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1.
Org Lett ; 24(37): 6750-6754, 2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073973

RESUMO

Pyridapeptide A (1), a cyclohexapeptide containing hexahydropyridazine-3-carboxylic acid (HPDA), 5-hydroxytetrahydropyridazine-3-carboxylic acid (γ-OH-TPDA), and (2S,3R,4E,6E)-2-amino-3-hydroxy-8-methylnona-4,6-dienoic acid residues, and its four glycopeptides, pyridapeptides B-E (2-5, respectively), were isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine sponge-derived Streptomyces sp. OUCMDZ-4539. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. Pyridapeptides B-E have one or more 2,3,6-trideoxyhexose sugar units glycosylated at the γ-OH-TPDA residue. The biosynthetic pathways were proposed on the basis of gene cluster analysis. Compounds 4 and 5, containing four sugar groups, displayed significant antiproliferative activity against five human cancer cell lines (PC9, MKN45, HepG2, HCT-116, and K562).


Assuntos
Poríferos , Streptomyces , Animais , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Glicopeptídeos , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Streptomyces/química , Açúcares
2.
Mar Drugs ; 20(9)2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36135743

RESUMO

Many targeted natural product isolation approaches rely on the use of pre-existing bioactivity information to inform the strategy used for the isolation of new bioactive compounds. Bioactivity information can be available either in the form of prior assay data or via Structure Activity Relationship (SAR) information which can indicate a potential chemotype that exhibits a desired bioactivity. The work described herein utilizes a unique method of targeted isolation using structure-based virtual screening to identify potential antibacterial compounds active against MRSA within the marine sponge order Verongiida. This is coupled with molecular networking-guided, targeted isolation to provide a novel drug discovery procedure. A total of 12 previously reported bromotyrosine-derived alkaloids were isolated from the marine sponge species Pseudoceratina durissima, and the compound, (+)-aeroplysinin-1 (1) displayed activity against the MRSA pathogen (MIC: <32 µg/mL). The compounds (1-3, 6 and 9) were assessed for their central nervous system (CNS) interaction and behavioral toxicity to zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae, whereby several of the compounds were shown to induce significant hyperactivity. Anthelmintic activity against the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contorutus was also evaluated (2-4, 6-8).


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Anti-Helmínticos , Produtos Biológicos , Poríferos , Alcaloides/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Poríferos/química , Peixe-Zebra
3.
Mar Drugs ; 20(9)2022 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36135771

RESUMO

Ilimaquinone (IQ), a metabolite found in marine sponges, has been reported to have a number of biological properties, including potential anticancer activity against colon cancer. However, no clear understanding of the precise mechanism involved is known. The aim of this study was to examine the molecular mechanism by which IQ acts on HCT-116 cells. The anticancer activity of IQ was investigated by means of a cell viability assay followed by the determination of induction of apoptosis by means of the use of acridine orange-ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining, Annexin V/PI double staining, DNA fragmentation assays, and TUNEL assays. The mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was detected using the JC-1 staining technique, and the apoptosis-associated proteins were analyzed using real-time qRT-PCR. A molecular docking study of IQ with apoptosis-associated proteins was also conducted in order to assess the interaction between IQ and them. Our results suggest that IQ significantly suppressed the viability of HCT-116 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Fluorescent microscopy, flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation and the TUNEL assay in treated cells demonstrated apoptotic death mode. As an additional confirmation of apoptosis, the increased level of caspase-3 and caspase-9 expression and the downregulation of Bcl-2 and mitochondrial dysfunction were observed in HCT-116 cells after treatment with IQ, which was accompanied by a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). Overall, the results of our studies demonstrate that IQ could trigger mitochondria-mediated apoptosis as demonstrated by a decrease in ΔΨm, activation of caspase-9/-3, damage of DNA and a decrease in the proportion of Bcl-2 through the mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis pathway.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Poríferos , Laranja de Acridina , Animais , Anexina A5/metabolismo , Apoptose , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , DNA/metabolismo , Etídio , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Poríferos/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Quinonas , Sesquiterpenos
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142592

