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1.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 2): 942-953, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571315

RESUMO

A hollow core-shell potassium phosphomolybdate (KMoP)@cadmium sulfide (CdS)@bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3) Z-scheme tandem heterojunction is fabricated by a simple hydrothermal strategy and kept in a water bath to continue the reaction. At the same time, the ternary structure combined Keggin-type polyoxometalate with two photosensitive sulfide semiconductors to form a stable hollow core-shell heterojunction. KMoP@CdS@Bi2S3 with a narrow band gap of âˆ¼ 1.2 eV also has excellent photothermal performance, which may further promote photocatalytic efficiency. The hollow core-shell KMoP@CdS@Bi2S3 tandem heterojunction shows excellent H2 production performance, CrVI reduction ability and photocatalytic degradation performance of highly toxic tetracycline (TC). Under visible light irradiation, the photocatalytic H2 generation rate of the KMoP@CdS@Bi2S3 tandem heterojunction reaches 831 µmol h-1, which is 103 times higher than that of pristine KMoP. The photocatalytic reduction efficiency of CrVI and degradation efficiency of TC are as high as 95.5 and 97.51%, ∼4 times higher than that of KMoP. The boosted photocatalytic performance can be ascribed to the formation of core-shell Z-scheme tandem heterojunctions favoring spatial charge separation and the narrow band gap, which extends the photoresponse to visible light/NIR regions. When TC and CrVI exist at the same time, the reduction efficiency of CrVI can be as high as 99.64% because the intermediate of TC degradation can promote the reduction of CrVI. In addition, the photocatalytic performance of the KMoP@CdS@Bi2S3 heterojunction remains nearly constant after 4 recycles, which indicates high stability. The design strategy may provide new insights for preparing other high-performance core-shell tandem heterojunction photocatalysts for solar energy conversion.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Potássio , Bismuto , Compostos de Cádmio , Catálise , Molibdênio , Ácidos Fosfóricos , Sulfetos
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 259-267, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Damage from cracking, russeting, and sunscalds causes significant yield losses in pomegranate worldwide and may result from stressful environmental conditions. Although foliar sprays with minerals or growth regulators could be an important orchard management, little is known on the effectiveness of glycine betaine, silicon (Si)-based fertilizers or the response of cv. Wonderful to gibberellin A3 (GA3 ). RESULTS: During a 2-year study, foliar spraying with GA3 at 75 or 150 mg L-1 applied in July substantially reduced cracking, russeting, and sunscald symptoms and increased fruit size, yield, and 100-aril weight, without affecting the % edible portion or % juice, suggesting that arils and skin increased similarly. Nevertheless, they reduced the skin red coloration, especially at the higher dose. GA3 at 75 mg L-1 applied in September resulted in a low number of harvested fruit as a result of delayed maturation. Spraying with glycine betaine at seven repeated times at biweekly intervals starting in July, reduced sunscald symptoms, red coloration, and maturity index only in the year with high damage. Foliar sprays with calcium chloride or Si-based fertilizer containing potassium, applied as in the glycine betaine treatment, did not affect the occurrence of physiological disorders, whereas Si-based fertilizer containing potassium and calcium increased cracking and decreased sunscald only in the year with high damage. CONCLUSION: Spraying with GA3 at 75 mg L-1 in July could have a significant impact on a grower's income by reducing damage from physiological disorders, improving yield with a minimum decrease in red skin coloration. The efficacy of nutrient-related fertilizers and glycine betaine were not constant, and this would be useful to evaluate at earlier application times and under stress conditions. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Betaína/farmacologia , Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , Fertilizantes/análise , Frutas/química , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Romã (Fruta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Potássio/farmacologia , Silício/farmacologia , Betaína/metabolismo , Cloreto de Cálcio/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Romã (Fruta)/química , Romã (Fruta)/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo
3.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(11): 1299-1304, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749472

