMO

In this study, the complete genome of a novel polyomavirus detected in a great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) was characterized. The 5133-bp-long genome of the cormorant polyomavirus has a genomic structure typical of members of the genus Gammapolyomavirus, family Polyomaviridae, containing open reading frames encoding the large and small tumor antigens, viral proteins 1, 2, and 3, and the X protein. The large tumor antigen of the cormorant polyomavirus shares 45.6-50.4% amino acid sequence identity with the homologous sequences of other gammapolyomaviruses. These data, together with results of phylogenetic analysis, suggest that this cormorant polyomavirus should be considered the first member of a new species within the genus Gammapolyomavirus, for which we propose the name "Phalacrocorax carbo polyomavirus 1".


Assuntos
Polyomaviridae , Polyomavirus , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Aves , Filogenia , Polyomaviridae/genética , Polyomavirus/genética
8.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(4): e1010401, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35363834

RESUMO

Polyomaviruses (PyV) are ubiquitous pathogens that can cause devastating human diseases. Due to the small size of their genomes, PyV utilize complex patterns of RNA splicing to maximize their coding capacity. Despite the importance of PyV to human disease, their transcriptome architecture is poorly characterized. Here, we compare short- and long-read RNA sequencing data from eight human and non-human PyV. We provide a detailed transcriptome atlas for BK polyomavirus (BKPyV), an important human pathogen, and the prototype PyV, simian virus 40 (SV40). We identify pervasive wraparound transcription in PyV, wherein transcription runs through the polyA site and circles the genome multiple times. Comparative analyses identify novel, conserved transcripts that increase PyV coding capacity. One of these conserved transcripts encodes superT, a T antigen containing two RB-binding LxCxE motifs. We find that superT-encoding transcripts are abundant in PyV-associated human cancers. Together, we show that comparative transcriptomic approaches can greatly expand known transcript and coding capacity in one of the simplest and most well-studied viral families.


Assuntos
Vírus BK , Infecções por Polyomavirus , Polyomavirus , Vírus BK/genética , Humanos , Polyomavirus/genética , Infecções por Polyomavirus/genética , Splicing de RNA , Vírus 40 dos Símios/genética
10.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458396

RESUMO

DNA virus infections are often lifelong and can cause serious diseases in their hosts. Their recognition by the sensors of the innate immune system represents the front line of host defence. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of innate immunity responses is an important prerequisite for the design of effective antivirotics. This review focuses on the present state of knowledge surrounding the mechanisms of viral DNA genome sensing and the main induced pathways of innate immunity responses. The studies that have been performed to date indicate that herpesviruses, adenoviruses, and polyomaviruses are sensed by various DNA sensors. In non-immune cells, STING pathways have been shown to be activated by cGAS, IFI16, DDX41, or DNA-PK. The activation of TLR9 has mainly been described in pDCs and in other immune cells. Importantly, studies on herpesviruses have unveiled novel participants (BRCA1, H2B, or DNA-PK) in the IFI16 sensing pathway. Polyomavirus studies have revealed that, in addition to viral DNA, micronuclei are released into the cytosol due to genotoxic stress. Papillomaviruses, HBV, and HIV have been shown to evade DNA sensing by sophisticated intracellular trafficking, unique cell tropism, and viral or cellular protein actions that prevent or block DNA sensing. Further research is required to fully understand the interplay between viruses and DNA sensors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus de DNA , Herpesviridae , Polyomavirus , DNA Viral/metabolismo , Herpesviridae/genética , Herpesviridae/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Polyomavirus/genética
11.
Hautarzt ; 73(6): 426-433, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35482045

RESUMO

Of the 15 currently known human polyomaviruses (HPyV), eight have been found on healthy skin. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), HPyV6, HPyV7, and to a lesser extent Saint Louis polyomavirus (STLPyV) are considered part of the human cutaneous virome. The most important cutaneous polyomavirus, MCPyV, causes the majority of Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC). MCC is a rare but very aggressive malignant skin tumor that affects both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients. A steady increase in incidence rates of this skin tumor has been observed in recent decades. MCC occurs primarily on sunlight-exposed skin of fair-skinned individuals. Risk factors for MCC development include immunosuppression and advanced age. In immunocompromised individuals, primary infection with trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSPyV) can cause the very rare skin disease trichodysplasia spinulosa (TS). Keratin spines (spicules), mainly in the center of the face, clinically characterize this disease. Skin lesions associated with further HPyV have been described exclusively in immunocompromised individuals. For HPyV6 and HPyV7, cases of epithelial proliferation and pruritic dyskeratotic dermatitis have been published. HPyV9 and New Jersey polyomavirus (NJPyV-13) were each found in different skin lesions of individual patients. The role of these polyomaviruses in the development of the skin lesions is still unclear.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel , Poliomavírus das Células de Merkel , Infecções por Polyomavirus , Polyomavirus , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Humanos , Infecções por Polyomavirus/epidemiologia , Pele
12.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35336880