RESUMO

Metabolomics represent the set of small organic molecules generally called metabolites, which are located within cells, tissues or organisms. This new "omic" technology, together with other similar technologies (genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics) is becoming a widely used tool in cancer research, aiming at the understanding of global biology systems in their physiologic or altered conditions. Cancer is among the most alarming human diseases and it causes a considerable number of deaths each year. Cancer research is one of the most important fields in life sciences. In fact, several scientific advances have been made in recent years, aiming to illuminate the metabolism of cancer cells, which is different from that of healthy cells, as suggested by Otto Warburg in the 1950s. Studies on sponges and algae revealed that these organisms are the main sources of the marine bioactive compounds involved in drug discovery for cancer treatment and prevention. In this review, we analyzed these two promising groups of marine organisms to focus on new metabolomics approaches for the study of metabolic changes in cancer cell lines treated with chemical extracts from sponges and algae, and for the classification of the chemical structures of bioactive compounds that may potentially prove useful for specific biotechnological applications.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Poríferos , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Biotecnologia , Humanos , Metaboloma , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais , Poríferos/química
5.
Zootaxa ; 5162(1): 87-96, 2022 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095521

RESUMO

We describe a new deep-sea sponge species, Fibulia occiensis sp. nov., from the Central Indian Ocean Ridge (CIOR) at Rodrigues Triple Junction (RTJ), of the family Dendoricellidae Hentschel, 1923. Two sponge specimens were collected between 19822079 m depth using a benthic sledge in the 25 South Oceanic Core Complex (OCC) region. The megabenthic fauna was collected to establish a baseline of environmental and benthic ecological data. This data will be handy in assessing the impact of sulfide mining in the near future. Fibulia occiensis sp. nov. is fragile and stalked, has a single type of oxea, and no sigma. The new species is different from the congeneric Fibulia species by its larger oxeas and the strongly curved isochelae.


Assuntos
Poríferos , Animais , Oceano Índico , Poríferos/classificação
6.
7.
Zootaxa ; 5165(2): 217-240, 2022 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095471

RESUMO

Despite its 2000 km long shoreline, to date less than 50 sponge species have been reported from the entire Peruvian coast. A large collecting effort targeting marine sponges was undertaken between 2007 and 2009, yielding a comprehensive collection of nearly 900 samples, whose taxonomic study is underway. Three new species of Hymedesmiidae are presently described from the Peruvian coast, all belonging in Hymedesmia (Hymedesmia), one of which also found in Chile. Hymedesmia (H.) santarositae sp. nov., from Isla Santa Rosa (Paracas), is characterized by the presence of microstrongyles next to sigmas. Hymedesmia (H.) peruana sp. nov., from Isla Foca (Piura), is diagnosed by its three categories of acanthostyles, and single categories of tornotes and arcuate isochelae. Hymedesmia (H.) humboldti sp. nov., from Moquega and Arequipa regions in Peru, and Antofagasta and Atacama regions in Chile, is diagnosed by its two categories of acanthostyles, and single categories of (aniso)strongyles and arcuate isochelae, the latter abundant at the surface. An identification key for Hymedesmia spp. from the South-eastern Pacific, South-western Atlantic, the Sub-Antarctic and the Antarctic is provided.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Poríferos , Animais , Chile , Ecossistema , Peru
8.
Zootaxa ; 5162(5): 451-486, 2022 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095494

RESUMO

Deep-sea sponges are an imperative component of benthos. They accumulate the suspended organic matter by filtering large quantities of water and, with their intricate structures, provide the most suitable habitats for various associated organisms. We describe three new cadorhizid sponges from the Central Indian Ridge (CIR), Indian Ocean. The sponges are part of the benthic sledge collection conducted onboard the MGS Sagar in the CIR region. A detailed taxonomic description of two novel species, Asbestopluma (Asbestopluma) indiyansis sp. nov., and Asbestopluma (A.) bharatiyae sp. nov. are provided based on the morphological and molecular (mtCOI and 28S) markers. In addition, another new carnivorous species Chondrocladia sagari sp. nov. is described based on the morphological and mtCOI marker. The systematic and descriptions of new species are discussed based on the structural and phylogenetic analysis. Our study shows that the cladorhizid fauna of the seamounts from the CIR are unique and represent regionally endemic benthic habitats.


