Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 126.297
Filtrar
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250517, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355859

RESUMO

Abstract Lactobacilli are probiotics with Aflatoxin (AF) detoxification ability, found in fermented products, GIT of animals and environment. Purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of broiler isolates of Lactobacillus against Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). For this purpose, 5 isolates of Lactobacillus from broiler gut were incubated with 100 ppb AFB1 in aqueous environment and effect of different parameters (cell fractions, time, temperature, pH) on detoxification was determined by HPLC. The ameliorative effect of Lactobacillus salivarius (LS) against AFB1 was studied in broiler. The results revealed that LS (CR. 4) showed the best results (in vitro) as compared to other isolates (L. salivarius (CR. 3, CR, 4), L. agilis (CE. 2.1, CE. 3.1) and L. crispatus (CE. 28). Cell debris of CR. 4 showed significantly higher detoxification (P<0.05). Maximum amount of AFB1 was detoxified at 30°C (97%), pH 4.0 (99%) and 6 h (99.97%). In vivo study showed that AFB1 decreased weight gain (1,269 ± 0.04 gm/ bird), feed consumed (2,161 ± 0.08 gm/ bird), serum total protein (2.42 ± 0.34 gm/ dl), serum albumin (0.5 ± 0.2 2 gm/dl) and antibody titer (4.2 ± 0.83). Liver function enzymes were found (alanine transaminase (ALT): 32 ± 10.7 U/L) and aspartate transaminase (AST): 314.8 ± 27 U/L) elevated in AFB1 fed broilers. Treatment with 1% LS not only decreased the toxic effects of AFB1 (group D) but also improved the overall health of broilers due to its probiotic effects (p<0.05) as compared to control negative (group A). The detoxification ability of LS was better than commercial binder (CB) (0.2% Protmyc). It was concluded that detoxification of AFB1 by Lactobacillus was strain, temperature, pH and time dependent. LS has detoxification ability against AFB1 in vivo.


Resumo Os lactobacilos são probióticos com capacidade de desintoxicação da Aflatoxina (AF), encontrados em produtos fermentados, TGI de animais e meio ambiente. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a capacidade de isolados de frango de corte de Lactobacillus contra a Aflatoxina B1 (AFB1). Para tanto, 5 isolados de Lactobacillus de intestino de frango foram incubados com 100 ppb AFB1 em meio aquoso, e o efeito de diferentes parâmetros (frações celulares, tempo, temperatura, pH) na desintoxicação foi determinado por CLAE. O efeito melhorador de Lactobacillus salivarius (LS) contra AFB1 foi estudado em frangos de corte. Os resultados revelaram que LS (CR. 4) apresentou os melhores resultados (in vitro) em comparação com outros isolados [L. salivarius (CR. 3, CR. 4), L. agilis (CE. 2.1, CE. 3.1) e L. crispatus (CE. 28)]. Detritos celulares de CR. 4 mostraram desintoxicação significativamente maior (P < 0.05). A quantidade máxima de AFB1 foi desintoxicada a 30 °C (97%), pH 4.0 (99%) e 6 h (99,97%). O estudo in vivo mostrou que AFB1 diminuiu o ganho de peso (1,269 ± 0.04 g / ave), alimento consumido (2,161 ± 0.08 g / ave), proteína total sérica (2.42 ± 0.34 g / dl), albumina sérica (0.5 ± 0.22 gm / dl) e título de anticorpo (4.2 ± 0.83). As enzimas da função hepática foram encontradas (alanina transaminase (ALT): 32 ± 10.7 U / L) e aspartato transaminase (AST): 314.8 ± 27 U / L) elevadas em AFB1 alimentados com frangos. O tratamento com 1% LS não só diminuiu os efeitos tóxicos de AFB1 (grupo D), mas também melhorou a saúde geral dos frangos devido aos seus efeitos probióticos (p < 0.05) em comparação com o controle negativo (grupo A). A capacidade de desintoxicação do LS foi melhor do que o aglutinante comercial (CB) (0.2% Protmyc). Concluiu-se que a desintoxicação de AFB1 por Lactobacillus foi dependente da cepa, temperatura, pH e tempo. LS tem capacidade de desintoxicação contra AFB1 in vivo.


Assuntos
Animais , Aflatoxina B1/análise , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Probióticos , Galinhas , Lactobacillus , Ração Animal/análise
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e243238, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360207

RESUMO

The use of alternative nutritional sources is an important topic for animal production such as poultry. This study examined the effect of replacing soybean meal with sunflower leaf meal in the diet of laying shaver brown pullets. A total of 30 laying birds were assigned to three treatments of 0% (as control group), 10% and 15% MSFLM inclusion. Four eggs per replicate were randomly taken for three consecutive days at two weeks interval for five times, and 18 weeks individuals were selected after 40 days of experimental time. External parameters of the eggs (egg weight, egg length, egg breadth and egg shape index, shell thickness), and body parameters (Final body weight, weight gain), feed intake and hen day production were measured. For egg length, egg breadth and shell thickness showed significant difference (p< 0.05) in from the control birds. Final body weight, weight gain, feed intake and hen day production showed comparable results with values from eggs of birds on control diet. The study revealed the ability of birds to easily utilize the nutrients in the protein sources. MSFLM utilization up to 15% in pullets' diet revealed no detrimental effect on the performance of the laying birds and the external qualities of eggs produced.


