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2.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1849): 20200494, 2022 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35249388

RESUMO

Some of the earliest evidence for the presence of modern humans in rainforests has come from the fossil deposits of Lida Ajer in Sumatra. Two human teeth from this cave were estimated to be 73-63 thousand years old, which is significantly older than some estimates of modern human migration out of Africa based on genetic data. The deposits were interpreted as being associated with a rainforest environment based largely on the presence of abundant orangutan fossils. As well as the main fossil-bearing chamber, fossil-bearing passages are present below a sinkhole, although the relationship between the different fossil deposits has only been tenuously established. Here, we provide significant new sedimentological, geochronological and palaeoecological data aimed at reconstructing the speleological and environmental history of the cave and the clastic and fossil deposits therein. Our data suggest that the Lida Ajer fossils were deposited during Marine Isotope Stage 4, with fossils from the lower passages older than the main fossil chamber. Our use of stable carbon and oxygen isotope analyses of mammalian tooth enamel demonstrates that early humans probably occupied a closed-canopy forest very similar to those present in the region today, although the fossil orangutans may have occupied a slightly different niche. This article is part of the theme issue 'Tropical forests in the deep human past'.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Dente , Animais , Cavernas , Fósseis , Humanos , Indonésia , Mamíferos , Pongo
3.
Curr Biol ; 32(8): 1754-1763.e6, 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276097

RESUMO

Conservation strategies are rarely systematically evaluated, which reduces transparency, hinders the cost-effective deployment of resources, and hides what works best in different contexts. Using data on the iconic and critically endangered orangutan (Pongo spp.), we developed a novel spatiotemporal framework for evaluating conservation investments. We show that around USD 1 billion was invested between 2000 and 2019 into orangutan conservation by governments, nongovernmental organizations, companies, and communities. Broken down by allocation to different conservation strategies, we find that habitat protection, patrolling, and public outreach had the greatest return on investment for maintaining orangutan populations. Given the variability in threats, land-use opportunity costs, and baseline remunerations in different regions, there were differential benefits per dollar invested across conservation activities and regions. We show that although challenging from a data and analysis perspective, it is possible to fully understand the relationships between conservation investments and outcomes and the external factors that influence these outcomes. Such analyses can provide improved guidance toward a more effective biodiversity conservation. Insights into the spatiotemporal interplays between the costs and benefits driving effectiveness can inform decisions about the most suitable orangutan conservation strategies for halting population declines. Although our study focuses on the three extant orangutan species of Sumatra and Borneo, our findings have broad application for evidence-based conservation science and practice worldwide.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Pongo , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Indonésia , Pongo pygmaeus , Dinâmica Populacional
4.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 6(5): 504-505, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35314783
5.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 6(5): 644-652, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35314786

RESUMO

In humans, individuals' social setting determines which and how language is acquired. Social seclusion experiments show that sociality also guides vocal development in songbirds and marmoset monkeys, but absence of similar great ape data has been interpreted as support to saltational notions for language origin, even if such laboratorial protocols are unethical with great apes. Here we characterize the repertoire entropy of orangutan individuals and show that in the wild, different degrees of sociality across populations are associated with different 'vocal personalities' in the form of distinct regimes of alarm call variants. In high-density populations, individuals are vocally more original and acoustically unpredictable but new call variants are short lived, whereas individuals in low-density populations are more conformative and acoustically consistent but also exhibit more complex call repertoires. Findings provide non-invasive evidence that sociality predicts vocal phenotype in a wild great ape. They prove false hypotheses that discredit great apes as having hardwired vocal development programmes and non-plastic vocal behaviour. Social settings mould vocal output in hominids besides humans.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Fenótipo , Pongo , Comportamento Social
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2917, 2022 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35190637