Assuntos
Carnívoros , Poríferos , Animais , Carnivoridade , Ecossistema , Filogenia
9.
Zootaxa ; 5154(5): 528-536, 2022 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095604

RESUMO

A new species of the genus Liropus Mayer, 1920 (Amphipoda, Caprellidae) is described from the Mexican Tropical Pacific coast. Liropus alarconi n. sp. is described on the basis of four specimens collected in association with the tropical marine sponge Trikentrion helium Dickinson, 1945, near to coralline patches, between 2330 m depth. Liropus alarconi n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners for the following characters: pereonites 25 each with one dorsodistal projection and pereonite 3 with a mediolateral projection.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Poríferos , Animais , México
10.
Zootaxa ; 5154(2): 198-210, 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095628

RESUMO

A new cladoceran of the faviformis-group of the genus Chydorus Leach, 1816 (Cladocera: Chydoridae), characterized by a honeycomb-like sculpture of valves and head shield, is described from tundra lakes and ponds in North-East Russia. Morphology of the new species was studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Chydorus izvekovae sp. nov. differs from all other species of the faviformis-group in a narrow labral keel with elongated apex, and in a greater number of meshes on the valves and head shield. Other species of the faviformis-group in the Western Hemisphere are distributed in the tropical-subtropical zone, they also inhabit mostly shallow waters with well-developed macrophyte zone.


Assuntos
Cladóceros , Poríferos , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Tamanho do Órgão , Federação Russa , Tundra
11.
Zootaxa ; 5178(1): 72-80, 2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095742

RESUMO

Recent collections from the western and southern coasts of India recorded two species of Stylissa Hallmann (Scopalinida, Scopalinidae). Stylissa soestii sp. nov. was collected from St. George Island in Goa, Hare Island in the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Bay. It has six distinct different morphologies and sizes of styles, in addition to the typical gently curved stout and thin styles characteristic of Stylissa, and two different morphologies of strongyloxeas and rare strongyles. Stylissa carteri (Dendy, 1889) was reported previously from India (Gulf of Mannar and Pearl Banks of Tuticorin) and is redescribed here from populations in Palk Bay, east coast of India, in addition to Muttom, Vizhinjam and Lakshadweep islands, which are the first records of S. carteri from the west coast of India.


Assuntos
Poríferos , Animais , Índia
12.
Molecules ; 27(18)2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36144705

RESUMO

Marine sponges continue to attract remarkable attention as one of the richest pools of bioactive metabolites in the marine environment. The genus Smenospongia (order Dictyoceratida, family Thorectidae) sponges can produce diverse classes of metabolites with unique and unusual chemical skeletons, including terpenoids (sesqui-, di-, and sesterterpenoids), indole alkaloids, aplysinopsins, bisspiroimidazolidinones, chromenes, γ-pyrones, phenyl alkenes, naphthoquinones, and polyketides that possessed diversified bioactivities. This review provided an overview of the reported metabolites from Smenospongia sponges, including their biosynthesis, synthesis, and bioactivities in the period from 1980 to June 2022. The structural characteristics and diverse bioactivities of these metabolites could attract a great deal of attention from natural-product chemists and pharmaceuticals seeking to develop these metabolites into medicine for the treatment and prevention of certain health concerns.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Naftoquinonas , Policetídeos , Poríferos , Alcenos/metabolismo , Animais , Benzopiranos/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/química , Alcaloides Indólicos/química , Naftoquinonas/metabolismo , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Policetídeos/metabolismo , Poríferos/química , Pironas/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Terpenos/farmacologia
13.
J Nat Prod ; 85(9): 2226-2231, 2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36047675

RESUMO

Zamamiphidins B (1) and C (2), two new manzamine-related alkaloids with an unprecedented fused diazahexacyclic ring system, were isolated from an Amphimedon sp. marine sponge collected in Okinawa. The structures of zamamiphidins B (1) and C (2) including the relative configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Poríferos , Alcaloides/química , Animais , Estrutura Molecular , Poríferos/química
14.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5160, 2022 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056000