O uso de fontes nutricionais alternativas é um tópico importante para a produção animal, como a avicultura. Este estudo examinou o efeito da substituição do farelo de soja por farelo de folha de girassol na dieta de frangas marrons barbeadoras poedeiras. Um total de 30 aves poedeiras foram designadas a três tratamentos de 0% (como grupo controle), 10% e 15% de inclusão MSFLM. Quatro ovos por repetição foram retirados aleatoriamente por três dias consecutivos em intervalos de duas semanas por cinco vezes, e indivíduos de 18 semanas foram selecionados após 40 dias do tempo experimental. Parâmetros externos dos ovos (peso do ovo, comprimento do ovo, largura do ovo e índice de forma do ovo, espessura da casca) e parâmetros corporais (peso corporal final, ganho de peso), consumo de ração e produção diária da galinha foram medidos. Para comprimento do ovo, largura do ovo e espessura da casca apresentaram diferença significativa (p <0,05) nas aves controle. Peso corporal final, ganho de peso, consumo de ração e produção de dia de galinha mostraram resultados comparáveis ​​com valores de ovos de aves em dieta controle. O estudo revelou a capacidade das aves de utilizar facilmente os nutrientes das fontes de proteína. A utilização de MSFLM até 15% na dieta das frangas não revelou nenhum efeito prejudicial no desempenho das aves poedeiras e nas qualidades externas dos ovos produzidos.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves Domésticas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta , Helianthus
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249756, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345533

RESUMO

Abstract Ri chicken is the most popular backyard chicken breed in Vietnam, but little is known about the growth curve of this breed. This study compared the performances of models with three parameters (Gompertz, Brody, and Logistic) and models containing four parameters (Richards, Bridges, and Janoschek) for describing the growth of Ri chicken. The bodyweight of Ri chicken was recorded weekly from week 1 to week 19. Growth models were fitted using minpack.lm package in R software and Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), and root mean square error (RMSE) were used for model comparison. Based on these criteria, the models having four parameters showed better performance than the ones with three parameters, and the Richards model was the best one for males and females. The lowest and highest value of asymmetric weights (α) were obtained by Bridges and Brody models for each of sexes, respectively. Age and weight estimated by the Richard model were 8.46 and 7.51 weeks and 696.88 and 487.58 g for males and for females, respectively. Differences in the growth curves were observed between males and female chicken. Overall, the results suggested using the Richards model for describing the growth curve of Ri chickens. Further studies on the genetics and genomics of the obtained growth parameters are required before using them for the genetic improvement of Ri chickens.


Resumo O frango Ri é a raça de frango de quintal mais popular do Vietnã, mas pouco se sabe sobre a curva de crescimento dessa raça. Este estudo comparou o desempenho de modelos com três parâmetros (Gompertz, Brody e Logistic) e modelos contendo quatro parâmetros (Richards, Bridges e Janoschek) para descrever o crescimento do frango Ri. O peso corporal do frango Ri foi registrado semanalmente da semana 1 à semana 19. Os modelos de crescimento foram ajustados usando o pacote minpack.lm no software R e o critério de informação de Akaike (AIC); critério de informação bayesiano (BIC) e erro quadrático médio (RMSE) foram usados ​​para comparação de modelos. Com base nesses critérios, os modelos com quatro parâmetros apresentaram melhor desempenho do que os com três parâmetros, sendo o modelo de Richards o melhor para homens e mulheres. O menor e o maior valor dos pesos assimétricos (α) foram obtidos pelos modelos Bridges e Brody para cada um dos sexos, respectivamente. A idade e o peso estimados pelo modelo de Richard foram de 8,46 e 7,51 semanas e 696,88 e 487,58 g para homens e mulheres, respectivamente. Diferenças nas curvas de crescimento foram observadas entre frangos machos e fêmeas. No geral, os resultados sugeriram o uso do modelo de Richards para descrever a curva de crescimento de frangos Ri. Mais estudos sobre a genética e genômica dos parâmetros de crescimento obtidos são necessários antes de usá-los para o melhoramento genético de frangos Ri.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Galinhas , Modelos Teóricos , Peso Corporal , Teorema de Bayes , Asiáticos , Modelos Biológicos
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e252594, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339400

RESUMO

Abstract The present trial explained the effect of alternative production systems on growth, morphometric and carcass traits of four different chicken genotypes. The second generation of two genotypes RNN (Rhode Island Red × Naked Neck) and BNN (Black Australorp × Naked Neck) obtained by two self-crosses (RNN × RNN = RR and BNN × BNN = BB) and two reciprocal crosses (RNN × BNN = RB and BNN × RNN = BR) were evaluated in three alternative production systems (conventional cages, enriched cages, and aviary). At the 6th week of age after sexing, a total of 600 birds, comprising 150 from each crossbred with a total of 300 pullets and 300 cockerels were divided into conventional cages, enriched cages, and aviary systems having 200 birds in each.Birds were organized into 3×4 factorial arrangements under Completely Randomized Design (3 production systems × 4 genotypes × 2 sexes × 25 birds = 600 birds). Regarding genotypes, RB and BR males showed higher (p < 0.01) carcass yield, drumstick weight, breast weight, and thigh weight than BB and RR genotypes. Females of BR genotype showed higher (p < 0.01) breast weight, thigh weight and drumstick weight. As far as production systems are concerned, higher (p < 0.01) liver weight, heart weight, breast weight, intestinal weight, drumstick weight, and thigh weight were observed in the males reared in enriched cages compared with conventional cages and aviary system. Females reared in enriched cages showed higher (p < 0.01) heart weight, breast weight, intestinal weight, drumstick weight, and thigh weight when compared with those reared in conventional cages and aviary. It is concluded that chickens (both sexes) of BR and RB genotypes had better morphological measurements and carcass traits than those of RR and BB genotype chickens. Among alternative production systems, chickens reared in enriched cages had better traits than those of reared in conventional cages and aviary during the growing phase.