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the level of sodium and potassium intake and their association with blood pressure among people aged 18 to 75 years old in six provinces. Methods: From October to December 2018, participants aged 18 to 75 years were selected from Hebei, Hunan, Sichuan, Jiangxi, Qinghai and Heilongjiang provinces by using cluster random sampling method. Demographic characteristics and lifestyle information were collected by using questionnaire survey. Physical measurement and 24-hour urine collection were also conducted. Results: A total of 2 636 subjects were finally included in the analysis. The average urine sodium, potassium and sodium-to-potassium molar ratio were(4 438.4±1 822.8)mg/d, (1 566.2±646.3)mg/d, and 5.2±2.2, respectively. According to World Health Organization standards, 94.5% and 98.7% of the respondents had excessive sodium intake and insufficient potassium intake. After adjusting for related factors, each 1 000 mg increase in sodium excretion was associated with increased systolic blood pressure (1.65 mmHg, 95%CI: 1.07, 2.22) and diastolic blood pressure (0.53 mmHg, 95%CI: 0.21, 0.84), and each 1 000 mg increase in potassium excretion was associated with decreased systolic blood pressure (3.02 mmHg, 95%CI:-4.25, -1.80) and diastolic blood pressure (1.27 mmHg, 95%CI:-2.05, -0.48). Conclusion: The sodium intake in Chinese population remains excessive and potassium intake is insufficient. Sodium and potassium could be associated with blood pressure and the intervention of reducing sodium and supplementing potassium should be conducted in the corresponding population.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Sódio na Dieta , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , China , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio , Sódio , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12288, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731526

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Excess salt intake is a major risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Modifying workplace environments has been recognized to be important for reducing salt intake. However, studies examining the effects of improving the workplace environment regarding salt reduction are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of workplace dietary intervention on employees' salt intake and sodium-to-potassium (Na/K) ratio. METHODS: A quasi-experimental study was conducted. Two small business establishments in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, were allocated as the intervention (n = 69) and comparison (n = 68) workplaces, respectively. The 1-year intervention involving healthy lunch and nutrition education was implemented in the intervention workplace. Spot urine samples, physical assessments, and self-administered questionnaire data were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 1 year after the start of the intervention. Analysis of covariance was conducted to investigate differences in the salt intake or Na/K ratio between the study workplaces at year 1. Educational status and rotating work schedules were included as covariates. RESULTS: Salt intake in the intervention workplace decreased significantly from 10.7 to 9.3 g (-1.4 g change; 95% confidence interval [CI]: "-2.4, -0.5"). The adjusted difference in changes in salt intake between workplaces was statistically significant (-3.7 g change; 95% CI: "-5.2, -2.3"). Although no significant change was observed in the Na/K ratio in the intervention workplace (3.37-3.08; -0.29 change; 95% CI: "-0.59, 0.01"), the adjusted difference in changes between the workplaces was statistically significant (-0.60 change; 95% CI: "-1.03, -0.17"). CONCLUSIONS: Providing healthy lunch and nutrition education may be effective approaches to reduce employees' salt intake and Na/K ratio.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Promoção da Saúde , Potássio/sangue , Potássio/urina , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/urina , Local de Trabalho , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
5.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(42): 3443-3446, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775700

RESUMO

Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte disorder in patients with chronic kidney disease, and can be life-threatening in severe cases. It is an emergency that every clinician should recognize and master. This paper briefly describes the risk of hyperkalemia in order to pay more attention to hyperkalemia, summarizes the strategies for the treatment of hyperkalemia and reviews different treatment methods, so as to provide ideas for the treatment of hyperkalemia and improve the prognosis of patients.


Assuntos
Hiperpotassemia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/etiologia , Hiperpotassemia/prevenção & controle , Potássio , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações
6.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(42): 3447-3450, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775701

RESUMO

Hyperkalemia, one of the common complications of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), contributes an crucial risk factor affecting the prognosis of patients. The prevention and treatment of hyperkalemia has long been a clinically important topic. This article reviews the diagnosis, treatment and management of CKD combined with hyperkalemia in order to standardize its clinical diagnosis and treatment, achieve early detection, early diagnosis and early treatment, and thus improve the prognosis of patients.