RESUMO

Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) causes one of the most aggressive human skin cancers, but laboratory studies on MCV replication have proven technically difficult. We report the first recombinase-mediated MCV minicircle (MCVmc) system that generates high levels of circularized virus, allowing facile MCV genetic manipulation and characterization of viral gene expression kinetics during replication. Mutations to Fbw7, Skp2, ß-TrCP and hVam6p interaction sites, or to the stem loop sequence for the MCV-encoded miRNA precursor, markedly increase viral replication, whereas point mutation to an origin-binding site eliminates active virus replication. To further increase the utility of this system, an mScarlet fusion protein was inserted into the VP1 c-terminus to generate a non-infectious reporter virus for studies on virus kinetics. When this reporter virus genome is heterologously expressed together with MCV VP1 and VP2, virus-like particles are generated. The reporter virus genome is encapsidated and can be used at lower biosafety levels for one-round infection studies. Our findings reveal that MCV has multiple, self-encoded viral restriction mechanisms to promote viral latency over lytic replication, and these mechanisms are now amenable to examination using a recombinase technology.


Assuntos
Poliomavírus das Células de Merkel , Infecções por Polyomavirus , Polyomavirus , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus , Antígenos Virais de Tumores/genética , Humanos , Cinética , Poliomavírus das Células de Merkel/genética , Poliomavírus das Células de Merkel/metabolismo , Polyomavirus/genética , Polyomavirus/metabolismo , Recombinases/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/genética
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 835584, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35281039

RESUMO

Background: BK polyomavirus (BKPyV)-associated nephropathy (BKPyVAN) causes renal allograft dysfunction and graft loss. However, the mechanism of BKPyV replication after kidney transplantation is unclear. Clinical studies have demonstrated that immunosuppressants and renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) are risk factors for BKPyV infection. Studying the pathogenic mechanism of BKPyV is limited by the inability of BKPyV to infect the animal. Mouse polyomavirus (MPyV) is a close homolog of BKPyV. We used a model of MPyV infection to investigate the core genes and underlying mechanism of IRI and immunosuppressants to promote polyomavirus replication. Materials and Methods: One-day-old male C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally injected with MPyV. At week 9 post-infection, all mice were randomly divided into IRI, immunosuppressant, and control groups and treated accordingly. IRI was established by clamping the left renal pedicle. Subsequently, kidney specimens were collected for detecting MPyV DNA, histopathological observation, and high-throughput RNA sequencing. Weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA), protein-protein interaction network analysis, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were used to screen for core genes and common signaling pathways involved in promoting MPyV replication by IRI and immunosuppressants. Results: After primary infection, MPyV established persistent infection in kidneys and subsequently was significantly increased by IRI or immunosuppressant treatment individually. In the IRI group, viral loads peaked on day 3 in the left kidney, which were significantly higher than those in the right kidney and the control group. In the immunosuppressant group, viral loads in the left kidney were significantly increased on day 3, which were significantly higher than those in the control group. Protein-protein interaction network analysis and WGCNA screened complement C3, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and FN1 as core genes. Pathway enrichment analysis based on the IRI- or immunosuppressant-related genes selected by WGCNA indicated that the NF-κB signaling pathway was the main pathway involved in promoting MPyV replication. The core genes were further confirmed using published datasets GSE47199 and GSE75693 in human polyomavirus-associated nephropathy. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that IRI and immunosuppressants promote polyomavirus replication through common molecular mechanisms. In future studies, knockdown or specific inhibition of C3, EGFR, FN1, and NF-κB signaling pathway will further validate their critical roles in promoting polyomavirus replication.


Assuntos
Vírus BK , Transplante de Rim , Nefrite Intersticial , Infecções por Polyomavirus , Polyomavirus , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Animais , Vírus BK/fisiologia , Receptores ErbB , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B , Nefrite Intersticial/complicações , Polyomavirus/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 831815, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35355981

RESUMO

Viral antigens can activate phagocytes, inducing inflammation, but the mechanisms are barely explored. The aim of this study is to investigate how viral oligomeric proteins of different structures induce inflammatory response in macrophages. Human THP-1 cell line was used to prepare macrophages that were treated with filamentous nucleocapsid-like particles (NLPs) of paramyxoviruses and spherical virus-like particles (VLPs) of human polyomaviruses. The effects of viral proteins on cell viability, pro-inflammatory cytokines' production, and NLRP3 inflammasome activation were investigated. Filamentous NLPs did not induce inflammation while spherical VLPs mediated inflammatory response followed by NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Inhibitors of cathepsins and K+ efflux decreased IL-1ß release and cell death, indicating a complex inflammasome activation process. A similar activation pattern was observed in primary human macrophages. Single-cell RNAseq analysis of THP-1 cells revealed several cell activation states different in inflammation-related genes. This study provides new insights into the interaction of viral proteins with immune cells and suggests that structural properties of oligomeric proteins may define cell activation pathways.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos , Polyomavirus , Humanos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
15.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216020