Resumo O presente estudo explicou o efeito de sistemas alternativos de produção sobre o crescimento, características morfométricas e carcaças de quatro genótipos de frango diferentes. A segunda geração de dois genótipos RNN (Rhode Island Red × Naked Neck) e BNN (Black Australorp × Naked Neck) obtida por duas autocruzes (RNN × RNN = RR e B ANN × BNN = BB) e duas cruzes recíprocas (RNN × BNN = RB e BNN × RNN = BR) foi avaliada em três sistemas de produção alternativos (gaiolas convencionais, gaiolas enriquecidas e aviário). Na 6ª semana de idade após o sexo, um total de 600 aves, compostas por 150 de cada raça cruzada com um total de 300 pullets e 300 galos, foi dividido em gaiolas convencionais, gaiolas enriquecidas e sistemas aviários com 200 aves em cada. As aves foram organizadas em 3×4 arranjos fatoriais sob projeto completamente randomizado (3 sistemas de produção × 4 genótipos × 2 sexos × 25 aves = 600 aves). Em relação aos genótipos, os machos RB e BR apresentaram maior rendimento de carcaça (p < 0,01), peso da baqueta, peso mamário e peso da coxa do que os genótipos BB e RR. As fêmeas do genótipo BR apresentaram maior (p < 0,01) peso mamário, peso da coxa e peso da baqueta. No que diz respeito aos sistemas de produção, maior (p < 0,01) peso hepático, peso cardíaco, peso mamário, peso intestinal, peso da baqueta e peso da coxa foram observados nos machos criados em gaiolas enriquecidas em comparação com gaiolas convencionais e sistema aviário. As fêmeas criadas em gaiolas enriquecidas apresentaram maior (p < 0,01) peso cardíaco, peso mamário, peso intestinal, peso da baqueta e peso da coxa quando comparadas com as criadas em gaiolas convencionais e aviárias. Conclui-se que as galinhas (ambos os sexos) dos genótipos BR e RB apresentaram melhores medidas morfológicas e traços de carcaça do que os de frangos genótipos RR e BB. Entre os sistemas de produção alternativos, as galinhas criadas em gaiolas enriquecidas tinham características melhores do que as criadas em gaiolas convencionais e aviárias durante a fase de cultivo.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Galinhas/genética , Hibridização Genética , Rhode Island , Genótipo
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250296, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339385

RESUMO

Abstract The current study aimed to determine the effects of different levels of Zingiber officinale as a herbal feed additive on growth performance, carcass characteristic, serum biochemistry, total bacterial count (TBC), gut morphology, and immunological parameters of broilers. A total of 1500, day-old broiler chicks (Hubbard) were equally accredited to five treatment groups, each with six replicates (50 birds/replicate). Five experimental diets were prepared using basal diet i.e. with antibiotics positive control (PC), 3 g/kg ginger (group A), 6 g/kg ginger (group B), 9 g/kg ginger (group C) and without antibiotics negative control (NC). Group A and C showed significantly (p<0.05) higher feed intake (FI) as compared to other groups. Group C showed significantly (p<0.05) lower Total bacterial count (TBC) followed by group B as compared to NC. Carcass characteristics showed non-significant effects among different treatments. Mean villi length and width were significantly (p <0.05) higher in all ginger supplemented groups as compared to the control groups. Blood serum parameters including cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were significantly (p<0.05) lower in groups B and C in comparison with the control groups. Whereas high-density lipoproteins (HDL) was significantly higher in group B as compared to the others. In conclusion, ginger supplementation @0.6% in the basal diet significantly improved growth performance and gut morphometry of broilers. It also showed a positive impact on cholesterol, triglycerides and gut microbes. Therefore, ginger could be a better substitute for antibiotic growth promoters.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de Zingiber officinale como aditivo à base de plantas medicinais sobre o desempenho de crescimento, características da carcaça, bioquímica sérica, contagem bacteriana total (CBT), morfologia intestinal e parâmetros imunológicos de frangos de corte. Um total de 1.500 pintos de corte de um dia de idade (Hubbard) foram igualmente credenciados em cinco grupos de tratamento, cada um com seis repetições (50 aves/repetição). Cinco dietas experimentais foram preparadas usando dieta basal, ou seja, com controle positivo de antibióticos (PC), 3 g/kg de gengibre (grupo A), 6 g/kg de gengibre (grupo B), 9 g/kg de gengibre (grupo C) e sem controle negativo de antibióticos (NC). Os grupos A e C apresentaram consumo de ração (FI) significativamente (p < 0,05) maior do que os outros grupos. O grupo C apresentou contagem bacteriana total (CBT) significativamente menor (p < 0,05) seguido pelo grupo B em comparação com o NC. As características da carcaça apresentaram efeitos não significativos entre os diferentes tratamentos. O comprimento e largura médios das vilosidades foram significativamente (p < 0,05) maiores em todos os grupos suplementados com gengibre em comparação com os grupos de controle. Os parâmetros séricos do sangue, incluindo colesterol, triglicerídeos e lipoproteínas de baixa densidade (LDL), foram significativamente (p < 0,05) menores nos grupos B e C em comparação com os grupos controle. Enquanto as lipoproteínas de alta densidade (HDL) foram significativamente maiores no grupo B em comparação com os outros. Em conclusão, a suplementação de gengibre a 0,6% na dieta basal melhorou significativamente o desempenho de crescimento e a morfometria intestinal de frangos de corte. Ele também mostrou um impacto positivo sobre o colesterol, triglicerídeos e micróbios intestinais. Portanto, o gengibre pode ser um substituto melhor para os promotores de crescimento com antibióticos.


