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Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 201(3): 479-488, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37490170


PURPOSE: Sexual health is an important aspect of quality of life. Knowledge concerning sexual health in long-term breast cancer survivors (BCSs) is limited. This study compared sexual health in BCSs 8 years after diagnosis with similarly aged controls and examined the impact of menopausal status at diagnosis and systemic breast cancer treatments on sexual health. METHODS: Women aged 20-65 years when diagnosed with stage I-III breast cancer in 2011-2012 were identified by the Cancer Registry of Norway (n = 2803) and invited to participate in a nationwide survey. Controls were women from the Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT4). Sexual functioning and sexual enjoyment were measured by the EORTC QLQ-BR23 subscales scored from 0 to 100, and sexual discomfort by the Sexual Activity Questionnaire scored from 0 to 6. Linear regression analyses with adjustments for sociodemographic and health-related variables were performed to compare groups. Differences of ≥ 10% of range score were considered clinically significant. RESULTS: The study samples consisted of 1241 BCSs and 17,751 controls. Sexual enjoyment was poorer (B - 13.1, 95%CI - 15.0, - 11.2) and discomfort higher (B 0.9, 95%CI 0.8, 1.0) among BCSs compared to controls, and larger differences were evident between premenopausal BCSs and controls (B - 17.3, 95%CI - 19.6, - 14.9 and B 1.2, 95%CI 1.0, 1.3, respectively). BCSs treated with both endocrine- and chemotherapy had lower sexual functioning (B - 11.9, 95%CI - 13.8, - 10.1), poorer sexual enjoyment (B - 18.1, 95%CI - 20.7, - 15.5), and more sexual discomfort (B 1.4, 95% 1.3, 1.6) than controls. CONCLUSION: Sexual health impairments are more common in BCSs 8 years after diagnosis compared to similar aged population controls. During follow-up, attention to such impairments, especially among women diagnosed at premenopausal age and treated with heavy systemic treatment, is warranted.

Neoplasias da Mama , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Saúde Sexual , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Controle da População , Inquéritos e Questionários
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 3140, 2023 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37280258


Eighty percent of the estimated 600 million domestic cats in the world are free-roaming. These cats typically experience suboptimal welfare and inflict high levels of predation on wildlife. Additionally, euthanasia of healthy animals in overpopulated shelters raises ethical considerations. While surgical sterilization is the mainstay of pet population control, there is a need for efficient, safe, and cost-effective permanent contraception alternatives. Herein, we report evidence that a single intramuscular treatment with an adeno-associated viral vector delivering an anti-Müllerian hormone transgene produces long-term contraception in the domestic cat. Treated females are followed for over two years, during which transgene expression, anti-transgene antibodies, and reproductive hormones are monitored. Mating behavior and reproductive success are measured during two mating studies. Here we show that ectopic expression of anti-Müllerian hormone does not impair sex steroids nor estrous cycling, but prevents breeding-induced ovulation, resulting in safe and durable contraception in the female domestic cat.

Hormônio Antimülleriano , Hormônios Peptídicos , Gatos , Animais , Feminino , Hormônio Antimülleriano/genética , Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepção/veterinária , Esterilização Reprodutiva/métodos , Esterilização Reprodutiva/veterinária , Controle da População/métodos , Animais Selvagens
mSystems ; 8(3): e0128722, 2023 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37195198