Assuntos
Hiperpotassemia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Potássio , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Fatores de Risco
7.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(42): 3459-3465, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775702

RESUMO

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of hyperkalemia and hypokalemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), analyze the influencing factors and explore the impact on disease prognosis. Methods: A total of 3 190 patients with CKD stage 1-4 from 39 tertiary clinical centers in China between November 2011 and December 2016 were recruited. The baseline characteristics of the patients were collected through face-to-face questionnaire investigation, physical examination and laboratory test. Meanwhile, the data of patient's end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular disease events and deaths were obtained up to December 2017 through active monitoring. The patients were categorized into three groups based on their baseline level of serum potassium (hypokalemia:<3.5 mmol/L, normal range: 3.5-<5.0 mmol/L, hyperkalemia: ≥5 mmol/L). Multi-nominal logistic regression was employed to evaluate the association between clinical characteristics and the presence of hyperkalemia or hypokalemia. The competing risk-based subdistribution Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the association between baseline level of serum potassium and various outcomes. Results: The mean age of the patients was (50±14) years, with a male rate of 57.6% (1 839/3 190) and a majority of glomerulonephritis (59.7%, 1 668/2 792). Patients with CKD stage 3-4 accounted for 70.8% (2 260/3 190), and the mean level of serum potassium was (4.4±0.7) mmol/L. The prevalence of hypokalemia and hyperkalemia was 3.7% (n=118) and 17.6% (n=561), respectively. In the multivariable adjusted analysis, presence of history of cardiovascular disease (OR=0.33, 95%CI: 0.13-0.83, P=0.019) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (OR=0.95, 95%CI: 0.91-0.98, P=0.001) were inversely associated with hypokalemia, while use of thiazide or loop diuretic (OR=2.06, 95%CI: 1.51-2.81, P<0.001) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (OR=1.13, 95%CI: 1.12-1.16, P<0.001) were positively associated with hyperkalemia. After adjusting for relevant cardiovascular and renal risk factors, the result only showed a significant association between hypokalemia and risk of all-cause mortality (HR=2.12, 95%CI: 1.06-4.24, P=0.034). Conclusions: Hypokalemia and hyperkalemia were not rare in patients with CKD in China, with the latter more prevalent. Hypokalemia was independently associated with the risk of death.


Assuntos
Hiperpotassemia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia
8.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(42): 3472-3477, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775704

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of hyperkalemia in hospitalized patients, and analyze the effects of different serum potassium levels and change rates of serum potassium on the mortality of hospitalized patients. Methods: The clinical data of 944 446 hospitalized patients in Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital from January 2009 to December 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Hyperkalemia is defined as serum potassium ≥ 5.5 mmol/L. The effects of serum potassium level and its change rate on hospitalized mortality were analyzed. Results: There were 15 771 patients with hyperkalemia, and the prevalence of hyperkalemia was 1.7% (15 771/944 446). However, the discharge diagnosis rate was only 11.0% (1 735/15 771), and the missed diagnosis rate was 89.0% (14 036/15 771). Cox regression analysis showed that serum potassium<3.5 mmol/L (HR=1.338, 95%CI: 1.164-1.537, P<0.001) or ≥ 6.5 mmol/L (HR=1.421, 95%CI: 1.158-1.744, P=0.001) increased the risk of hospitalized mortality compared with patients with normal serum potassium. Compared with the increased rate of serum potassium by 0.01-0.10 mmol/d, patients who reached the peak of serum potassium at admission (HR=1.251, 95%CI: 1.077-1.453, P=0.003), increased rate of serum potassium by 0.11-0.51 mmol/d (HR=1.499, 95%CI: 1.315-1.709, P<0.001) or >0.51 mmol/d (HR=2.431, 95%CI: 2.105-2.807, P<0.001) increased the risk of mortality. Of patients with hyperkalemia, those who did not repeat the serum potassium test had a higher risk of mortality (HR=1.656, 95%CI: 1.434-1.914, P<0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of hyperkalemia in hospitalized patients was 1.7%, and the missed diagnosis rate was high at discharge. Patients who had hypokalemia at admission, severe hyperkalemia, rapid increased serum potassium, or failed to repeat serum potassium test during hospitalization, had higher risk of mortality.