Assuntos
Animais , Gengibre , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251004, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339339

RESUMO

Abstract The supplementation of Selenium-enriched probiotics is effective in reducing oxidative stress and maintaining meat quality stability in broiler chicken especially under heat stress. An experimental study was conducted to perform Comparative analysis of Selenium yeast with inorganic Se in broilers under heat stress. A total of 120 broilers chicks of one day were assigned to 4 groups each consisting 30 chicks fed on same basal diet but different selenium sources. The basal diet of group D1 was not supplemented with Se source (Negative control), group D2 basal diet was supplemented with inorganic selenium (Sodium selenite 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase), group D3 basal diet was supplemented with commercially available organic selenium (Seleno-methionine 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase) and group D4 basal diet was supplemented with self-developed organic selenium (Se-enriched yeast 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase). The performance parameters i.e. feed intake (FI), live body weight (BW) and FCR were not significantly (p>0.05) effected by selenium supplementation in the starter phase but were significantly (p<0.05) effected in the finisher phase. Selenium supplementation significantly (p<0.05) effected serum Se level in different supplemented groups. Higher serum Se value (58.20±0.06) was recorded in D4 group. Similarly significantly lower selenium value was recorded for D4 and higher was recorded for D1 (11.36±0.08). However lower serum Paraoxonase (PON) value was recorded for D4 (13.24±0.01) and higher for D1 (13.33±0.03). Comparatively self-developed Se enriched yeast increased the Se accumulation and improved antioxidant system. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was found higher in D4 (12.333±0.03) followed by D3, D2 and D1 respectively. Whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly lower (p<0.05) in D4 (0.1437±0.003) followed by D3 (0.1457±0.002). Selenium supplementation increased the bird's survival rate. Birds fed on Se enriched yeast showed higher Se deposition and better antioxidant capacity as compared to other sources of selenium. Se-enriched yeast displayed an improved result on Se deposition in tissues, and oxidative capacity, meat tenderness and immune response level as compared to other sources of selenium.


Resumo A suplementação de probióticos enriquecidos com selênio é eficaz na redução do estresse oxidativo e na manutenção da estabilidade da qualidade da carne em frangos de corte, especialmente sob estresse por calor. Um estudo experimental foi conduzido para realizar uma análise comparativa da levedura selênio com o Se inorgânico em frangos de corte sob estresse térmico. Um total de 120 pintos de um dia foi dividido em 4 grupos, cada um consistindo de 30 pintos alimentados com a mesma dieta basal, mas com diferentes fontes de selênio. A dieta basal do grupo D1 não foi suplementada com fonte de Se (controle negativo), a dieta basal do grupo D2 foi suplementada com selênio inorgânico (selenito de sódio 0,22 mg / kg fase inicial e 0,15 mg / kg fase finalizadora), a dieta basal do grupo D3 foi suplementada com selênio orgânico disponível comercialmente (fase inicial de seleno-metionina 0,22 mg / kg e fase finalizadora de 0,15 mg / kg) e a dieta basal do grupo D4 foi suplementada com selênio orgânico autodesenvolvido (fermento enriquecido com Se 0,22 mg / kg fase inicial e 0,15 mg / kg fase finalizadora). Os parâmetros de desempenho, ou seja, consumo de ração (FI), peso corporal vivo (PC) e FCR não foram significativamente (p > 0,05) afetados pela suplementação de selênio na fase inicial, mas foram significativamente (p < 0,05) afetados na fase final. A suplementação de selênio afetou significativamente (p < 0,05) o nível de Se sérico em diferentes grupos suplementados. O maior valor de Se sérico (58,20 ± 0,06) foi registrado no grupo D4. Da mesma forma, valor de selênio significativamente menor foi registrado para D4 e maior foi registrado para D1 (11,36 ± 0,08). No entanto, um valor mais baixo de Paraoxonase (PON) sérica foi registrado para D4 (13,24 ± 0,01) e mais alto para D1 (13,33 ± 0,03). A levedura enriquecida com Se comparativamente autodesenvolvida aumentou o acúmulo de Se e melhorou o sistema antioxidante. A glutationa peroxidase (GPx) foi encontrada maior em D4 (12,333 ± 0,03) seguido por D3, D2 e ​​D1 respectivamente. Enquanto a superóxido dismutase (SOD) foi significativamente menor (p < 0,05) em D4 (0,1437 ± 0,003) seguido por D3 (0,1457 ± 0,002). A suplementação de selênio aumentou a taxa de sobrevivência da ave. Aves alimentadas com levedura enriquecida com Se apresentaram maior deposição de Se e melhor capacidade antioxidante em comparação com outras fontes de selênio. A levedura enriquecida com Se apresentou um resultado melhorado na deposição de Se nos tecidos, capacidade oxidativa, maciez da carne e nível de resposta imune em comparação com outras fontes de selênio.