RESUMO

When human infants are intentionally addressed by others, they tend to interpret the information communicated as being relevant to them and worth acquiring. For humans, this attribution of relevance leads to a preference to learn from communication, making it possible to accumulate knowledge over generations. Great apes are sensitive to communicative cues, but do these cues also activate an expectation of relevance? In an observational learning paradigm, we demonstrated to a sample of nonhuman great apes (bonobos, chimpanzees, orangutans; N = 24) how to operate on a food dispenser device. When apes had the opportunity to choose between an effective and an ineffective method in the baseline conditions, the majority of them chose the effective method. However, when the ineffective method was demonstrated in a communicative way, they failed to prioritize efficiency, even though they were equally attentive in both conditions. This suggests that the ostensive demonstration elicited an expectation of relevance that modified apes' interpretation of the situation, potentially leading to a preference to learn from communication, as human children do.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Hominidae/psicologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Conhecimento , Pan paniscus , Pan troglodytes , Pongo
7.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263343, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35171926

RESUMO

Early stone tools, and in particular sharp stone tools, arguably represent one of the most important technological milestones in human evolution. The production and use of sharp stone tools significantly widened the ecological niche of our ancestors, allowing them to exploit novel food resources. However, despite their importance, it is still unclear how these early lithic technologies emerged and which behaviours served as stepping-stones for the development of systematic lithic production in our lineage. One approach to answer this question is to collect comparative data on the stone tool making and using abilities of our closest living relatives, the great apes, to reconstruct the potential stone-related behaviours of early hominins. To this end, we tested both the individual and the social learning abilities of five orangutans to make and use stone tools. Although the orangutans did not make sharp stone tools initially, three individuals spontaneously engaged in lithic percussion, and sharp stone pieces were produced under later experimental conditions. Furthermore, when provided with a human-made sharp stone, one orangutan spontaneously used it as a cutting tool. Contrary to previous experiments, social demonstrations did not considerably improve the stone tool making and using abilities of orangutans. Our study is the first to systematically investigate the stone tool making and using abilities of untrained, unenculturated orangutans showing that two proposed pre-requisites for the emergence of early lithic technologies-lithic percussion and the recognition of sharp-edged stones as cutting tools-are present in this species. We discuss the implications that ours and previous great ape stone tool experiments have for understanding the initial stages of lithic technologies in our lineage.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Percussão/métodos , Pongo/fisiologia , Pongo/psicologia , Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino
8.
Primates ; 63(1): 33-39, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655344

RESUMO

Chimpanzees and orangutans are able to generate innovative behaviors to solve complicated physical problems. For example, when presented with an out-of-reach peanut at the bottom of a vertical tube (floating peanut task-FPT), some of them spontaneously spit water into the tube until the peanut floats to the top. Yet, it is unclear whether this innovative solution results from repeating those actions that bring the peanut incrementally closer to the top or from anticipating the solution before acting. In the current study, we addressed this question by presenting three naïve orangutans with an opaque version of the FPT that prevented them from obtaining visual information about the effect of their actions on the position of the peanut. One of the subjects solved the opaque FPT in the very first trial: he collected water from the faucet and poured it into the opaque tube repeatedly until the hitherto non-visible peanut reached the top. This provides evidence for the first time that orangutans can potentially solve the FPT without relying on sensorimotor learning, but to some extent by mentally representing the problem.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Sensorial , Pongo , Animais , Arachis , Masculino , Pan troglodytes , Pongo pygmaeus
9.
Primates ; 63(1): 25-31, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787739

RESUMO

Vertebrate predation and consumption by wild Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus spp.) is rare. In contrast to recorded observations of slow loris consumption by Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii), no cases of this have been previously published for Bornean orangutans in the wild. In 2017, we observed the capture and consumption of a slow loris (Nycticebus borneanus) by an adult unflanged male Bornean orangutan at Tuanan Orangutan Research Station, which is located in the Kapuas region of Central Kalimantan. The unflanged male was together with an adult female and her 3.5-year-old offspring throughout the event. However, despite the mother and her offspring watching the male closely and occasionally begging while he consumed the loris, he resisted all food-taking attempts. This study reports, to the best of our knowledge, the first documented case of slow loris predation and consumption by a Bornean orangutan, and thus provides an important data point for understanding primate predation on other primate species.


