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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149948, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482136

RESUMO

The temperate steppe in northern China is important for sandstorm control and food/livestock production. Understanding the influence and regulatory control of cultivation on the water balance and water use efficiency (WUE) of this water-limited region would promote the sustainability of local ecosystem and food supply. This study combined eddy covariance system observational data and the Shuttleworth-Wallace model to investigate evapotranspiration (ET) and its composition in paired sites, including a free-grazing steppe site and an adjacent site reclaimed for spring wheat cultivation in Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia. Further, analysis of the WUE of both the ecosystem (WUEE) and the canopy (WUEC) under the two sites showed that the mean daily gross primary productivity (GPP) of the cultivation site was 3.84 gC·m-2·d-1, i.e., 15.7% higher than that of the free-grazing site (3.32 gC·m-2·d-1). Compared with the free-grazing site (1.76 kgH2O·m-2·d-1), the mean daily ET of the cultivation site (1.40 kgH2O·m-2·d-1) was reduced by 20.7%. The difference in ET was due mainly to suppression of evaporation at the cultivation site from increased shading associated with a higher leaf area index (LAI). The largely increased GPP of the cultivation site fundamentally contributed to the 54.7% higher WUEC (4.75 gC·kg-1H2O) in comparison with the free-grazing site (3.08 gC·kg-1H2O). The WUEE of the cultivation site was 57.9% higher than that of the free-grazing site. The variation of transpiration of the free-grazing site explained 64% of the change of WUEC. These results indicate that land use differences in the temperate steppe area changed vegetation productivity substantially. Moreover, ecosystem ET and its composition, as well as large-scale land use change, might influence the regional water use pattern and mass balance. Our findings help clarify the impact of typical land use change on regional WUE, and could promote development of visionary and effective strategies for the use of the limited resources in arid-semiarid regions.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Triticum , China , Clima Desértico , Pradaria , Estações do Ano , Água
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149700, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487901

RESUMO

The Eurasian steppe is the largest steppe region in the world and is an important part of the global grassland ecosystem. The eastern Eurasian steppe has favorable hydrothermal conditions and has the highest productivity and the richest biodiversity. Located in the arid and semi-arid region, the eastern Eurasian steppe has experienced large-scale grassland degradation due to dramatic climate change and intensive human activities during the past 20 years. Hence, accurate estimation of aboveground biomass (AGB, gC m-2) and belowground biomass (BGB, gC m-2) is necessary. In this study, plenty of AGB and BGB in-situ measurements were collected among dominated grassland types during summer in 2013 and 2016-2018 in the eastern Eurasian steppe. Vegetation indices from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and climate variables were chosen as independent variables to establish predictive models for AGB and BGB with random forest (RF). Both AGB (R2 = 0.47, MAE = 21.06 gC m-2, and RMSE = 27.52 gC m-2) and BGB (R2 = 0.44, MAE = 173.02 gC m-2, and RMSE = 244.20 gC m-2) models showed acceptable accuracy. Then the RF models were applied to generate spatially explicit AGB and BGB estimates for the study area over the last two decades (2000-2018). Both AGB and BGB showed higher values in the Greater Khingan Mountains and decreased gradually to the east and west sides. The mean values for AGB and BGB were 62.16 gC m-2 and 531.35 gC m-2, respectively. The climatic factors were much more important in controlling biomass than anthropogenic drivers, and shortage of water and raising temperature were the main limiting factor of AGB and BGB, respectively, in the peak growth season. These findings provide scientific data for the scientific management of animal husbandry and can contribute to the sustainable development of grassland ecology in the eastern Eurasian steppe.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Biomassa , Pradaria , Humanos , Imagens de Satélites , Temperatura
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149950, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487904