Assuntos
Animais , Selênio , Galinhas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Antioxidantes
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246514, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285640

RESUMO

Abstract The poultry sector in Pakistan is contributing mainly in bridging gap between demand and supply for protein. Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an emerging bacterium causing serious problems in poultry industry of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the M. gallisepticum load in poultry populated regions of Pakistan. Total 600 serum and 600 swab samples were collected, 200 from each broiler, layers and breeders poultry in Rawalpindi and Abbottabad districts. Serum samples were analyzed through ELISA for seroprevalence. Swabs were cultured on Frey's medium followed by PCR and partial mgc2 gene sequencing. Results of seroprevalence of M. gallisepticum showed that layers (75%, n=150) are more positive as compared to breeders (70%, n=140) and broilers (50%, n=100). Typical colonies of the M. gallisepticum were observed in breeder (26.5%), followed by layer (21%) and broilers (9%). A total of 37.1% (n=42) samples were identified positive through PCR out of total 113 cultured based positive samples. A total of six M. gallisepticum isolates of current study showed 98-99 percent similarity with previously reported isolates on the basis of mgc2 gene partial sequencing. The M. gallisepticum was found highly prevalent in different poultry breads. Results of this study would add into basic data and provide a direction for livestock sector to strengthen a control strategy for mycoplasmosis in poultry farms.


Resumo O setor avícola do Paquistão está contribuindo principalmente para preencher a lacuna entre a demanda e a oferta de proteína. Mycoplasma gallisepticum é uma bactéria emergente que causa sérios problemas na indústria avícola do Paquistão. Um estudo transversal foi conduzido para avaliar a carga de M. gallisepticum em regiões de avicultura do Paquistão. Um total de 600 amostras de soro e 600 amostras de esfregaço foi coletado, 200 de cada frango de corte, poedeiras e aves reprodutoras nos distritos de Rawalpindi e Abbottabad. Amostras de soro foram analisadas por ELISA para soroprevalência. As zaragatoas foram cultivadas em meio Frey, seguido de PCR e sequenciação parcial do gene mgc2. Os resultados da soroprevalência de M. gallisepticum mostraram que as poedeiras (75%, n = 150) são mais positivas em comparação com matrizes (70%, n = 140) e frangos de corte (50%, n = 100). Colônias típicas de M. gallisepticum foram observadas em reprodutoras (26,5%), seguidas de poedeiras (21%) e frangos de corte (9%). Um total de 37,1% (n = 42) das amostras foi identificado como positivas por PCR de um total de 113 amostras positivas baseadas em cultura. Um total de seis isolados de M. gallisepticum do estudo atual mostrou 98-99% de similaridade com isolados relatados anteriormente com base no sequenciamento parcial do gene mgc2. O M. gallisepticum foi encontrado com alta prevalência em diferentes pães de aves. Os resultados deste estudo acrescentariam dados básicos e forneceriam orientação para o setor pecuário fortalecer uma estratégia de controle da micoplasmose em granjas avícolas.


Assuntos
Animais , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/genética , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Aves Domésticas , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Galinhas , Estudos Transversais
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246389, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285638

RESUMO

Abstract Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.


Resumo A indústria avícola está se expandindo rapidamente e produzindo milhões de toneladas de resíduos de penas anualmente. A produção massiva de subprodutos queratinosos na forma de resíduos agrícolas e industriais em todo o mundo exige sua utilização justificada. O tratamento químico de resíduos de queratina é proclamado como uma abordagem ecodestrutiva por vários pesquisadores, uma vez que gera poluentes secundários. A queratinase liberada por uma variedade de micróbios (bactérias e fungos) pode ser usada para o tratamento eficaz de resíduos de queratina. A degradação microbiana de resíduos de queratina é uma abordagem emergente e ecológica e oferece benefícios duplos, ou seja, tratamento de poluente recalcitrante (queratina) e obtenção de uma enzima comercialmente importante (queratinase). Este estudo envolve o isolamento, caracterização e utilidade potencial de espécies de fungos para a degradação de resíduos de penas de frango por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O fungo isolado foi identificado e caracterizado como Aspergillus (A.) flavus. Em um ensaio de 30 dias, constatou-se que 74% e 8% do peso das penas foram reduzidos por A. flavus, respectivamente, por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O pH do meio de crescimento em fermentação submersa foi alterado de 4,8 para 8,35. A aplicação explorada de micróbios queratinolíticos é, portanto, recomendada para o tratamento de resíduos ceratinosos para obter benefícios duplos de remediação.


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas , Plumas , Fermentação , Fungos , Resíduos Industriais , Queratinas/metabolismo
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246568, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278537

RESUMO

Abstract Fishmeal; being a limited and costly feed ingredient is continuously been substituted with locally available plant proteins. However, the occurrence of anti-nutritional factors in plant meal suppresses its potential to be fully replaced. Therefore, in this study we aimed to study the synergistic effects of dietary additives like citric acid and phytase enzyme supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. Canola meal (CM) was used as a test ingredient to replace fishmeal (FM) as; 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%. These four diets were further supplemented by varying levels of phytase (0 and 750 FTU kg-1) and citric acid (0% and 2.5%) to formulate total sixteen test diets as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 and T16. Each treatment contained three replicates; applied to fish groups having 15 fingerlings each; following 3×3 factorial arrangement. 1% of chromic oxide was added as an inert marker. Maximum weight gain% (288%) and the lowest value of FCR (1.07) were recorded when fish was fed on diet T12 as compared to fish fed control diet (T1). Similarly, optimum nutrient digestibility values such as crude protein (77%), crude fat (84%) and gross energy (70%) were noted on same level. It was concluded that 50% canola meal can optimally replace fishmeal when supplemented with phytase and citric acid at the levels of 750 FTU kg-1 and 2.5%, respectively.