Assuntos
Hiperpotassemia , Hipopotassemia , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/epidemiologia , Potássio , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(42): 3478-3483, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775705

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the prevalence and related factors of hyperkalemia in patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Methods: DKD patients from the Department of Nephrology of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2012 to December 2020 were selected, and the clinical data of the patients were retrospectively collected. The prevalence of hyperkalemia in DKD patients and the prevalence of hyperkalemia in patients with different age, gender and different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) were studied, and the related factors of hyperkalemia were further explored. Results: A total of 1 721 patients with DKD were included, with 1 117 males (64.9%) [mean age: (56±12) years] and 604 females (35.1%) [mean age: (59±12) years]. The blood potassium level of the study population was (4.93±0.77) mmol/L, in which the serum potassium level of male and female was (4.92±0.77) mmol/L and (4.93±0.76) mmol/L, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.752). Further grouping by CKD stage, the serum potassium levels of CKD stage 1-5 patients were (4.58±0.52), (4.65±0.47), (4.86±0.59), (5.21±0.79) and (5.61±0.88) mmol/L, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (F=170.701, P<0.001). The prevalence of hyperkalemia was 37.0% (636/1 721). The prevalence of mild, moderate and severe hyperkalemia was 17.4%, 10.5% and 9.1%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of hyperkalemia between men and women (36.8% vs 37.3%, χ²=0.035, P=0.851). The prevalence of hyperkalemia in CKD stage 1-5 patients was 16.3%, 21.2%, 37.6%, 55.2%, 72.5%, respectively, which increased with the severity of CKD (χ²=365.721, P<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression showed that estimated glomerular filtration rate (OR=0.975, 95%CI: 0.972-0.979), diastolic blood pressure (OR=0.985, 95%CI: 0.975-0.994) and serum sodium concentration (OR=0.972, 95%CI: 0.945-1.000) were the influencing factors of hyperkalemia in DKD patients. Conclusions: The prevalence of hyperkalemia in DKD patients was 37.0%. Glomerular filtration rate, diastolic blood pressure and serum sodium concentration were the influencing factors. The serum potassium level and the prevalence of hyperkalemia increased with the deterioration of renal function.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Hiperpotassemia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio , Prevalência , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(42): 3484-3489, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775706

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of hyperkalemia and recurrent hyperkalemia in maintenance hemodialysis patients, and identify the related factors. Methods: The general information and clinical data of maintenance hemodialysis patients in the hemodialysis center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from January to December 2020 were collected. According to the level of serum potassium, the patients were divided into normokalemia group and hyperkalemia group. Patients in the hyperkalemia group were further divided into single hyperkalemia group and recurrent hyperkalemia group according to the number of occurrences of hyperkalemia. Then, the prevalence of different serum potassium abnormalities and the related factors were explored. Results: Among the 352 patients included in the final analysis, 129 cases (36.6%) were in the normokalemia group [mean age: (62±15) years, 99 males] and 223 cases (63.4%) were in the hyperkalemia group [mean age: (60±14) years, 153 males]. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that, compared with the normokalemia group, night-time dialysis (OR=4.012, 95%CI: 1.519-10.601, P=0.005), concurrent diabetes (OR=1.947, 95%CI: 1.148-3.304, P=0.013) and the number of serum potassium tested before hemodialysis (OR=1.561, 95%CI:1.292-1.885, P<0.001) were independent risk factors for hyperkalemia. Among 223 patients with hyperkalemia, 78 cases (35.0%) were in single hyperkalemia group and 145 cases (65.0%) were in recurrent hyperkalemia group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that, serum calcium (OR=21.885, 95%CI: 3.740-128.077, P=0.001), peak value of serum potassium before hemodialysis (OR=63.157, 95%CI: 25.265-157.876, P<0.001) and the number of serum potassium tested before hemodialysis (OR=1.814, 95%CI: 1.378-2.388, P<0.001) were the independent risk factors for the recurrence of hyperkalemia. Conclusions: The prevalence of hyperkalemia is high in maintenance hemodialysis patients, especially in those with diabetes or night-time dialysis. It is necessary to monitor serum potassium regularly. In addition, high serum calcium and peak value of serum potassium before hemodialysis are related factors for recurrent hyperkalemia.