Assuntos
Lorisidae , Pongo pygmaeus , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Indonésia , Masculino , Pongo , Comportamento Predatório
10.
Science ; 374(6575): eabf0130, 2021 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941390

RESUMO

The suite of derived human traits, including enlarged brains, elevated fertility rates, and long developmental periods and life spans, imposes extraordinarily high energetic costs relative to other great apes. How do human subsistence strategies accommodate our expanded energy budgets? We found that relative to other great apes, human hunter-gatherers and subsistence farmers spend more energy but less time on subsistence, acquire substantially more energy per hour, and achieve similar energy efficiencies. These findings revise our understanding of human energetic evolution by indicating that humans afford expanded energy budgets primarily by increasing rates of energy acquisition, not through energy-saving adaptations such as economical bipedalism or sophisticated tool use that decrease subsistence costs and improve the energetic efficiency of subsistence. We argue that the time saved by human subsistence strategies provides more leisure time for social interaction and social learning in central-place locations and would have been critical for cumulative cultural evolution.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Atividades Humanas , Agricultura , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Evolução Biológica , Peso Corporal , Comparação Transcultural , Dieta Paleolítica , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Gorilla gorilla , Horticultura , Humanos , Masculino , Pan troglodytes , Pongo
11.
J Hum Evol ; 161: 103090, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781087

RESUMO

More than 800 isolated teeth of fossil Pongo have been recovered from cave sites in the vicinity of Chongzuo in Guangxi, southern China, ranging from the Early to Late Pleistocene (2.0-0.1 Ma). These collections provide a unique regional window into the evolutionary history of orangutans over a two-million-year period at the northernmost extent of their former geographic range. Here we investigate the nature and timing of the evolutionary change in the dental size of fossil orangutans from Chongzuo. Fossil tooth size (mesiodistal length∗buccolingual breadth) was compared against an extant Pongo pygmaeus standard (n = 106 individuals). During the course of the Pleistocene, orangutans from southern China exhibited a progressive reduction in overall dental size. Early Pleistocene Pongo has cheek teeth with occlusal areas that are 38.1% larger than those of extant P. pygmaeus. Those from the Middle and Late Pleistocene are 25.2% and 18.9% larger, respectively. Previously, the size difference in dentition between the Early to Middle Pleistocene and Middle to Late Pleistocene samples was used to differentiate time-successive species of Pongo, namely Pongo weidenreichi and Pongo devosi. However, with access to larger samples and better representation of populations through time, the evidence in support of this taxonomic arrangement requires reconsideration. Diminution of the teeth now appears to be a gradual evolutionary transformation rather than a punctuated event. Moreover, the morphological features that distinguish the Chongzuo fossil orangutans from extant Pongo spp. remain uniform throughout the Pleistocene. Retaining P. weidenreichi and P. devosi as anagenetic species remains an option, but, given the current evidence, we consider it preferable to assign all of the fossil orangutans from Chongzuo to P. weidenreichi. Beyond resolving questions of alpha taxonomy, the study of fossil orangutan dental size provides a basis for estimating body mass, which has implications for interpreting the paleobiology of Pleistocene Pongo in southern China.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Pongo , Animais , Evolução Biológica , China , Humanos , Pongo pygmaeus
12.
Cell Rep ; 37(8): 110057, 2021 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818542