RESUMO

In the deep ocean symbioses between microbes and invertebrates are emerging as key drivers of ecosystem health and services. We present a large-scale analysis of microbial diversity in deep-sea sponges (Porifera) from scales of sponge individuals to ocean basins, covering 52 locations, 1077 host individuals translating into 169 sponge species (including understudied glass sponges), and 469 reference samples, collected anew during 21 ship-based expeditions. We demonstrate the impacts of the sponge microbial abundance status, geographic distance, sponge phylogeny, and the physical-biogeochemical environment as drivers of microbiome composition, in descending order of relevance. Our study further discloses that fundamental concepts of sponge microbiology apply robustly to sponges from the deep-sea across distances of >10,000 km. Deep-sea sponge microbiomes are less complex, yet more heterogeneous, than their shallow-water counterparts. Our analysis underscores the uniqueness of each deep-sea sponge ground based on which we provide critical knowledge for conservation of these vulnerable ecosystems.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Poríferos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Filogenia , Simbiose
15.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 23(9): 2921-2928, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36172653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this work, we represented new non-cytotoxic treatments to avoid serious side effects of current used cytotoxic anticancer drugs. These treatments can compensate in finding convenient treatment for each individual case using a single agent from marine sponge Hemimycale arabica. METHODS: The ethanol extract was partitioned by cold sequential liquid-liquid extraction to afford petroleum ether, diethyl ether, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions. Chemical composition of H. arabica was performed by gas-liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Anticancer activity was evaluated by means of cytotoxicity, apoptosis induction, tumor cell migration inhibition and expression analysis of proliferation and migration-related genes. RESULTS: Our results revealed that all treatments were non-cytotoxic except for dichloromethane fraction which exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity. Caspase-independent apoptosis was induced by total ethanol and dichloromethane fractions while ethyl acetate fraction induces caspase-dependent apoptosis. All treatments inhibited matrix metalloproteinase-independent migration. Petroleum ether and dichloromethane inhibited migration through the down-regulation of FGF and it could be used as anticancer therapy for VEGF-resistance patients. While ethanol inhibited tumor cell migration through down-regulation of all tested genes expression. Ether and ethyl acetate fractions exerted anti-migratory activity without affecting the tested genes. All resuls were statistically significant at p˂0.05. CONCLUSION: Total ethanol extract is a promising non-cytotoxic anticancer agent because of its powerful apoptosis induction and capability to block tumor cell migration. Petroleum ether and ether fractions area weak non-cytotoxic anti-migratory agents. Dichloromethane could be a moderate cytotoxic anti-migratory agent induced caspase-independent apoptosis. It could be used in anticancer therapy for VEGF-resistance patients through downregulation of FGF. Ethyl acetate fraction considered a non-cytotoxic agent exerting moderate anti-migratory activity. The new sponge-derived treatments can solve different resistance problems to find a convenient treatment for each individual case using a single agent.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Poríferos , Acetatos , Alcanos , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Caspases , Etanol/química , Éter , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Cloreto de Metileno , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Solventes/química , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
16.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 618, 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36008774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vagococcus fluvialis is a species of lactic acid bacteria found both free-living in river and seawater and associated to hosts, such as marine sponges. This species has been greatly understudied, with no complete genome assembly available to date, which is essential for the characterisation of the mobilome. RESULTS: We sequenced and assembled de novo the complete genome sequences of five V. fluvialis isolates recovered from marine sponges. Pangenome analysis of the V. fluvialis species (total of 17 genomes) showed a high intraspecific diversity, with 45.5% of orthologous genes found to be strain specific. Despite this diversity, analyses of gene functions clustered all V. fluvialis species together and separated them from other sequenced Vagococcus species. V. fluvialis strains from different habitats were highly similar in terms of functional diversity but the sponge-isolated strains were enriched in several functions related to the marine environment. Furthermore, sponge-isolated strains carried a significantly higher number of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) compared to previously sequenced V. fluvialis strains from other environments. Sponge-isolated strains carried up to 4 circular plasmids each, including a 48-kb conjugative plasmid. Three of the five strains carried an additional circular extrachromosomal sequence, assumed to be an excised prophage as it contained mainly viral genes and lacked plasmid replication genes. Insertion sequences (ISs) were up to five times more abundant in the genomes of sponge-isolated strains compared to the others, including several IS families found exclusively in these genomes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the dynamics and plasticity of the V. fluvialis genome. The abundance of mobile genetic elements in the genomes of sponge-isolated V. fluvialis strains suggests that the mobilome might be key to understanding the genomic signatures of symbiosis in bacteria.