RESUMO

Understanding relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functions (BEF) and the way in which ecosystem functions respond to changing climatic conditions or community composition is useful for predicting ecological consequences of global changes. However, how soil moisture condition, plant species richness interactively affect ecosystem functions in shrub-encroached grasslands is poorly understood. We conducted a soil moisture × species richness microcosm experiment using semi-arid grassland species with a N-fixing shrub Caragana microphylla Lam. as the dominant species to evaluate how soil moisture and plant species richness affected ecosystem functions directly or indirectly via regulating community functional structure, such as community-weighted mean values (CWM) and functional dispersion (FDis). Soil moisture and species richness interactively affected soil functions (soil C-, N-, P cycles and soil multifunctionality), with greater species richness buffering the adverse effects of soil drought. Soil moisture and species richness showed opposite effects on FDis but similar effects on CWM. FDis mediated the indirect effect of soil moisture and species richness on ecosystem functions, while CWM only mediated the indirect effect of soil moisture. More specifically, both soil moisture and plant species richness were negatively associated with soil P cycle, and the CWMPC1 contributed by traits related to resource-conservative strategy was positively associated with soil N cycle. Species richness showed a positive direct effect on total shoot biomass, which was mainly contributed by the complementarity effect of neighbor species richness. This study provides strong empirical support of how biomass and soil nutrient cycles respond to the changes of soil moisture and plant species richness in C. microphylla shrub-encroached grasslands, and insights on the mechanisms underlying the interactive effects of soil condition and community species composition on multiple ecosystem functions in N-fixing shrub encroached grasslands in semi-arid grassland regions.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Solo , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Clima Desértico , Pradaria
4.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113864, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600424

RESUMO

The savannas of northern Australia are amongst the most fire-prone landscapes in the world. However, over the last fifteen years, increasing effort has been put into reducing fire extent and severity using prescribed burning strategies early in the dry season. This study seeks to improve the application of strategic fire management by providing a more detailed understanding of the landscape features that impede fire spread in Australia's tropical savannas using long-term satellite-derived fire histories. Spatial analysis of fire edges in Kakadu National Park based on fine-scale (30 m) Landsat imagery found that most fires stopped along linear edges, which were primarily associated with known features (roads, rivers and cliffs). Further analysis found linear features with the highest stopping ability covered only 13% of the park but divided the whole park into smaller containment regions. The stopping power of each feature type was found to vary according to their width and to change during the fire season, results that could help plan strategic fuel reduction burns. Similar results were seen with the lower-resolution continental-scale MODIS satellite-derived edge data. The MODIS dataset provided a means for applying fire edge analysis to support planning in areas of northern Australia that lack fine scale fire history mapping.


Assuntos
Incêndios , Pradaria , Austrália , Ecossistema
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150557, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582865

RESUMO

Plant and soil elemental ratios of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) play a central role in shaping the composition and structure of microbial communities. However, the relationships between plant and soil elemental C:N:P ratios and microbial diversity are still poorly understood. Here, we evaluated the effects of C:N:P ratios in plant-soil systems on microbial diversity in a chronosequence of restored grasslands (1, 5, 10, 15, 25, and 30 years since restoration) on the Loess Plateau. We found that C and N concentrations, C:N and C:P ratios in leaf, root, soil and microbial biomass, bacterial and fungal diversity (Shannon-Wiener index) gradually increased with year since grassland restoration. Microbial C:N:P ratios ranged from 17.8:4.5:1 to 24.3:6.6:1, and C:P ratio increased from 17.8:1 at the 1-year site to 24.3:1 at the 30-year site, indicating the increasing P limitation for soil microorganisms during grassland development. Soil microbial diversity increased with root, soil, and microbial C and N concentrations, and decreased with P concentration (p < 0.05). Structural equation modeling indicated that soil and microbial C:N and N:P ratios had the greatest influences on soil bacterial and fungal diversity, and elemental C:N:P ratios had a greater effect on soil fungal than bacterial diversity. Our findings emphasize the importance of elemental C:N:P ratios on soil microbial diversity, which is critical for formulating policies for sustainable biodiversity conservation in terrestrial ecosystems.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Solo , Carbono/análise , China , Pradaria , Nitrogênio/análise , Plantas , Microbiologia do Solo
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150032, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798716