Resumo A farinha de peixe, por ser um ingrediente alimentar limitado e caro, é continuamente substituída por proteínas vegetais disponíveis localmente. No entanto, a ocorrência de fatores antinutricionais na farinha de plantas suprime seu potencial de ser totalmente substituída. Portanto, neste estudo objetivamos estudar os efeitos sinérgicos de aditivos dietéticos como ácido cítrico e suplementação com enzima fitase sobre o desempenho de crescimento e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de Cirrhinus mrigala. A farinha de canola (CM) foi usada como ingrediente de teste para substituir a farinha de peixe (FM) como: 0%, 25%, 50% e 75%. Essas quatro dietas foram suplementadas por níveis variados de fitase (0 e 750 FTU kg-1) e ácido cítrico (0% e 2,5%) para formular um total de 16 dietas de teste como T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 e T16. Cada tratamento continha três repetições; aplicado a grupos de peixes com 15 alevinos cada; seguindo o arranjo fatorial 3 × 3. 1% de óxido crômico foi adicionado como um marcador inerte. % de ganho de peso máximo (288%) e o valor mais baixo de FCR (1,07) foram registrados quando os peixes foram alimentados com dieta T12 em comparação com peixes alimentados com dieta controle (T1). Da mesma forma, valores ótimos de digestibilidade de nutrientes, como proteína bruta (77%), gordura bruta (84%) e energia bruta (70%) foram anotados no mesmo nível. Concluiu-se que 50% da farinha de canola pode substituir de forma ideal a farinha de peixe quando suplementada com fitase e ácido cítrico nos níveis de 750 FTU kg-1 e 2,5%, respectivamente.


Assuntos
Animais , 6-Fitase , Nutrientes , Galinhas , Ácido Cítrico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115687, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084819

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Global interest in phytogenic feed additives as alternatives to antibiotics in feed has been spurred by the banning of antibiotic growth promoters by several countries. Suitable plant extracts for development of phytogenic feed additives should have therapeutic value and should also be safe. AIM OF STUDY: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-lipoxygenase activities as well as cytotoxicity of selected plant species used in poultry ethnomedicine in Zimbabwe. METHODS: Antibacterial activity was determined against three ATCC strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis) and two clinical strains isolated from chickens (Escherichia coli and Salmonella Gallinarum) using a two-fold serial microdilution assay. Qualitative antibacterial bioautography was also carried out using the ATCC strains. Antioxidant activities of crude acetone and methanol extracts were determined using free radical scavenging assays whilst anti-lipoxygenase activity was evaluated using a ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX) assay. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using a tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT assay) on Vero monkey kidney cells. RESULTS: Erythrina abyssinica had the best antibacterial activity against both ATCC strains and clinical strains with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.02 to 0.156 mg/ml. Aloe greatheadii, Adenia gummifera (leaves), Senna singueana and Aloe chabaudii had moderate activity against the poultry pathogens. Bioautography showed that all ten plant species have antibacterial activity against the tested microorganisms with E. abyssinica and S. singueana having prominent bands of inhibition against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The acetone extract of S. singueana and the methanol extract of Euphorbia matabelensis had the most powerful antioxidant activities with mean IC50 values of 1.43 µg/ml and 1.31 µg/ml respectively in the ABTS assay which were comparable with those of the positive controls (ascorbic acid and trolox). Bobgunnia madagascariensis, A. chabaudii, E. abyssinica and Tridactyle bicaudata extracts had reasonable antioxidant activity. The S. singueana extract had the most potent anti-lipoxygenase activity with a mean IC50 value of 1.72 µg/ml. The cytotoxicity results showed that only the acetone extracts of A. greatheadii and S. singueana were relatively safe at concentrations that were active against the tested microorganisms (selective index >1). Regarding anti-lipoxygenase activity, extracts of B. madagascariensis, S. singueana, T. bicaudata and E. matabelensis were more active than toxic (selective index >5) indicating anti-inflammatory potential. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that S. singueana had a cocktail of therapeutic activity and supports further investigation of this plant species for development of phytogenic poultry feed additives. Other plant species with noteworthy biological activities include B. madagascariensis, E. abyssinica, A. greatheadii, T. bicaudata and E. matabelensis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Antioxidantes , Acetona , Animais , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Ácido Ascórbico , Galinhas , Escherichia coli , Radicais Livres , Medicina Tradicional , Metanol , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Aves Domésticas , Zimbábue
11.
Food Chem ; 403: 134362, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183464

RESUMO

Thigh meat from Cobb 500 broiler (Cobb) and Beijing-You chicken (BYC) at marketable age were compared to explore the impact of growth rate on meat quality. BYC had a higher water capacity, as well as lower shear forces and IMF content than Cobb, indicating that the growth rate has a significant influence on meat quality. Additionally, 144 upregulated and 44 downregulated differential metabolites were identified using gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometer (LC-MS). Moreover, we found a significant difference between the dominant expression of metabolites in the two genotypes. The highly expressed metabolites in Cobb were amino acids and their derivatives, including l-citrulline, dimethylglycine, 1,4-butanediamine, alanine, and creatine. In contrast, BYC deposited more bioactive compounds, such as, α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, anserine, and taurine. These results indicate that meat quality and metabolite profiles differ greatly between fast- and slow-growing chickens.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Ração Animal/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Coxa da Perna , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Carne/análise
12.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 285: 121838, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108407

RESUMO

Chicken is at risk of contaminated foodborne pathogens in the production process. Timely and nondestructive detection of foodborne pathogens in chicken is essential for food security. The study aims to explore the feasibility of developing efficient classification models for qualitative detection of Staphylococcus aureus in chicken breast using the hyperspectral imaging technique. Principal component analysis was used to process the full spectral information and three wavelength selection methods (competitive adaptive reweighted sampling, genetic algorithm, and successive projections algorithm) were applied to extract effective wavelengths. These methods were combined with the support vector machine algorithm to develop conventional classification models, respectively. In addition, a convolutional neural network model based on deep learning was designed and trained for comparison. The performance of the convolutional neural network model was significantly better than that of conventional classification models. The overall accuracy for chicken sample classifications was improved from 83.88% to 91.38%. The results demonstrated that deep learning can effectively extract spectral features and promote the application of hyperspectral imaging in foodborne pathogens detection of chicken products.