RESUMO

The gut microbiome exhibits extreme compositional variation between hominid hosts. However, it is unclear how this variation impacts host physiology across species and whether this effect can be mediated through microbial regulation of host gene expression in interacting epithelial cells. Here, we characterize the transcriptional response of human colonic epithelial cells in vitro to live microbial communities extracted from humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. We find that most host genes exhibit a conserved response, whereby they respond similarly to the four hominid microbiomes. However, hundreds of host genes exhibit a divergent response, whereby they respond only to microbiomes from specific host species. Such genes are associated with intestinal diseases in humans, including inflammatory bowel disease and Crohn's disease. Last, we find that inflammation-associated microbial species regulate the expression of host genes previously associated with inflammatory bowel disease, suggesting health-related consequences for species-specific host-microbiome interactions across hominids.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Hominidae/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Expressão Gênica/genética , Gorilla gorilla/microbiologia , Hominidae/genética , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Microbiota/genética , Pan troglodytes/microbiologia , Filogenia , Pongo/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 92(5-6): 296-305, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695831

RESUMO

Our understanding of the transmission of anthropozoonotic diseases between humans and non-human primates, particularly great apes due to their close genetic relationship with humans, highlights a serious potential threat to the survival of these species. This is particularly the case at tourism sites where risk of disease transmission is increased. We focus on the interaction between tourists and the Critically Endangered Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) at Bukit Lawang in the Gunung Leuser National Park, Indonesia, before and after the park was closed due to the threat of COVID-19 in April 2020. Through analysis of posts on Instagram we determine the extent of compliance by visitors with the rule to keep a minimum distance of 10 m from orangutans and assess the positional behaviours of the orangutans. Of the 2,229 photographs we assessed between November 2019 and July 2020, 279 depicted one or more orangutans. Forty-two of these contained both a human and an orangutan, and of these all showed inappropriate behaviours (direct contact, feeding orangutans, close proximity <5 m) providing direct evidence of non-compliance with the 10-m distance rule. Most of these photographs additionally showed orangutans performing abnormal positional behaviours such as being low to or on the ground rather than their natural high position in the canopy; being near the ground and in close proximity to humans increases the risk of anthropozoonotic disease transmission. As expected, we found a significant decrease in number of photographs that were posted following the closure, and a decrease in the proportion of photographs that showed orangutans, or tourists feeding orangutans. Tourists do not seem to perceive that they pose risks to the orangutans and therefore increased awareness, education and enforcement of rules by all stakeholders, tourism bodies and government officials need to be actioned in order to safeguard this important population, which is crucial to the future survival of the Sumatran orangutan.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pongo , Animais , Humanos , Indonésia , Percepção , Pongo pygmaeus , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Biol Lett ; 17(9): 20210302, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582737

RESUMO

The origin of language is one of the most significant evolutionary milestones of life on Earth, but one of the most persevering scientific unknowns. Two decades ago, game theorists and mathematicians predicted that the first words and grammar emerged as a response to transmission errors and information loss in language's precursor system, however, empirical proof is lacking. Here, we assessed information loss in proto-consonants and proto-vowels in human pre-linguistic ancestors as proxied by orangutan consonant-like and vowel-like calls that compose syllable-like combinations. We played back and re-recorded calls at increasing distances across a structurally complex habitat (i.e. adverse to sound transmission). Consonant-like and vowel-like calls degraded acoustically over distance, but no information loss was detected regarding three distinct classes of information (viz. individual ID, context and population ID). Our results refute prevailing mathematical predictions and herald a turning point in language evolution theory and heuristics. Namely, explaining how the vocal-verbal continuum was crossed in the hominid family will benefit from future mathematical and computational models that, in order to enjoy empirical validity and superior explanatory power, will be informed by great ape behaviour and repertoire.