RESUMO

Mountainous alpine ecosystems are sensitive to global change, where soil nutrient content would potentially vary under current climate change background, and thus possibly influence the activity of nitrifiers and denitrifiers, as well as N2O emissions. However, within mountainous alpine ecosystems, the potential variation of soil nutrients under current global change and the consequence to N2O emission from nitrification and denitrification are still unclarified, hampering a comprehensive understanding of the feedback mechanisms between the nitrogen cycle and climate change. In order to fill this knowledge gap, we selected alpine grasslands at three different elevations and investigated the distribution and environmental drivers of nitrifiers and denitrifiers. The results showed that the lowest elevation site tended to have higher total phosphorus (TP) accumulation within the topsoil. The abundance of functional groups, emission of CO2 and N2O, and the N2O/CO2 ratio showed a decreasing trend along elevation. TP was the greatest influence on denitrifier composition (nosZ/narG and nirS/nirK ratios) and considerably influenced nitrifier composition (AOA/AOB ratio), and was significantly correlated to the N2O/CO2 ratio. In microcosms of soils from the highest elevation site, TP addition decreased the ratios of nosZ/narG, nirS/nirK, and AOA/AOB, and increased N2O/CO2 ratio and N2O emission, thus contributing to positive climate change feedback. This study indicates the potential for change within the nitrifier and denitrifier communities under current climate change, and highlights the role TP plays in governing nitrification and denitrification in mountainous alpine ecosystems.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Solo , Mudança Climática , Desnitrificação , Ecossistema , Retroalimentação , Pradaria , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Microbiologia do Solo
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150112, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520909

RESUMO

High-elevation grasslands worldwide provide essential hydrological services including water provision, flow regulation, and erosion control. Despite their importance, hydrological research of grasslands in montane regions is usually scarce and disperse, limiting the capacity to improve water resource management. We present a systematic literature review of the hydrological function of high Andean grasslands under conserved, degraded, and restored conditions in ecosystems situated above the tree line in the tropical Andes (páramos, punas, and jalcas). Most hydrological research on these grasslands has been developed in páramos (92%), especially in Ecuador, while research in punas is scarce (6%) despite being the largest grassland extent in the region. For páramos, published literature highlights the importance of conserving grasslands to facilitate water infiltration to soils, which in turn reduces erosive processes. Water-vegetation relations for conserved páramos are well understood, indicating that about 50% of water inputs return to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration, but knowledge about hydrological functions of conserved punas and jalcas is virtually non-existent. Under changing land use, afforestation of grassland ecosystems with exotic tree species, especially pines, reduces soil water storage as well as water yield and flow regulation capacity. Impacts of grazing and agriculture on the hydrological function of páramo grasslands strongly depend on historical land management and current land use practices and are not generalizable. Short-term restoration studies indicate that more than two years are necessary to recover the hydrological function of degraded grasslands, therefore medium and long-term studies are required to determine efficient restoration periods. These knowledge gaps limit the ability to extrapolate and regionalize findings. Future directions aimed to fill them are proposed, and methods successfully used to investigate the hydrology of high Andean grasslands are highlighted. This research not only enlightens what is known about the hydrology of high Andean grasslands, but also seeks to guide future hydrological evaluations to fill identified geographical and topical knowledge gaps precluding improved management of water resources in the tropical Andes.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Hidrologia , Agricultura , Pradaria , Solo
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150342, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818809

RESUMO

It has been suggested that the sequestration of CO2 by agricultural soils offers a means to reduce atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations and in turn mitigate the impacts of climate change. Carbon sequestration by grassland soils, which account for more than 60% of agricultural land use in Ireland, could contribute to a successful net reduction of atmospheric GHG emissions in accordance with the COP21 Paris Agreement. However, current estimates of soil carbon sequestration are variable and it is likely that many permanent grasslands are close to saturation. A literature search shows that soil carbon sequestration is enhanced by a variety of different management strategies, although one option that has only been examined to date in New Zealand is full inversion tillage (FIT) during grassland renovation. FIT involves inverting topsoil, generally to depths of 30 cm, resulting in the movement of C-deficient subsoil to the surface and the burying of carbon-rich topsoil. In this review, we hypothesise that over the next ~30 years the new topsoil could incorporate large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC) from the re-seeded sward vegetation and that the buried carbon will be retained. We assess the current capability of Irish grassland soils to sequester carbon and suggest a potential role of FIT during grassland renovation. An analysis of the distribution of grasslands in Ireland using the Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS) suggests that ~26% of Ireland's agricultural grasslands are suitable for FIT.