Assuntos
Imageamento Hiperespectral , Staphylococcus aureus , Animais , Galinhas , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
13.
Food Chem ; 403: 134484, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36358086

RESUMO

Herein, we present for the first time, the employment of paper-based devices for rapidly differentiating original country eggs from the plain broiler eggs that have been coated with tea to appear as the former. The devices leverage two types of phenomena involving the phenols present in tea in precisely 5 min, namely precipitation, which produces a well-defined dark bluish precipitate on the surface of the counterfeit country eggs or tea-coated broiler eggs and de-coloration, wherein the dried layer of tea coating present on the surface of the dummy country eggs get dissolved, thereby revealing the white colour of the plain broiler egg shell. To reduce the subjectivity, a smartphone application 'Eggo' has been developed which is capable of detecting the spots produced by both the methods using mobile's camera. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was performed to study the changes occurring on the shell surface. Such sophisticated yet simple technologies will revolutionize food fraud analysis.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Smartphone , Animais , Ovos , Casca de Ovo/química , Chá
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(1): 283-297, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35861039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: White striping (WS) is a myopathy of breast muscle (Pectoralis major) that affects the quality and consumer acceptance of breast fillets of broiler chickens. Previous studies have shown that intermittent dilution of dietary nutrients suppresses the development of WS on the breast muscle of broiler chickens. However, the mechanism by which these interventions reduce the occurrence of WS remains inconclusive. In this study, we adopted intermittent reduction of dietary digestible lysine (dLys) density or metabolizable energy (ME) and amino acid (AA) density using chemical and fatty acid composition of breast fillets, and blood metabolites to understand the mechanism while histopathology and immunohistochemistry of breast muscles were used for confirmation. RESULTS: Occurrence of WS was lower in broiler chickens fed 85% dLys diets in comparison with other groups. Crude protein and ether extract in breast meat of 85% dLys groups were greater (P < 0.001) and lower (P = 0.010), respectively. Serum concentrations of lipid metabolites and enzymes were lower in broiler chickens fed 85% dLys diets than control group (P < 0.05). Feeding 85% dLys diets had low degree of myodegeneration and necrosis, inflammation, lipid deposition, infiltration of T-lymphocyte (CD3+) and macrophages (Iba-1+), and low expression of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) than other groups (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Dilution of dietary dLys to 85% of the required quantities reduces the development of WS in broiler chickens by slowing the growth, lipid synthesis, and muscle damage confirmed by lower extent of histopathological lesions. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Lisina , Animais , Incidência , Músculos Peitorais/patologia , Carne/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Lipídeos
15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2585: 157-169, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331773

RESUMO

Arboviral surveillance is a critical step in any effective mosquito control program. Surveillance aids in the early detection of pathogen transmission as well as establishes a baseline of transmission activity. Two of the most practical forms of arboviral surveillance is through the use of testing mosquito pools for the presence of pathogen and screening sentinel chickens for pathogen exposure. This chapter describes the process for each of these methods for West Nile virus.


Assuntos
Arbovírus , Culicidae , Febre do Nilo Ocidental , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Animais , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/genética , Galinhas , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária
16.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 384: 109981, 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36306546

RESUMO

Poultry meat has been a vehicle of antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes. Yet, the diversity of selective pressures associated with their maintenance in the poultry-production chain remains poorly explored. We evaluated the susceptibility of Enterococcus spp. from chicken meat collected 20 years apart to antibiotics, metals, acidic pH and peracetic acid-PAA. Contemporary chicken-meat samples (n = 53 batches, each including a pool of neck skin from 10 single carcasses) were collected in a slaughterhouse facility using PAA as disinfectant (March-August 2018, North of Portugal). Broilers were raised in intensive farms (n = 29) using CuSO4 and organic acids as feed additives. Data were compared with that of 67 samples recovered in the same region during 1999-2001. All 2018 samples had multidrug resistant-MDR isolates, with >45 % carrying Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium or Enterococcus gallinarum resistant to tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol or aminoglycosides. Resistance rates were similar (P > 0.05) to those of 1999-2001 samples for all but five antibiotics. The decrease of samples carrying vancomycin-resistant isolates from 46 % to 0 % between 1999-2001 and 2018 was the most striking difference. Isolates from both periods were similarly susceptible to acid pH [minimum-growth pH (4.5-5.0), minimum-survival pH (3.0-4.0)] and to PAA (MIC90 = 100-120 mg/L/MBC90 = 140-160 mg/L; below concentrations used in slaughterhouse). Copper tolerance genes (tcrB and/or cueO) were respectively detected in 21 % and 4 % of 2018 and 1999-2001 samples. The tcrB gene was only detected in E. faecalis (MICCuSO4 > 12 mM), and their genomes were compared with other international ones of chicken origin (PATRIC database), revealing a polyclonal population and a plasmid or chromosomal location for tcrB. The tcrB plasmids shared diverse genetic modules, including multiple antimicrobial resistance genes (e.g. to tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B-MLSB, aminoglycosides, bacitracin, coccidiostats). When in chromosome, the tcrB gene was co-located closely to merA (mercury) genes. Chicken meat remains an important vehicle of MDR Enterococcus spp. able to survive under diverse stresses (e.g. copper, acid) potentially contributing to these bacteria maintenance and flux among animal-environment-humans.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Enterococcus faecium , Animais , Humanos , Galinhas/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cobre/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Enterococcus , Aminoglicosídeos , Cloranfenicol , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Carne/microbiologia
17.
Food Chem ; 401: 134186, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115233