Assuntos
Fonética , Voz , Animais , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Pongo
15.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 176(4): 625-637, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We compared an early life stress indicator, linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH), in the canine teeth of two male orangutan (Pongo spp.) morphs. Flanged males have large bi-discoid cheek pads and a laryngeal throat pouch, and they exhibit either the same or higher levels of the stress hormone cortisol throughout development compared with unflanged males, which lack secondary sexual characteristics. Such "developmental arrest" is hypothesized to either reflect a response to experienced high stress (Hypothesis 1), or an adaptation to avoid elevated stress levels and/or having experienced lower stress levels (Hypothesis 2) during early life. As LEH defect depth has been shown to reflect the severity (i.e., intensity and/or duration) of early life stress events, we examined whether unflanged males have shallower LEH defects than flanged males. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Flanging status was assessed by measuring the faces of preserved skins. Canine height (N = 37) was measured in the same individuals to assess commonality between morphs. LEH defect depths were analyzed using a standardized confocal profilometry method (N = 34). RESULTS: Flanged males have significantly deeper LEH defects than unflanged adult males. Canine projected crown heights are similar across males regardless of morph. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from great apes shows that, when comparing canines with similar growth patterns, deeper defects reflect more severe stress events during development. Thus, our results suggest that "developmental arrest" of unflanged males is not a response to having experienced stress, but rather an adaptation to avoid the physiological impacts associated with chronic stress and/or experiencing lower stress levels.


Assuntos
Hipoplasia do Esmalte Dentário , Hominidae , Animais , Biomarcadores , Dente Canino , Humanos , Masculino , Pongo , Pongo pygmaeus
16.
Primates ; 62(6): 945-954, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415484

RESUMO

Estimating stable isotopic offset values is crucial for dietary reconstructions. Although research into stable isotope ecology of wild nonhuman primates is increasing overall, only a minority of studies involve laboratory experiments. This study is the first to report the carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic offset values in hair and feces of orangutans. During an experiment lasting 1 week, the weight of each consumed food item was recorded for each of six captive Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) individuals. The food, hair, and fecal samples were collected for a few days, and their stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were measured using an elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Subsamples of feces were treated with ethanol during the preservation process. Monte Carlo analyses showed that the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the carbon and nitrogen offset values between hair and diet were +0.9‰ to +3.9‰ and +2.3‰ to +4.5‰, respectively. The 95% CIs of the carbon and nitrogen offset values between feces and diet were -3.7‰ to -0.9‰ and +0.3‰ to +2.7‰, respectively. The effect of ethanol treatment on the stable isotope ratios of feces was unclear and inconclusive. The computed offset values of hair in captive orangutans are similar to those reported in other nonhuman primates, although those of feces showed greater interspecies variations. The offset values estimated in this study contribute to isotopic studies into the feeding ecology of free-ranging orangutans who are critically endangered in most wild settings.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Pongo pygmaeus , Animais , Carbono , Isótopos de Carbono , Dieta/veterinária , Fezes , Isótopos de Nitrogênio , Pongo
17.
Learn Mem ; 28(8): 260-269, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266991

RESUMO

The prefrontal cortex is larger than would be predicted by body size or visual cortex volume in great apes compared with monkeys. Because prefrontal cortex is critical for working memory, we hypothesized that recognition memory tests would engage working memory in orangutans more robustly than in rhesus monkeys. In contrast to working memory, the familiarity response that results from repetition of an image is less cognitively taxing and has been associated with nonfrontal brain regions. Across three experiments, we observed a striking species difference in the control of behavior by these two types of memory. First, we found that recognition memory performance in orangutans was controlled by working memory under conditions in which this memory system plays little role in rhesus monkeys. Second, we found that unlike the case in monkeys, familiarity was not involved in recognition memory performance in orangutans, shown by differences with monkeys across three different measures. Memory in orangutans was not improved by use of novel images, was always impaired by a concurrent cognitive load, and orangutans did not accurately identify images seen minutes ago. These results are surprising and puzzling, but do support the view that prefrontal expansion in great apes favored working memory. At least in orangutans, increased dependence on working memory may come at a cost in terms of the availability of familiarity.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Pongo , Animais , Macaca mulatta , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Reconhecimento Psicológico
18.
Oecologia ; 196(3): 707-721, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143262