Assuntos
Hiperpotassemia , Idoso , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio , Recidiva , Diálise Renal , Fatores de Risco
11.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(42): 3490-3494, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775707

RESUMO

Objective: To validate the accuracy and consistency of a previously established prediction model for the occurrence of hyperkalemia in non-dialytic chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Methods: All patients diagnosed with CKD from Outpatient Department of Shanghai Changzheng Hospital during the 4th quarter of 2020 were recruited. Demographic data, clinical characteristics and prediction model-related parameters of the patients were collected and analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to evaluate the effectiveness of the model, and the specificity and sensitivity were calculated based on the cut-off value of 4 obtained from the previous model. The improved Hanley method was used to compare the area under the curve (AUC) between the previously established model and current validation dataset. The calibration curve was drawn to verify the model calibration degree. Results: A total of 434 patients diagnosed with non-dialytic CKD were enrolled, among whom 233 were males and 201 were females, with an average age of (55±16) years. According to the measured serum potassium values, the prevalence of hyperkalemia was 7.6%. And 33 patients were allocated to the hyperkalemia group and 401 patients were to the normal potassium group. There was no significant difference in age and sex between the two groups (both P>0.05). A combination of hyperkalemia and heart failure (27.3% vs 3.7%, P<0.001), diabetes (42.4% vs 19.7%, P=0.002), and acidosis (51.5% vs 7.0%, P<0.001) were more frequently in the hyperkalemia group, compared with the normal serum potassium group. Patients in the hyperkalemia group were more likely to have a past history of serum potassium ≥5.0 mmol/L (48.5% vs 2.5%, P<0.001). For the drugs that could increase serum potassium levels, there was a significant correlation between Chinese herbal medicine and the occurrence of hyperkalemia, while renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor (RAASi) and potassium supplementation showed no significant difference between the two groups. The results of ROC curve analysis showed that the AUC was 0.914, with the sensitivity of 84.8% and the specificity of 79.8% with the cut-off value of 4. The difference of AUC between the previously established risk assessment model of hyperkalemia in patients with non-dialytic CKD and current validation dataset was not statistically significant (Z=1.924, P=0.054), indicating the good accuracy and consistency of the prediction model. In the calibration curve, when the predicted risk of patients was below 0.4 or above 0.6, the prediction effect of the model was better. Conclusion: The previously-constructed hyperkalemia prediction model in non-dialytic CKD patients had good accuracy and consistency, and could be used to evaluate the risk of hyperkalemia in all stages of non-dialytic CKD patients.