Net growth of microbial populations, that is, changes in abundances over time, can be studied using 16S rRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). However, this approach does not differentiate between mortality and cell division rates. We used FISH-based image cytometry in combination with dilution culture experiments to study net growth, cell division, and mortality rates of four bacterial taxa over two distinct phytoplankton blooms: the oligotrophs SAR11 and SAR86, and the copiotrophic phylum Bacteroidetes, and its genus Aurantivirga. Cell volumes, ribosome content, and frequency of dividing cells (FDC) co-varied over time. Among the three, FDC was the most suitable predictor to calculate cell division rates for the selected taxa. The FDC-derived cell division rates for SAR86 of up to 0.8/day and Aurantivirga of up to 1.9/day differed, as expected for oligotrophs and copiotrophs. Surprisingly, SAR11 also reached high cell division rates of up to 1.9/day, even before the onset of phytoplankton blooms. For all four taxonomic groups, the abundance-derived net growth (-0.6 to 0.5/day) was about an order of magnitude lower than the cell division rates. Consequently, mortality rates were comparably high to cell division rates, indicating that about 90% of bacterial production is recycled without apparent time lag within 1 day. Our study shows that determining taxon-specific cell division rates complements omics-based tools and provides unprecedented clues on individual bacterial growth strategies including bottom-up and top-down controls. IMPORTANCE The growth of a microbial population is often calculated from their numerical abundance over time. However, this does not take cell division and mortality rates into account, which are important for deriving ecological processes like bottom-up and top-down control. In this study, we determined growth by numerical abundance and calibrated microscopy-based methods to determine the frequency of dividing cells and subsequently calculate taxon-specific cell division rates in situ. The cell division and mortality rates of two oligotrophic (SAR11 and SAR86) and two copiotrophic (Bacteroidetes and Aurantivirga) taxa during two spring phytoplankton blooms showed a tight coupling for all four taxa throughout the blooms without any temporal offset. Unexpectedly, SAR11 showed high cell division rates days before the bloom while cell abundances remained constant, which is indicative of strong top-down control. Microscopy remains the method of choice to understand ecological processes like top-down and bottom-up control on a cellular level.

Bacteroidetes , Fitoplâncton , Bacteroidetes/genética , Fitoplâncton/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Controle da População , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Bactérias , Divisão Celular
J Feline Med Surg ; 25(5): 1098612X231173791, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37204139
Vaccine ; 41(24): 3647-3654, 2023 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37173265


This qualitative study using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions is the first to investigate HPV vaccination in The Gambia; it provides an in-depth analysis of uptake, knowledge, and perceptions of HPV vaccination as well as trust in Ministry of Health vaccination advice. Despite high uptake rates, knowledge of HPV vaccination was low, and the most prominent concern was that the vaccine could cause infertility or is a form of population control. Holistic approaches to addressing HPV vaccine concerns relating to fertility that consider socio-political contexts, including colonial histories, could lead to more positive vaccine perceptions, empowered decisions and to increasing vaccine uptake rates in The Gambia and elsewhere.

Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Gâmbia , Controle da População , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Vacinação , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/efeitos adversos , Fertilidade
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e244329, 2023.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1422404


Este artigo relaciona o paradigma manicomial, relativo à assistência psiquiátrica, à compreensão e ao manejo do campo da saúde mental, ao paradigma proibicionista, referente ao porte, uso e à circulação de drogas, como duas séries de políticas e práticas sociais que operam a guerra de raças que está na base do Estado brasileiro. Com isso, propomos uma investigação arqueogenealógica acerca do emaranhado de condições de emergência das práticas e objetos de saber-poder mobilizados por esses dois paradigmas, atentando ao caráter político das verdades que as sustentam. Dedicamo-nos especialmente ao período entre o final do século XIX e o começo do XX ao interrogar as dinâmicas de forças que constituem as práticas sociais e seus efeitos de subjetivação, produzidos pela sujeição de corpos por meio de uma diversidade de mecanismos morais, disciplinares, eugênicos, higienistas e biopolíticos que articulam os anseios de modernização e produtividade do Estado brasileiro à gestão dos problemas de saúde e segurança do país, colocando a pobreza, o vício e a doença como desdobramento da sua constituição racial. Concluímos, por fim, que o conflito de raças aparece como fundo intrínseco que se atualiza no cerne e a partir dos campos problemáticos da saúde mental e das drogas, colocando como saída dos impasses sociais e políticos eliminar ou pelo menos diluir, via miscigenação ou submissão para integração, o elemento físico e cultural do negro do Brasil.(AU)

This article puts in relation the asylum paradigm, associated to psychiatric care, to the understanding and management of the mental health field, to the prohibitionist paradigm, that refers to the possession, use and circulation of drugs, as two series of social policies and practices that operate racial war that is in the base of the Brazilian State. So on, we propose an archeogenealogical investigation about the emergency conditions of the practices and objects of knowledge-power organized by these two paradigms, paying attention to the political character of the truths that support them. Looking especially at the period between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, we questioned the dynamics of forces that constitute social practices and their effects of subjectivation, produced by the subjection of bodies through moral, disciplinary, eugenic, hygienist and biopolitics mechanisms that articulate the modernization and productivity aspirations of the Brazilian State to the management of the country's health and safety problems, understanding poverty, addiction and disease as consequences of its racial constitution. We conclude that the conflict of races is an intrinsic background that is updated at the heart of the problematic fields of mental health and drugs. Considering this, the solution for social and political impasses is the elimination or at least dilution, through miscegenation or submission for integration, of the physical and cultural element of black people in Brazil.(AU)