RESUMO

Understanding of animal responses to dynamic resource landscapes is based largely on research on temperate species with small body sizes and fast life histories. We studied a large, tropical mammal with an extremely slow life history, the Western Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii), across a heterogeneous natural landscape encompassing seven distinct forest types. Our goals were to characterize fluctuations in abundance, test hypotheses regarding the relationship between dispersion dynamics and resource availability, and evaluate how movement patterns are influenced by abiotic conditions. We surveyed abundance in Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia, for 99 consecutive months and simultaneously recorded weather data and assessed fruit availability. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical distance sampling model to estimate population dispersion and assess the roles of fruit availability, rainfall, and temperature in driving movement patterns across this heterogeneous landscape. Orangutan abundance varied dramatically over space and time. Each forest type was important in sustaining more than 40% of the total orangutans on site during at least one month, as animals moved to track asynchronies in fruiting phenology. We conclude that landscape-level movements buffer orangutans against fruit scarcity, peat swamps are crucial fallback habitats, and orangutans' use of high elevation forests is strongly dependent on abiotic conditions. Our results show that orangutans can periodically occupy putative-sink habitats and be virtually absent for extended periods from habitats that are vitally important in sustaining their population, highlighting the need for long-term studies and potential risks in interpreting occurrence or abundance measures as indicators of habitat importance.


Assuntos
Pongo pygmaeus , Pongo , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Ecossistema , Indonésia
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10185, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986319

RESUMO

Pronounced temporal and spatial variation in the availability of food resources can produce energetic deficits in organisms. Fruit-dependent Bornean orangutans face extreme variation in fruit availability and experience negative energy and protein balance during episodes of fruit scarcity. We evaluate the possibility that orangutans of different sexes and ages catabolize muscle tissue when the availability of fruit is low. We assess variation in muscle mass by examining the relationship between urinary creatinine and specific gravity and use the residuals as a non-invasive measure of estimated lean body mass (ELBM). Despite orangutans having a suite of adaptations to buffer them from fruit scarcity and associated caloric deficits, ELBM was lower during low fruit periods in all age-sex classes. As predicted, adult male orangutans had higher ELBM than adult females and immatures. Contrary to expectation, flanged and unflanged males did not differ significantly in ELBM. These findings highlight the precarity of orangutan health in the face of rapid environmental change and add to a growing body of evidence that orangutans are characterized by unique metabolic traits shaped by their unpredictable forest environment.


Assuntos
Creatina/análise , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Pongo pygmaeus/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Creatina/urina , Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Insegurança Alimentar , Florestas , Frutas , Masculino , Metabolismo/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Pongo/fisiologia , Pongo pygmaeus/fisiologia
20.
PLoS Biol ; 19(5): e3001173, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010339

RESUMO

As a part of growing up, immature orangutans must acquire vast repertoires of skills and knowledge, a process that takes several years of observational social learning and subsequent practice. Adult female and male orangutans show behavioral differences including sex-specific foraging patterns and male-biased dispersal. We investigated how these differing life trajectories affect social interest and emerging ecological knowledge in immatures. We analyzed 15 years of detailed observational data on social learning, associations, and diet repertoires of 50 immatures (16 females and 34 males), from 2 orangutan populations. Specific to the feeding context, we found sex differences in the development of social interest: Throughout the dependency period, immature females direct most of their social attention at their mothers, whereas immature males show an increasing attentional preference for individuals other than their mothers. When attending to non-mother individuals, males show a significant bias toward immigrant individuals and a trend for a bias toward adult males. In contrast, females preferentially attend to neighboring residents. Accordingly, by the end of the dependency period, immature females show a larger dietary overlap with their mothers than do immature males. These results suggest that immature orangutans show attentional biases through which they learn from individuals with the most relevant ecological knowledge. Diversifying their skills and knowledge likely helps males when they move to a new area. In sum, our findings underline the importance of fine-grained social inputs for the acquisition of ecological knowledge and skills in orangutans and likely in other apes as well.


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção/fisiologia , Pongo/psicologia , Aprendizado Social/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Conhecimento , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Pongo abelii/psicologia , Pongo pygmaeus/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Social
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