Assuntos
Sequestro de Carbono , Solo , Agricultura , Carbono , Pradaria
9.
Zootaxa ; 4999(4): 335-342, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810480

RESUMO

A new species of dung beetle, Stiptopodius brancoi Strmpher Daniel, new species, from Namibia, is diagnosed, described, and illustrated. The new species is the first Stiptopodius recorded from the country and belong to the singularis species group. A revised key as well as a checklist of Stiptopodius species recorded from the African continent are provided.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Pradaria , Namíbia
10.
Zootaxa ; 5060(3): 401-416, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810658

RESUMO

The grassland leafhopper genus Maiestas Distant is reviewed from Pakistan with the description and illustrations of one new species, Maiestas sinuata Shah Duan sp. n., and two new records, i.e., Maiestas maculata n. rec. and Maiestas trispinosa n. rec. A checklist of the known species of Maiestas from Pakistan is also given together with a key for their separation (males).


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , Pradaria , Paquistão
11.
Zootaxa ; 5048(1): 118-126, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810813

RESUMO

We report the Bombycoidea and Mimallonoidea (Lepidoptera) observed at the the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Suls (UFRGS) Agronomic Research Station in Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil from September 7th to November 6th, 2018. This research station is situated in the Campos Sulinos (southern Brazilian grasslands) environment. As part of our inventory, we report the following Bombycoidea: 29 species of Sphingidae, 26 species of Saturniidae, at least seven species of Apatelodidae, and at least four species of Bombycidae. Within Mimallonidae we recorded eight species. New state records include the following Sphingidae: Xylophanes alineae, X. crenulata, and Perigonia stulta; and Mimallonidae: Mimallo grisea and the genus Menevia. Our study represents the first inventory of moths from this location and one of the few from the Campos Sulinos more broadly.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Animais , Brasil , Pradaria
12.
Glob Chang Biol ; 27(24): 6436-6453, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606136

RESUMO

Burning has commonly been used to increase forage production and nutrients cycling in grasslands. However, its long-term effects on soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (N) pools within the aggregates and the relation between aggregates-associated SOC and soil CO2 emissions need further appraisal. This study evaluated the effects of 64 years of annual burning on SOC and N dynamics compared to annual mowing and undisturbed treatments in a grassland experiment established in 1950. Soils were sampled from four depths representing the upper 30 cm layer and fractionated into macroaggregates, microaggregates and silt + clay fractions. The macroaggregates were further fractionated into three occluded fractions. The SOC in the bulk soil and aggregates were correlated to soil CO2 effluxes measured under field conditions. Compared to the undisturbed treatment, annual burning decreased aggregates stability, SOC and N in the upper 30 cm layer by 8%, 5% and 12%, respectively. Grassland mowing induced greater aggregates stability than burning only in the upper 5 cm. Burning also decreased SOC in the large macroaggregates (e.g., 0-5 cm) compared to mowing and the undisturbed grasslands but proportionally increased the microaggregates and their associated SOC. Soil N associated with aggregates decreased largely following grassland burning, for example, by 8.8-fold in the microaggregates within the large macroaggregates at 20-30 cm compared to the undisturbed grassland. Burning also increased soil CO2 emissions by 33 and 16% compared to undisturbed and mowing, respectively. The combustion of fresh C and soil organic matter by fire is likely responsible for the low soil aggregation, high SOC and N losses under burned grassland. These results suggested a direct link between grass burning and SOC losses, a key component for escalating climate change severity. Therefore, less frequent burning or a rotation of burning and mowing should be investigated for sustainable grasslands management.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Carbono/análise , China , Pradaria , Nitrogênio/análise , Poaceae
13.
Glob Chang Biol ; 27(24): 6578-6591, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606141