Este artículo relaciona el paradigma asilar de atención psiquiátrica, comprensión y manejo del campo de la salud mental, con el paradigma prohibicionista, referente a al uso y circulación de drogas, como dos series de políticas y prácticas sociales que operan la guerra racial que está en el fundamento del Estado brasileño. Así, proponemos una investigación arqueogenealógica sobre las condiciones de emergencia de prácticas y objetos de saber-poder movilizados por estos dos paradigmas, prestando atención al carácter político de las verdades que los sustentan. Nos dedicamos especialmente al período entre finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX buscando la dinámica de fuerzas que constituyen a las prácticas sociales y sus efectos de subjetivación, producidos por la sujeción de los cuerpos a través de una diversidad de mecanismos morales, disciplinarios, eugenésicos, higienistas y biopolíticos que articulan las aspiraciones de modernización y productividad del Estado brasileño a la gestión de los problemas de salud y seguridad del país, comprendiendo la pobreza, la adicción y la enfermedad como resultado de su constitución racial. Finalmente, concluimos que el conflicto racial aparece como un trasfondo intrínseco que se actualiza en el cerne y desde los campos problemáticos de la salud mental y de las drogas, tomando como soluciones a los impasses sociales y políticos nacionales, la eliminación o al menos la dilución, a través del mestizaje o de la sumisión para fines de integración, del elemento físico y cultural del negro en Brasil.(AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Drogas Ilícitas , Saúde Mental , Saúde Pública , Grupos Raciais , Serviço Hospitalar de Patologia , Fisiologia , Preconceito , Prevenção Primária , Psiquiatria , Psicologia , Psicologia Social , Agitação Psicomotora , Alienação Social , Serviço Social , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Legislação Trabalhista , Negro ou Afro-Americano , Bronquite , Cannabis , Família , Dopamina , Áreas de Pobreza , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Cura em Homeopatia , Controle da População , Direitos Civis , Cocaína , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Vulnerabilidade a Desastres , Cultura , Autonomia Pessoal , Comportamento Perigoso , Agressão , Depressão , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Etanol , Humanização da Assistência , Ética , Fetichismo Psiquiátrico , Racismo , Medicalização , Comportamento Criminoso , Segregação Social , Liberdade , Casas de Trabalho , Mania , Alucinações , Antropologia Cultural
Ecol Appl ; 33(2): e2790, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36482050


Free-roaming cats are a conservation concern in many areas but identifying their impacts and developing mitigation strategies requires a robust understanding of their distribution and density patterns. Urban and residential areas may be especially relevant in this process because free-roaming cats are abundant in these anthropogenic landscapes. Here, we estimate the occupancy and density of free-roaming cats in Washington D.C. and relate these metrics to known landscape and social factors. We conducted an extended camera trap survey of public and private spaces across D.C. and analyzed data collected from 1483 camera deployments from 2018 to 2020. We estimated citywide cat distribution by fitting hierarchical occupancy models and further estimated cat abundance using a novel random thinning spatial capture-recapture model that allows for the use of photos that can and cannot be identified to individual. Within this model, we utilized individual covariates that provided identity exclusions between photos of unidentifiable cats with inconsistent coat patterns, thus increasing the precision of abundance estimates. This combined model also allowed for unbiased estimation of density when animals cannot be identified to individual at the same rate as for free-roaming cats whose identifiability depended on their coat characteristics. Cat occupancy and abundance declined with increasing distance from residential areas, an effect that was more pronounced in wealthier neighborhoods. There was noteworthy absence of cats detected in larger public spaces and forests. Realized densities ranged from 0.02 to 1.75 cats/ha in sampled areas, resulting in a district-wide estimate of ~7296 free-roaming cats. Ninety percent of cat detections lacked collars and nearly 35% of known individuals were ear-tipped, indicative of district Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) programs. These results suggest that we mainly sampled and estimated the unowned cat subpopulation, such that indoor/outdoor housecats were not well represented. The precise estimation of cat population densities is difficult due to the varied behavior of subpopulations within free-roaming cat populations (housecats, stray and feral cats), but our methods provide a first step in establishing citywide baselines to inform data-driven management plans for free-roaming cats in urban environments.