Assuntos
Poríferos , Animais , Enterococcaceae/genética , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas/genética , Filogenia , Poríferos/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 182: 114025, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35963229

RESUMO

To evaluate the prospects of using Baikal endemic sponges as bioindicators of chemical elements pollution, the elemental composition of sponges, water and substrate samples, collected in two areas with different levels of anthropogenic loading of the Baikal Lake, was determined using two analytical techniques. The content of Cl, Ca, V, Zn, As, Se, Ba, Cd, and Cu in the sponges collected in Listvennichny Bay was significantly higher than in Bolshye Koty Bay. The values of the pollution indices point at the slight to moderate pollution of the substrates. According to the bioaccumulation factor values, sponges accumulate mainly Cd, Cu and Br from the substrate, and the main part of the elements from water. The distribution of elements longwise the sponges and their intraspecific variation were evaluated. It was shown that Lubomirskia baikalensis sponges were suitable bioindicators to assess the pollution of Lake Baikal.


Assuntos
Poríferos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Cádmio , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Lagos , Água
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13570, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945234

RESUMO

Spongian diterpenes are a group of marine natural compounds possessing various biological activities. However, their anticancer activity is still poorly studied and understood. We isolated six spongian diterpenes from the marine sponge Spongionella sp., including one new spongionellol A and five previously known molecules. The structures were elucidated using a detailed analysis MS and NMR spectra as well as by comparison with previously reported data. Two of them, namely, spongionellol A and 15,16-dideoxy-15α,17ß-dihydroxy-15,17-oxidospongian-16-carboxylate-15,17-diacetate exhibited high activity and selectivity in human prostate cancer cells, including cells resistant to hormonal therapy and docetaxel. The mechanism of action has been identified as caspase-dependent apoptosis. Remarkably, both compounds were able to suppress expression of androgen receptor (AR) and AR-splice variant 7, as well as AR-dependent signaling. The isolated diterpenes effectively inhibited drug efflux mediated by multidrug-resistance protein 1 (MDR1; p-glycoprotein). Of note, a synergistic effect of the compounds with docetaxel, a substrate of p-glycoprotein, suggests resensitization of p-glycoprotein overexpressing cells to standard chemotherapy. In conclusion, the isolated spongian diterpenes possess high activity and selectivity towards prostate cancer cells combined with the ability to inhibit one of the main drug-resistance mechanism. This makes them promising candidates for combinational anticancer therapy.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Poríferos , Neoplasias da Próstata , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Diterpenos/química , Docetaxel/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estrutura Molecular , Poríferos/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Mar Drugs ; 20(8)2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36005501

RESUMO

Three new 5,5,6,6,5-pentacyclic spongian diterpenes, spongenolactones A-C (1-3), were isolated from a Red Sea sponge Spongia sp. The structures of the new metabolites were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and the absolute configurations of 1-3 were determined on the basis of comparison of the experimental circular dichroism (CD) and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Compounds 1-3 are the first 5,5,6,6,5-pentacyclic spongian diterpenes bearing an ß-hydroxy group at C-1. These metabolites were assayed for their cytotoxic, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. All three compounds were found to exert inhibitory activity against superoxide anion generation in fMLF/CB-stimulated human neutrophils. Furthermore, 1 showed a higher activity against the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in comparison to 2.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Poríferos , Animais , Diterpenos/química , Humanos , Oceano Índico , Estrutura Molecular , Staphylococcus aureus
20.
Mar Drugs ; 20(8)2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36005535

RESUMO

Two new ircinianin-type sesterterpenoids, ircinianin lactone B and ircinianin lactone C (7 and 8), together with five known entities from the ircinianin compound family (1, 3-6) were isolated from the marine sponge Ircinia wistarii. Ircinianin lactones B and C (7 and 8) represent new ircinianin terpenoids with a modified oxidation pattern. Despite their labile nature, the structures could be established using a combination of spectroscopic data, including HRESIMS and 1D/2D NMR techniques, as well as computational chemistry and quantum-mechanical calculations. In a broad screening approach for biological activity, the class-defining compound ircinianin (1) showed moderate antiprotozoal activity against Plasmodium falciparum (IC50 25.4 µM) and Leishmania donovani (IC50 16.6 µM).


Assuntos
Poríferos , Sesterterpenos , Animais , Lactonas/química , Lactonas/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Poríferos/química , Sesterterpenos/química , Sesterterpenos/farmacologia , Terpenos/farmacologia
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