Assuntos
Hiperpotassemia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Idoso , China , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina
12.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(14): 7, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757418

RESUMO

Purpose: To examine the morphological and hemodynamic changes of the ophthalmic artery (OA) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: This cross-sectional observational study included 31 patients with ACS and 10 healthy controls (HCs). The ACS subgroups were ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI; n = 10), non-STEMI (n = 10), and unstable angina (n = 11). OA three-dimensional (3D) models were reconstructed based on computed tomographic angiography, and morphological aspects of the OA were measured quantitatively. Moreover, numerical simulation by computational fluid dynamics was used to obtain hemodynamic information of the OA. Results: The study reconstructed 41 OA models. Hemodynamic simulation revealed a significant decrease in OA blood velocity in patients with ACS compared with the HCs (median velocity, 0.046 vs. 0.147 m/s; P < 0.001). No differences in the morphological data for the OA were observed. Also, no differences in the mass flow ratio of OA to the ipsilateral internal carotid artery was found. Similar differences were observed between the ACS subgroups and HCs. OA blood velocity was negatively correlated with body mass index, abdominal circumference, left ventricular ejection fraction, and triacylglycerol and was positively correlated with early to late transmitral flow velocity, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, serum creatinine, and potassium. Conclusions: The initial OA blood velocity was slower in patients with ACS and was associated with ACS-related clinical parameters. To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyze OA characteristics in ACS using 3D model reconstruction and hemodynamic simulation, providing new perspectives on the relationship between ischemic heart disease and ocular manifestations.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/fisiopatologia , Artéria Oftálmica/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Artéria Carótida Interna/fisiopatologia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Creatinina/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Artéria Oftálmica/diagnóstico por imagem , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Potássio/sangue , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Volume Sistólico , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Função Ventricular Esquerda
13.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(6): 1056-1060, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814506

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the sodium intake, potassium intake, sodium- potassium ratio and influencing factors of family cooks and members in six regions of China. Methods: Using the multistage random sampling method, a total of 1 576 family cooks and their family members were recruited from 6 regions in China. Questionnaire survey and physical examination were conducted to collect basic information. 24 h urine was collected to test 24 h urinary sodium and potassium levels. Results: After excluding unqualified urine samples, a total of 1 530 people were included in the study. For all participants, 24 h urine sodium value was (4.39±1.93) g, 24 h urine potassium value was (1.59±0.62) g and sodium-potassium ratio was 5.02±2.18. 24 h urinary sodium was negatively correlated with age, female, junior high school education or above, and annual family income (P<0.05), and positively correlated with perceived salty taste, BMI and SBP (P<0.05). The 24 h urine potassium value was negatively correlated with eating out almost everyday (P<0.05), but positively correlated with BMI and unwillingness to reduct salt (P<0.05). The sodium-potassium ratio was negatively correlated with age, female and junior high school education or above annual family income (P<0.05), and positively correlated with perceived salty taste, SBP and eating out 3-5 d/week (P<0.05). Conclusions: The 24 h urinary sodium value and sodium potassium ratio of family cooks and family members in six regions of China are still at high level, while the 24 h urine potassium value is low, with multiple factors. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out long-term comprehensive salt reduction intervention for family cooks and their members.


Assuntos
Família , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , China , Feminino , Humanos , Potássio , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Wiad Lek ; 74(9 cz 1): 2087-2093, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725281

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To increase the treatment effectiveness of CHF patients after MI with stenting by using magnesium and potassium salts of gluconic acid, eplerenone, and rivaroxaban in complex therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The research was performed at the premises of Ivano-Frankivsk Regional Clinical Cardiology Centre, Ukraine. 84 patients with CHF after past MI were examined. RESULTS: Results and conclusions: A more pronounced anti-ischemic effect has been linked to the use of combination therapy with rivaroxaban on the background of basic therapy (BT) in patients with CHF after MI, compared with the use of magnesium and potassium salts of gluconic acid or eplerenone. The use of eplerenone in the complex treatment of these patients on the background of BT has been proven to provide a pronounced reverse remodeling of the left myocardium in the postinfarction period.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Infarto do Miocárdio , Eplerenona , Gluconatos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Magnésio , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Miocárdio , Potássio , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Sais , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico
15.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 890-894, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622611