RESUMO

To date, 14 human polyomaviruses (HPyVs) have been identified using high-throughput technologies. Among them, MCPyV, HPyV6, HPyV7 and TSPyV present a skin tropism, but a causal role in skin diseases has been established only for MCPyV as a causative agent of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) and TSPyV as an etiological agent of Trichodysplasia Spinulosa (TS). In the search for a possible role for cutaneous HPyVs in the development of skin malignant lesions, we investigated the prevalence of MCPyV, HPyV6, HPyV7 and TSPyV in actinic keratosis (AK), a premalignant skin lesion that has the potential to progress towards a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). One skin lesion and one non-lesion skin from nine affected individuals were analyzed by qualitative PCR. MCPyV was detected in 9 out of 9 lesion biopsies and 6 out of 8 non-lesion biopsies. HPyV6 was detected only in healthy skin, while HPyV7 and TSPyV were not detected in any skin sample. These findings argue against a possible role of cutaneous HPyVs in AK. However, considering the small sample size analyzed, a definitive conclusion cannot be drawn. Longitudinal studies on large cohorts are warranted.


Assuntos
Ceratose Actínica/virologia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/diagnóstico , Polyomavirus/genética , Pele/virologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , DNA Viral/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Ceratose Actínica/patologia , Masculino , Polyomavirus/classificação , Polyomavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Prevalência , Pele/patologia
16.
JAMA Dermatol ; 158(3): 293-298, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35138364

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: We describe the first report to our knowledge of cutaneous and systemic pathogenicity of human polyomavirus 9 in solid organ transplant recipients. OBJECTIVE: Three solid organ transplant recipients developed a widespread, progressive, violaceous, and hyperkeratotic skin eruption. All died from pulmonary and multiorgan failure around 1 year from onset of the rash. Routine clinical diagnostic testing could not identify any causative agent; therefore, samples and autopsies were investigated for novel pathogens using high-throughput sequencing. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This case series, including 3 solid organ transplant recipients who developed characteristic pink, violaceous, or brown hyperkeratotic papules and plaques throughout the body, was conducted at the Columbia University Medical Center. Lesional skin biopsies were collected from all 3 patients and subjected to high-throughput illumina sequencing for identification of microbial pathogens. Human polyomavirus 9 was identified in lesional skin biopsies. We subsequently collected ocular swabs, oral swabs, urine samples, and blood samples from patients, and organ tissues at autopsy in 1 patient. We investigated these samples for the presence of human polyomavirus 9 using in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: A description of the clinical and pathologic findings of 3 patients. RESULTS: This case series study found that human polyomavirus 9 was detected in the skin biopsies of all 3 patients by a capture-based high-throughput sequencing method platform (VirCapSeq-VERT). Human polyomavirus 9 was also detected in blood, oral, ocular swabs, and urine by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. In situ hybridization and quantitative PCR assays were performed on the skin biopsies from 3 patients and lung autopsy of 1 patient, which showed the presence of human polyomavirus 9 messenger RNA transcripts, indicating active viral replication and pathogenesis in the skin and lungs. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Human polyomavirus 9 was associated with the widespread cutaneous eruption. All 3 patients had progression of cutaneous disease, accompanied by clinical deterioration, pulmonary failure, and death. One patient underwent autopsy and human polyomavirus 9 was identified in the lungs and paratracheal soft tissue. These findings suggest that human polyomavirus 9 may be associated with cutaneous and possibly pulmonary infection and death in solid organ transplant recipients.


Assuntos
Exantema , Transplante de Órgãos , Infecções por Polyomavirus , Polyomavirus , Dermatopatias , DNA Viral/análise , Humanos , Pulmão , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Polyomaviridae , Polyomavirus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Transplantados
17.
Virus Genes ; 58(1): 35-41, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35000075