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) is essential for productivity of alpine grassland ecosystems, which are sensitive to global warming. We tested the hypotheses that (1) mobilized 'calcium-bound inorganic P' (Ca-Pi ) is a major source of plant-available P in alpine meadows with alkaline soils after long-term warming, (2) mobilization of Ca-Pi is linked to effective plant carboxylate-releasing P-acquisition strategies under warming, and (3) the mobilization is also related to plant nitrogen (N)-acquisition. We conducted an 8-year warming experiment in an alpine meadow (4635 m above sea level) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. A significant increase in P concentration in both aboveground and belowground biomass indicates an increased mobilization and assimilation of P by plants under warming. We observed a significant decrease in Ca-Pi , no change in moderately-labile organic P, and an increase in highly resistant organic P after warming. There was no increase in phosphatase activities. Our results indicate that Ca-Pi , rather than organic P was the major source of plant-available P for alpine meadows under warming. Higher leaf manganese concentrations of sedges and forbs after warming indicate that carboxylates released by these plants are a key mechanism of Ca-Pi mobilization. The insignificant increase in Rhizobiales after warming and the very small cover of legumes show a minor role of N-acquisition strategies in solubilizing phosphate. The insignificant change in relative abundance of mycorrhizal fungi and bacteria related to P cycling after warming shows a small contribution of microorganisms to Ca-Pi mobilization. The significant increase in leaf N and P concentrations and N:P ratio of grasses and no change in sedge leaf N:P ratio reflect distinct responses of plant nutrient status to warming due to differences in P-acquisition strategies. We highlight the important effects of belowground P-acquisition strategies, especially plant carboxylate-releasing P-acquisition strategies on responses of plants to global changes in alpine meadows.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Solo , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Fosfatos , Tibet
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682742

RESUMO

As one of the nitrogen (N) limitation ecosystems, alpine meadows have significant effects on their structure and function. However, research on the response and linkage of vegetation-soil to short-term low-level N deposition with rhizosphere processes is scant. We conducted a four level N addition (0, 20, 40, and 80 kg N ha-1 y-1) field experiment in an alpine meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) from July 2014 to August 2016. We analyzed the community characteristics, vegetation (shoots and roots), total carbon (TC), nutrients, soil (rhizosphere and bulk) properties, and the linkage between vegetation and soil under different N addition rates. Our results showed that (i) N addition significantly increased and decreased the concentration of soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) and ammonium nitrogen, and the soil pH, respectively; (ii) there were significant correlations between soil (rhizosphere and bulk) NO3--N and total nitrogen (TN), and root TN, and there was no strong correlation between plant and soil TC, TN and total phosphorus, and their stoichiometry under different N addition rates. The results suggest that short-term low-N addition affected the plant community, vegetation, and soil TC, TN, TP, and their stoichiometry insignificantly, and that the correlation between plant and soil TC, TN, and TP, and their stoichiometry were insignificant.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Solo , Carbono/análise , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo , Tibet
15.
J Anim Sci ; 99(10)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599336