RESUMO

The patient, a 41-year-old woman, was admitted because "it was found out she had elevated serum potassium levels for 18 days". Eighteen days prior to admission at our hospital, the patient was found to have elevated serum potassium during hospitalization at another hospital, where the patient received symptomatic treatment and was discharged after her serum potassium returned to a normal level. However, the patient still had elevated serum potassium repeatedly and was referred to our hospital for further examination. The patient had a history of acute nephritis and gestational hypertension. Six months prior to admission at our hospital, it was found out that the patient had slightly elevated blood pressure, but no intervention was done. The patient's father has a history of hypertension and diabetes. After admission, laboratory results showed that the patient had hyperkalemia, hyperchloremia and metabolic acidosis. The level of plasma renin was obviously below the normal range, but the concentration of plasma aldosterone was within the normal range. A new mutation locus (c.1115delG) in KLHL3 (Kelch like family member 3) gene was revealed by genetic testing, leading to the diagnosis of pseudoaldosteronism type Ⅱ (PHA2). The patient was given regular treatment of oral hydrochlorothiazide hydrochloride at set intervals. Subsequently, her blood electrolyte level, blood pH, BE and BEB have returned to normal levels. The patient was followed up for 12 months and did not feel unwell during the follow-up period.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Pseudo-Hipoaldosteronismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Adulto , Aldosterona , Feminino , Humanos , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos , Mutação , Potássio , Pseudo-Hipoaldosteronismo/diagnóstico , Pseudo-Hipoaldosteronismo/genética
16.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 1011-1023, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598021

RESUMO

Salinity is one of the major constraints to plant growth and development across the globe that leads to the huge crop productivity loss. Salinity stress causes impairment in plant's metabolic and cellular processes including disruption in ionic homeostasis due to excess of sodium (Na+) ion influx and potassium (K+) efflux. This condition subsequently results in a significant reduction of the cytosolic K+ levels, eventually inhibiting plant growth attributes. K+ plays a crucial role in alleviating salinity stress by recasting key processes of plants. In addition, K+ acquisition and retention also serve as the perquisite trait to establish salt tolerant mechanism. In addition, an intricate network of genes and their regulatory elements are involved in coordinating salinity stress responses. Furthermore, plant growth regulators (PGRs) and other signalling molecules influence K+-mediated salinity tolerance in plants. Recently, nanoparticles (NPs) have also been found several implications in plants with respect to their roles in mediating K+ homoeostasis during salinity stress in plants. The present review describes salinity-induced adversities in plants and role of K+ in mitigating salinity-induced damages. The review also highlights the efficacy of PGRs and other signalling molecules in regulating K+ mediated salinity tolerance along with nano-technological perspective for improving K+ mediated salinity tolerance in plants.


Assuntos
Potássio , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal , Sódio
17.
Funct Plant Biol ; 48(11): 1148-1160, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600599

RESUMO

Salinity tolerance in bread wheat is frequently reported to be associated with low leaf sodium (Na+) concentrations. However, the Portuguese landrace, Mocho de Espiga Branca, accumulates significantly higher leaf Na+ but has comparable salinity tolerance to commercial bread wheat cultivars. To determine the genetic loci associated with the salinity tolerance of this landrace, an F2 mapping population was developed by crossing Mocho de Espiga Branca with the Australian cultivar Gladius. The population was phenotyped for 19 salinity tolerance subtraits using both non-destructive and destructive techniques. Genotyping was performed using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). Genomic regions associated with salinity tolerance were detected on chromosomes 1A, 1D, 4B and 5A for the subtraits of relative and absolute growth rate (RGR, AGR respectively), and on chromosome 2A, 2B, 4D and 5D for Na+, potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl-) accumulation. Candidate genes that encode proteins associated with salinity tolerance were identified within the loci including Na+/H+ antiporters, K+ channels, H+-ATPase, calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs), CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs), calcium dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) and calcium-transporting ATPase. This study provides a new insight into the genetic control of salinity tolerance in a Na+ accumulating bread wheat to assist with the future development of salt tolerant cultivars.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Sal , Triticum , Austrália , Pão , Potássio/análise , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Triticum/genética
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638686