RESUMO

TSPyV is a viral agent linked to Trichodysplasia spinulosa, a disfiguring human skin disease which presents with hyperkeratotic spicule eruption in immunocompromised hosts. This proliferative disease state requires extensive modulation of the host cell environment. While the small T (sT) antigen of TSPyV has been postulated to cause widespread cellular perturbation, its specific substrates and their mechanistic connection are unclear. To identify the cellular substrates and pathways perturbed by TSPyV sT and propose a nuanced model that reconciles the multiple arms of TSPyV pathogenesis, changes in expression of several proteins and phospho-proteins in TSPyV sT expressing and TSPyV sT deletion mutant-expressing cell lysates were interrogated using Western blot assays. TSPyV sT expression exploits the DNA damage response pathway, by inducing hyperphosphorylation of ATM and 53BP1 and upregulation of BMI-1. Concurrently, sT dysregulates the S6 protein translation pathway via hyperphosphorylation of CDC2, p70 S6 kinase, S6, and PP1α. The S6S244/247 and p-PP1αT320 phospho-forms are points of overlap between the DDR and S6 networks. We propose a mechanistic rationale for previous reports positioning sT antigen as the key driver of TSPyV pathogenesis. We illuminate novel targets in the S6 and DDR pathways and recognize a potential synergy between these pathways. TSPyV may sensitize the cell to both unrestricted translation and genomic instability. This multi-pronged infection model may inform future therapeutic modalities against TSPyV and possibly other viruses with overlapping host substrates.


Assuntos
Infecções por Polyomavirus , Polyomavirus , Antígenos Virais de Tumores/genética , Dano ao DNA , Humanos , Polyomavirus/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas
19.
J Clin Virol ; 146: 105051, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34883406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data about the use and clinical value of JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) DNA detection in various clinical indications. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical records of 410 patients from whom cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), plasma, urine, or tissue samples had been collected for JCPyV DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) between 2012 and 2018. RESULTS: JCPyV DNA was analyzed in 224 plasma, 190 CSF-, 32 urine and 10 tissue samples. 240 patients had a history of hematopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplantation, 159 had nephrological disease, 90 had hematologic malignancies, 58 had neurological disease, 37 had infectious disease and 23 had AIDS/HIV as underlying disease. Six patients had no underlying disease. The main reasons to take CSF or plasma samples were neurological symptoms of unknown etiology. Most urine samples were taken to monitor kidney transplantation patients. JCPyV DNA PCR contributed to the diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in eight patients (2.0%), of which seven had hematologic malignancy as an underlying disease. CONCLUSIONS: JCPyV PCR is most informative among immunosuppressed patients with neurologic symptoms. CSF and brain biopsy are useful when there is clinical suspicion of PML, whereas plasma samples are not useful. The value of plasma samples is a matter of dispute in the screening of JCPyV-associated nephropathy, as BK polyomavirus is the causative agent in most polyomavirus-associated nephropathy cases. JCPyV detection is valuable in case the patient has past, current or planned treatment with immunosuppressive drugs.


Assuntos
Vírus BK , Vírus JC , Leucoencefalopatia Multifocal Progressiva , Infecções por Polyomavirus , Polyomavirus , Vírus BK/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Humanos , Vírus JC/genética , Leucoencefalopatia Multifocal Progressiva/diagnóstico , Polyomavirus/genética , Infecções por Polyomavirus/diagnóstico
20.
Virus Res ; 308: 198634, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793873

RESUMO

Avian polyomavirus (APV) is a non-enveloped virus with a circular double-stranded DNA genome approximately 5000 bp in length. APV was first reported in fledgling budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) as the causative agent of budgerigar fledgling disease, resulting in high parrot mortality rates in the 1980s. This disease has been observed worldwide, and APV has a wide host range including budgerigars, cockatoos, lorikeets, lovebirds, and macaws. Twenty APV isolates have been collected from healthy and symptomatic parrots in Taiwan from 2015 to 2019. These isolates were then amplified via polymerase chain reaction, after which the whole genomes of these isolates were sequenced. The overall APV-positive rate was 14.2%, and the full lengths of the APV Taiwan isolates varied from 4971 to 4982 bps. The APV genome contains an early region that encodes two regulatory proteins (the large tumor antigen (Large T-Ag) and the small tumor antigen (Small t-Ag)) and a late region which encodes the capsid proteins VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4. The nucleotide identities of the VP1 and VP4 genes ranged from 98.7 to 100%, whereas the nucleotide sequence of the Large T-Ag gene had the highest identity (99.2-100%) relative to other APV isolates from the GenBank database. A phylogenetic tree based on the whole genome demonstrated that the APV Taiwan isolates were closely related to Japanese and Portuguese isolates. Recombination events were analyzed using the Recombination Detection Program version 4 and APV Taiwan isolate TW-3 was identified as a minor parent of the APV recombinants. In this study, we first reported the characterization of the whole genome sequences of APV Taiwan isolates and their phylogenetic relationships with all APV isolates available in the GenBank database.


Assuntos
Melopsittacus , Papagaios , Polyomavirus , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias , Filogenia , Polyomavirus/genética , Taiwan
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...