Animais Selvagens , Controle da População , Animais , Gatos , Controle da População/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Densidade Demográfica , Meio Ambiente
J Infect Dis ; 227(9): 1059-1067, 2023 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36477364


BACKGROUND: This prospective study assesses symptoms 3 months after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection compared to test-negative and population controls, and the effect of vaccination prior to infection. METHODS: Participants enrolled after a positive (cases) or negative (test-negative controls) SARS-CoV-2 test, or after invitation from the general population (population controls). After 3 months, participants indicated presence of 41 symptoms and severity of 4 symptoms. Permutation tests were used to select symptoms significantly elevated in cases compared to controls and to compare symptoms between cases that were vaccinated or unvaccinated prior to infection. RESULTS: In total, 9166 cases, 1698 symptomatic but test-negative controls, and 3708 population controls enrolled. At 3 months, 13 symptoms, and severity of fatigue, cognitive impairment, and dyspnea were significantly elevated incases compared to controls. Of cases, 48.5% reported ≥1 significantly elevated symptom compared to 29.8% of test-negative controls and 26.0% of population controls. Effect of vaccination could be determined for cases aged <65 years, and was significantly protective for loss of smell and taste but not for other symptoms. DISCUSSION: Three months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, almost half of cases report symptoms, which was higher than background prevalence and test-negative prevalence. Vaccination prior to infection was protective against loss of smell and taste in cases aged <65 years.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Anosmia , Controle da População , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0266636, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36083890


Changes in free-roaming dog population size are important indicators of the effectiveness of dog population management. Assessing the effectiveness of different management methods also requires estimating the processes that change population size, such as the rates of recruitment into and removal from a population. This is one of the first studies to quantify the size, rates of recruitment and removal, and health and welfare status of free-roaming dog populations in Europe. We determined the size, dynamics, and health status of free-roaming dog populations in Pescara, Italy, and Lviv, Ukraine, over a 15-month study period. Both study populations had ongoing dog population management through catch-neuter-release and sheltering programmes. Average monthly apparent survival probability was 0.93 (95% CI 0.81-1.00) in Pescara and 0.93 (95% CI 0.84-0.99) in Lviv. An average of 7 dogs km-2 were observed in Pescara and 40 dogs km-2 in Lviv. Per capita entry probabilities varied between 0.09 and 0.20 in Pescara, and 0.12 and 0.42 in Lviv. In Lviv, detection probability was lower on weekdays (odds ratio: 0.74, 95% CI 0.53-0.96) and higher on market days (odds ratio: 2.58, 95% CI 1.28-4.14), and apparent survival probability was lower in males (odds ratio: 0.25, 95% CI 0.03-0.59). Few juveniles were observed in the study populations, indicating that recruitment may be occurring by movement between dog subpopulations (e.g. from local owned or neighbouring free-roaming dog populations), with important consequences for population control. This study provides important data for planning effective dog population management and for informing population and infectious disease modelling.

Doenças do Cão , Controle da População , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Europa (Continente) , Itália , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 25(2): e8810, jul-dez. 2022. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1399619


Esse estudo seccional, realizado no período 2014-2015, com aplicação de questionários, teve por objetivo conhecer a percepção sobre vertebrados em condição de sinantropia e a opinião sobre controle populacional para a população do município de Niterói, RJ. Dentre os 474 entrevistados, 76,8% aceitavam o controle populacional para ratos, 63,3% para pombos, 40,5% para cães, 33,8% para gatos, 25,5% para morcegos, 16,5% para serpentes e 14,1% para gambás. As serpentes foram os animais mais associados ao medo (59,1%) e risco de agressão (47,7%), pombos (89,2%) e morcegos ao risco de doenças (57,4%), ratos à nojo/repulsa (56,6%), gambás à natureza (73,8%), cães à companhia (79,8%), e gatos à amizade (57,4%). O estudo demonstrou que as relações dos humanos com os animais podem ser complexas, ambíguas e paradoxais, e fornece dados que poderão ser utilizados para políticas públicas de manejo dessas espécies.(AU)