RESUMO

The beef sector in Campos grasslands must increase animal productivity without external inputs, while reducing environmental impact. The objective of this study was to estimate herbage intake (g/metabolic body weight [MBW]/d) of straightbred (Hereford/Angus) and crossbred (F1 of Hereford × Angus) beef cows grazing subtropical native grassland with High and Low herbage allowance (HA, 5 vs. 3 kg DM/kg bodyweight [BW]) during gestation and lactation and its relationship with biological efficiency of cow-calf productivity. Herbage intake (estimated via n-alkanes C32:C33 ratio) was measured during early (Ge1, -163 d prior calving) and mid to late [Gm1 (-83) and Gm2 (-90 d prior calving)] gestation and lactation (L0, L1, and L2, 60, 47, and 31d following calving) periods in 24 to 36 cows, selected to create 8 groups (4 per block) of HA × cow genotype treatment. Cows grazed native grassland year-round, under High and Low HA (except in winter). We analyzed the effect of cow genotype (straightbred vs. crossbred cows) and HA (High vs. Low) on herbage mass and height, daily herbage intake rate (DMI), cow body condition score (BCS), calf average daily gain (ADG) and BW at weaning (BWW) and g of calf weaned/kg DMI. High allowance improved DMI during lactation periods (High 115.6 vs. Low 94.1 ± 5.3; P < 0.05 g/MBW/d). Crossbred cows decreased DMI during gestation (Crossbred 81 vs. Straightbred 94 ± 4.3; P = 0.05 g/MBW/d) compared with straightbred cows. Crossbred and High HA improved biological efficiency, 40.0 vs. 26.2 and 36.0 vs. 29.7 g of calf/kg DMI, respectively. High allowance increased herbage mass and sites with greater canopy height that allow greater DMI, positively associated with cow BCS at weaning, calf ADG, BWW, and g of calf/kg DMI. Crossbred cows reduced DMI during gestation showing no greater annual DMI. Animal productivity and biological efficiency can be improved using High HA and crossbred cows, which should decrease the environmental impact of cow-calf systems.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Pradaria , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Genótipo , Lactação
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639417

RESUMO

Mercury is a global pollutant. The mercury exchanges between vegetation and the atmosphere are important for the global mercury cycle. Grassland ecosystems occupy more than 25% of the global land area and have different succession processes and ecological functions. The current research regarding mercury exchanges between forests and the atmosphere have attracted much attention, but the research regarding grasslands tends to be rare. To reveal the characteristics of mercury exchanges in grasslands, this study conducted field in-situ monitoring experiments in a Leymus meadow grassland regions of the Songnen Plains in northeastern China. The exchange flux values of the GEM (gaseous element mercury) between the plants and the atmosphere were measured using a dynamic flux bag method (DFB). The experiments were conducted for the purpose of assessing the mercury flux levels between the vegetation and the atmosphere in a typical Leymus chinensis meadow. The goal was to further the understanding of the change characteristics and influential factors and to describe the source and sink actions and dynamics between the grassland vegetation and the atmosphere. The diurnal variation characteristics were as follows: High during the day and low at night, with peaks generally appearing at noon. The growing period was characterized by absorption peaks of atmospheric mercury by the plants. The breeding period was characterized by the peak release of atmospheric mercury by the plants. The change characteristics were as follows: During the growing period, the duration of the plants in a mercury absorption state exceeded 96.5%, which was represented as the net sink of the atmospheric mercury. During the breeding period, the time of mercury release ranged between 46.4% and 66.8%, making the breeding period the net source of atmospheric mercury. The results of this study's analysis indicated that each environmental factor was correlated with the mercury flux, and the environmental factors had different effects on the mercury flux during the different stages of plant growth. The atmospheric mercury concentration levels were the main factor during the growing period. Atmospheric humidity was the main factor during the breeding period. Solar radiation was the decisive factor during the entire experimental period.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Mercúrio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pradaria , Mercúrio/análise , Melhoramento Vegetal
17.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(8): 2783-2790, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664451

RESUMO

Increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition greatly affects species diversity, productivity, and stability of ecosystems. It is thus of the great importance to understand how grassland N pools respond to the increased atmospheric N deposition. This study was conducted in a meadow steppe in Erguna, Inner Mongolia, China. There were six levels of N addition (i.e., 0, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 g·m-2·a-1) and two levels of mowing (i.e., mowing and unmown). Samples of aboveground tissues of dominant plant, root, aboveground litter, and soil to the depth of 100 cm were collected in the seventh year after treatments. The N content was measured and the N pool was calculated. The results showed that N addition significantly increased the N content of aboveground plant tissues and litter, as well as N pools of Leymus chinensis, plant community, litter and ecosystem. Mowing significantly increased the N content of L. chinensis leaf and litter, but reduced N pools of L. chinensis, plant community and litter, and did not affect their responses to N addition. There was a significant interactive effect between mowing and N addition on plant community N pool. High levels of N addition in the unmown treatment led to more N stored in the litter pool, with the saturation threshold for the plant community N pool occurred at 10 g·m-2·a-1. Under mowing treatment, the plant community N pool increased with the increasing N addition, and more N stored in plant community N pool after mowing. Mowing could alleviate the negative impacts of increasing N deposition on biodiversity and ecosystem stability, and extended postponing the occurrence of ecosystem N saturation induced by increasing N deposition.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Nitrogênio , Pradaria , Nitrogênio/análise , Poaceae , Solo
18.
J Plant Res ; 134(6): 1181-1198, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595677