RESUMO

This paper developed novel fermented stinky sea bass (FSSB) products and reports the first analysis of its taste active compounds, flavor compounds, and quality. The FSSB with Xian Hen stinky tofu (F-XH) had the best sensory quality. After fermentation, the texture of FSSB improved, and the umami amino and sweet amino acid contents significantly increased, whereas that of the bitter amino acids decreased. Moreover, the IMP content and EUC in FSSB increased significantly. Of the six key volatile flavor compounds distinguished, the key volatile flavor compounds of F-XH are Ethyl Acetate, Propan-2-ol, alpha-pinene, 2-methylbutanal, acetol, 4-Methylpentan-2-one. Ethyl Acetate and 2-propanol were thought to give F-XH its unique wine flavor after cooking. The quality evaluation results demonstrated that the six FSSB complied with the Chinese Standard (GB10136-2015) (2015) animal aquatic products. Six types of FSSB products with unique flavors were developed, and a reference was provided for their industrial application.


Assuntos
Bass , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Animais , Feminino , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Inosina Monofosfato , Galinhas , 2-Propanol , Fermentação , Aminoácidos
18.
Food Chem ; 402: 134313, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36155287

RESUMO

Food extrusion is mostly used for cereal processing. It is necessary to seek a novel technology to develop meat-based extrudates. This study investigated the physicochemical properties of extrudates consisting of 50% chicken and 50% Indica rice flour with different addition of NaHCO3 (0%, 0.25%, 0.50%) and moisture (12%, 14%, 16%). The largest expansion ratio occurred by 0.25% NaHCO3 addition. In the same moisture, the water solubility index increased first and then decreased, while the water absorption index increased with the increase of NaHCO3. With the increase of moisture, the hardness and crispiness of extrudates generally decreased regardless of the addition of NaHCO3. Importantly, at 14% moisture content, with NaHCO3 addition increasing, a more refined cellular structure occurred, sulfide compounds enhanced and the rate of Maillard reaction increased. Summarily, 0.25% NaHCO3 addition with 14% moisture content to assist extrusion had a tremendous potential to improve the quality of chicken-based extrudates.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Manipulação de Alimentos , Animais , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Água , Sulfetos
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 159089, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174690

RESUMO

The widespread presence and accumulation of microplastics (MPs) in organisms has led to their recognition as a major global ecological issue. There is a lot of data on how MPs affect the physiology and behavior of aquatic species, but the effects of MPs on poultry are less understood. Therefore, we aimed to explore the adverse effects and mechanisms of MPs exposure to chicken health. Results indicated that MPs exposure decreased growth performance and antioxidant ability and impaired chickens' intestine, liver, kidney, and spleen. Additionally, the gut microbiota in chickens exposed to MPs showed a significant decrease in alpha diversity, accompanied by significant alternations in taxonomic compositions. Microbial taxonomic investigation indicated that exposure to MPs resulted in a significant increase in the relative proportions of 11 genera and a distinct decline in the relative percentages of 3 phyla and 52 genera. Among decreased bacterial taxa, 11 genera even couldn't be detected in the gut microbiota of chickens exposed to MPs. Metabolomics analysis indicated that 2561 (1190 up-regulated, 1371 down-regulated) differential metabolites were identified, mainly involved in 5 metabolic pathways, including D-amino acid metabolism, ABC transporters, vitamin digestion and absorption, mineral absorption, and histidine metabolism. Taken together, this study indicated that MPs exposure resulted in adverse health outcomes for chickens by disturbing gut microbial homeostasis and intestinal metabolism. This study also provided motivation for environmental agencies worldwide to regulate the application and disposal of plastic products and decrease environmental contamination.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microplásticos , Animais , Plásticos/toxicidade , Galinhas , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Homeostase
20.
J Comp Neurol ; 531(1): 170-185, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215105

RESUMO

In the avian ascending auditory pathway, the nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis (MLd; the auditory midbrain center) receives inputs from virtually all lower brainstem auditory nuclei and sends outputs bilaterally to the nucleus ovoidalis (Ov; the auditory thalamic nucleus). Axons from part of the MLd terminate in a particular domain of Ov, thereby suggesting a formation of segregated pathways point-to-point from lower brainstem nuclei via MLd to the thalamus. However, it has not yet been demonstrated whether any spatial clustering of thalamic neurons that receive inputs from specific domains of MLd exists. Ov neurons receive input from bilateral MLds; however, the degree of laterality has not been reported yet. In this study, we injected a recombinant avian adeno-associated virus, a transsynaptic anterograde vector into the MLd of the chick, and analyzed the distribution of labeled postsynaptic neurons on both sides of the Ov. We found that fluorescent protein-labeled neurons on both sides of the Ov were clustered in domains corresponding to subregions of the MLd. The laterality of projections was calculated as the ratio of neurons labeled by comparing ipsilateral to contralateral projections from the MLd, and it was 1.86 on average, thereby indicating a slight ipsilateral projection dominance. Bilateral inputs from different subdomains of the MLd converged on several single Ov neurons, thereby implying a possibility of a de novo binaural processing of the auditory information in the Ov.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Mesencéfalo , Animais , Mesencéfalo/metabolismo , Vias Auditivas/fisiologia , Tálamo , Neurônios
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...