This study (sectional investigation), in the 2014-2015, using questionnaires, aimed to understand the perception of vertebrates in synanthropic conditions and the opinion about their population control for the population of the municipality the Niterói, RJ. Among the 474 people interviewed, 76.8% accepted population control for rats, 63.3% for pigeons, 40.5% for dogs, 33.8% for cats, 25.5 % for bats, 16.5% for snakes and 14.1% for possums. Snakes were the animals most associated with the representation of fear (59.1%) and risk of aggression (47.7%), pigeons (89.2%) and bats with risk of disease (57.4%), rats with disgust and repulsion (56.6%), possums with nature (73.8%), dogs with company (79.8%), and cats with friendship (57.4%). In addition to demonstrating how complex human relations with animals can be ambiguous and paradoxical, this study provides data that can be used for public policies for the management of these species.(AU)

El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer la percepción de los vertebrados en condiciones de sinantropía y la opinión sobre el control poblacional de la población del municipio de Niterói, RJ. Entre los 474 entrevistados, el 76,8% aceptó el control de la población de ratas, el 63,3% de palomas, el 40,5% de perros, el 33,8% de gatos, el 25,5% de murciélagos, el 16,5% de serpientes y el 14,1% de zarigüeyas. Las serpientes fueron los animales más asociados al miedo (59,1%) y al riesgo de agresión (47,7%), las palomas (89,2%) y los murciélagos al riesgo de enfermedad (57,4%), las ratas al asco/repulsión (56,6%), las zarigüeyas a la naturaleza (73,8%), los perros a la compañía (79,8%) y los gatos a la amistad (57,4%). El estudio demostró que las relaciones de los humanos con los animales pueden ser complejas, ambiguas y paradójicas, y aporta datos que podrían utilizarse para las políticas públicas de gestión de estas especies.(AU)

Animais , Simbiose , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais Selvagens , Bioética , Controle da População/estatística & dados numéricos
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 9(9): 1449-1458, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35993445


OBJECTIVE: To estimate risks for all-cause mortality and for severe COVID-19 in multiple sclerosis patients and across relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients exposed to disease-modifying therapies. METHODS: We conducted a Swedish nationwide population-based multi-register linkage cohort study and followed all multiple sclerosis patients (n = 17,692 in March 2020), individually age-, sex-, and region-matched to five population-based controls (n = 86,176 in March 2020) during March 2020-June 2021. We compared annual all-cause mortality within and across cohorts, and assessed incidence rates and relative risks for hospitalization, intensive care admission, and death due to COVID-19 in relation to disease-modifying therapy use, using Cox regression. RESULTS: Absolute all-cause mortality among multiple sclerosis patients was higher from March to December 2020 than in previous years, but relative risks versus the population-based controls were similar to preceding years. Incidence rates of hospitalization, intensive care admission, and death due to COVID-19 remained in line with those for all-cause hospitalization, intensive care admission, and mortality. Among relapsing-remitting patients on rituximab, trends for differences in risk of hospitalization due to COVID-19 remained in the demographics-, socioeconomic status-, comorbidity-, and multiple sclerosis severity-adjusted model. INTERPRETATION: Risks of severe COVID-19-related outcomes were increased among multiple sclerosis patients as a whole compared to population controls, but risk increases were also seen for non-COVID-19 hospitalization, intensive care admission, and mortality, and did not significantly differ during the pandemic compared to pre-pandemic years. The risk conveyed by disease-modifying therapies was smaller than previously assumed, likely as a consequence of the possibility to better control for confounders.

COVID-19 , Esclerose Múltipla , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Controle da População
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 38(4): 1421-1431, 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35470616


Traditional methods of microbial synthesis usually rely on a single engineered strain to synthesize the target product through metabolic engineering. The key cofactors, precursors and energy are produced by the introduced complex synthetic pathways. This would increase the physiological burden of engineering strains, resulting in a decrease in the yield of target products. The modular co-culture engineering has become an attractive solution for effective heterologous biosynthesis, where product yield can be greatly improved. In the modular co-culture engineering, the coordination between the population of different modules is essential for increasing the production efficiency. This article summarized recent advances in the application of modular co-culture engineering and population control strategies.

Engenharia Metabólica , Controle da População , Técnicas de Cocultura