RESUMO

To elucidate the origin and migration history of the "Mansen elements," a group of temperate grassland plants mainly distributed in northeastern Asia, phylogeographic analyses based on chloroplast DNA markers and double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq) data were performed on Viola orientalis, one of the representative species of the group. Phylogenetic analyses using ddRAD-seq data revealed that the populations of V. orientalis were clustered into five clades, among which the continental clades made of populations from Russia and Korea diverged more than 100,000 years earlier than the Japanese clades. The Japanese clade likely diverged during the last glacial period, followed by a further post-glacial divergence into the Kyushu and the Honshu subclades. Our study demonstrated that V. orientalis originated in the continental area of northeastern Asia and, during the last glacial period, has spread southward through the Korean Peninsula across the Japanese Islands. This finding supports the previously proposed evolutionary hypothesis regarding the origin and migration routes of the Mansen elements.


Assuntos
Viola , Violaceae , Variação Genética , Pradaria , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Plastídeos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
J Helminthol ; 95: e57, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607615

RESUMO

The distributions of the nematode parasites Heligmosomoides polygyrus and Syphacia stroma were quantified in three equal-length sections along the intestine of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) trapped in three different locations in the south of England. The distribution of H. polygyrus did not change in the presence of S. stroma, this species being largely confined to the anterior third of the intestine, whether S. stroma was or was not present. However, while in single infections with S. stroma, worms were equally distributed in the anterior and middle sections of the intestine, in the presence of H. polygyrus, a higher percentage of worms was located in the middle section. This was a dose-dependent response by S. stroma to increasing worm burdens with H. polygyrus, and even relatively low intensities of infection with H. polygyrus (e.g. ≤10 worms) were sufficient to cause a posterior redistribution of S. stroma into the middle section. A similar posterior shift in the percentage distribution of S. stroma in the intestine was evident in juvenile and mature mice of both sexes, and in mice from all three study sites. The ecological significance of these results is discussed.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Nematoides , Animais , Inglaterra , Feminino , Florestas , Intestinos , Masculino , Camundongos , Murinae
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640670

RESUMO

Predicting wildfire behavior is a complex task that has historically relied on empirical models. Physics-based fire models could improve predictions and have broad applicability, but these models require more detailed inputs, including spatially explicit estimates of fuel characteristics. One of the most critical of these characteristics is fuel moisture. Obtaining moisture measurements with traditional destructive sampling techniques can be prohibitively time-consuming and extremely limited in spatial resolution. This study seeks to assess how effectively moisture in grasses can be estimated using reflectance in six wavelengths in the visible and infrared ranges. One hundred twenty 1 m-square field samples were collected in a western Washington grassland as well as overhead imagery in six wavelengths for the same area. Predictive models of vegetation moisture using existing vegetation indices and components from principal component analysis of the wavelengths were generated and compared. The best model, a linear model based on principal components and biomass, showed modest predictive power (r² = 0.45). This model performed better for the plots with both dominant grass species pooled than it did for each species individually. The presence of this correlation, especially given the limited moisture range of this study, suggests that further research using samples across the entire fire season could potentially produce effective models for estimating moisture in this type of ecosystem using unmanned aerial vehicles, even when more than one major species of grass is present. This approach would be a fast and flexible approach compared to traditional moisture measurements.


Assuntos
Incêndios , Incêndios Florestais , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Luz
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