RESUMO

Two Pore Channels (TPCs) are cation-selective voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels in membranes of intracellular organelles of eukaryotic cells. In plants, the TPC1 subtype forms the slowly activating vacuolar (SV) channel, the most dominant ion channel in the vacuolar membrane. Controversial reports about the permeability properties of plant SV channels fueled speculations about the physiological roles of this channel type. TPC1 is thought to have high Ca2+ permeability, a conclusion derived from relative permeability analyses using the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz (GHK) equation. Here, we investigated in computational analyses the properties of the permeation pathway of TPC1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Using the crystal structure of AtTPC1, protein modeling, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and free energy calculations, we identified a free energy minimum for Ca2+, but not for K+, at the luminal side next to the selectivity filter. Residues D269 and E637 coordinate in particular Ca2+ as demonstrated in in silico mutagenesis experiments. Such a Ca2+-specific coordination site in the pore explains contradicting data for the relative Ca2+/K+ permeability and strongly suggests that the Ca2+ permeability of SV channels is largely overestimated from relative permeability analyses. This conclusion was further supported by in silico electrophysiological studies showing a remarkable permeation of K+ but not Ca2+ through the open channel.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/química , Arabidopsis/química , Canais de Cálcio/química , Cálcio/química , Simulação por Computador , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , Potássio
19.
J Int Med Res ; 49(10): 3000605211053550, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686091

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of dynamic stratified potassium supplementation at high concentrations with enteral potassium supplementation in older patients with chronic heart failure and moderate to severe hypokalaemia. METHODS: We performed a single-centre, short-term, randomised, controlled, open-labelled, clinical trial, and patients were randomly allocated to the control or intervention group. The intervention group received intermittent infusions of 30 mmol/100 mL potassium chloride. In the control group, 10% potassium chloride was administered orally in a bolus dose. Short-term efficacy and adverse events were compared. RESULTS: The intervention group received less potassium than that in the control group. T-wave normalisation and U-wave disappearance occurred sooner in the intervention group than in the control group after potassium supplementation. The rate of increase in potassium concentrations gradually became similar in both groups. The initial blood potassium concentration, method of potassium supplementation, potassium supplement dose, and 24-hour urinary potassium excretion significantly affected the rate of increase in blood potassium concentrations after supplementation. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of enteral potassium supplementation is equivalent to that of supplementation with high intravenous potassium concentrations in elderly patients with chronic heart failure and moderate to severe hypokalaemia. High intravenous potassium concentrations may lead to a superior potassium recovery rate.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hipopotassemia , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Suplementos Nutricionais , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipopotassemia/tratamento farmacológico , Potássio
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638737

RESUMO

Grapevine is one of the most economically important fruit crops due to the high value of its fruit and its importance in winemaking. The current decrease in grape berry quality and production can be seen as the consequence of various abiotic constraints imposed by climate changes. Specifically, produced wines have become too sweet, with a stronger impression of alcohol and fewer aromatic qualities. Potassium is known to play a major role in grapevine growth, as well as grape composition and wine quality. Importantly, potassium ions (K+) are involved in the initiation and maintenance of the berry loading process during ripening. Moreover, K+ has also been implicated in various defense mechanisms against abiotic stress. The first part of this review discusses the main negative consequences of the current climate, how they disturb the quality of grape berries at harvest and thus ultimately compromise the potential to obtain a great wine. In the second part, the essential electrical and osmotic functions of K+, which are intimately dependent on K+ transport systems, membrane energization, and cell K+ homeostasis, are presented. This knowledge will help to select crops that are better adapted to adverse environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Plantas , Potássio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transporte de Íons
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