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1.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 17(1): 57, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study of the cultural significance (CS) of biodiversity provides key information to develop conservation strategies consistent with traditions and perceptions of human communities. In Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve (TBR) in Mexico, the mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata mexicana) and the black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi vellerosus) have historically coexisted with Popoluca Indigenous Peoples. This study sought to determine how the presence of a natural protected area (TBR location) and a range of sociodemographic factors (gender, age, origin, language proficiency, education level, religion) relate to the CS held by the Popoluca Indigenous People in relation to these two endangered primate species. METHODS: The first Primate Cultural Significance Index (PCSI) was designed as a composed index of 11 cultural variables (sub-indices) and was applied randomly to a representative size sample of people over 15 years old in two Popolucas communities, one within the TBR (Piedra Labrada = 81 people) and another outside (Los Mangos = 91). U Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare the PCSI between communities and Generalized Linear Models (GLM) to evaluate the sociodemographic factors of participants that influenced the sub-indices in the PCSI. RESULTS: The cultural significance of spider monkeys held by the Popolucas was higher for the community within the TBR than for the community outside, while for howler monkeys it was higher outside. For both primate species across the two communities, the most relevant sub-indices were (1) interest in conservation and (2) touristic significance of primates. Sociodemographic factors of participants influenced nine sub-indices of cultural significance out of the possible 10 sub-indices applied for each primate species. The demographic factors that most influenced each sub-index for both species were location and gender. CONCLUSIONS: The main differences found between communities may be linked to the conservation and sustainable development programs promoted by the reserve, as well as the greater persistence of Popolucan ancestral traditions within the boundaries of the reserve. We recommend that conservation efforts should focus on people less interested about primate conservation (women, non-natives and residents outside the reserve), and turn to the leadership of people more interested (native men who reside inside the reserve).


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Primatas , Adulto , Animais , Biodiversidade , Feminino , Humanos , Povos Indígenas , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
2.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1196, 2021 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645933

RESUMO

Emerging mutations in SARS-CoV-2 cause several waves of COVID-19 pandemic. Here we investigate the infectivity and antigenicity of ten emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants-B.1.1.298, B.1.1.7(Alpha), B.1.351(Beta), P.1(Gamma), P.2(Zeta), B.1.429(Epsilon), B.1.525(Eta), B.1.526-1(Iota), B.1.526-2(Iota), B.1.1.318-and seven corresponding single amino acid mutations in the receptor-binding domain using SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. The results indicate that the pseudovirus of most of the SARS-CoV-2 variants (except B.1.1.298) display slightly increased infectivity in human and monkey cell lines, especially B.1.351, B.1.525 and B.1.526 in Calu-3 cells. The K417N/T, N501Y, or E484K-carrying variants exhibit significantly increased abilities to infect mouse ACE2-overexpressing cells. The activities of furin, TMPRSS2, and cathepsin L are increased against most of the variants. RBD amino acid mutations comprising K417T/N, L452R, Y453F, S477N, E484K, and N501Y cause significant immune escape from 11 of 13 monoclonal antibodies. However, the resistance to neutralization by convalescent serum or vaccines elicited serum is mainly caused by the E484K mutation. The convalescent serum from B.1.1.7- and B.1.351-infected patients neutralized the variants themselves better than other SARS-CoV-2 variants. Our study provides insights regarding therapeutic antibodies and vaccines, and highlights the importance of E484K mutation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/genética , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/terapia , Linhagem Celular , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Mamíferos/imunologia , Camundongos , Mutação , Pandemias , Primatas/imunologia , Ligação Proteica , Tropismo/genética
4.
F1000Res ; 10: 257, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976866

RESUMO

The only currently available approach to early efficacy testing of tuberculosis (TB) vaccine candidates is in vivo preclinical challenge models. These typically include mice, guinea pigs and non-human primates (NHPs), which must be exposed to virulent M.tb in a 'challenge' experiment following vaccination in order to evaluate protective efficacy. This procedure results in disease development and is classified as 'Moderate' in severity under EU legislation and UK ASPA licensure. Furthermore, experiments are relatively long and animals must be maintained in high containment level facilities, making them relatively costly. We describe an in vitro protocol for the direct mycobacterial growth inhibition assay (MGIA) for use in the macaque model of TB vaccine development with the aim of overcoming some of these limitations. Importantly, using an in vitro assay in place of in vivo M.tb challenge represents a significant refinement to the existing procedure for early vaccine efficacy testing. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell and autologous serum samples collected from vaccinated and unvaccinated control animals are co-cultured with mycobacteria in a 48-well plate format for 96 hours. Adherent monocytes are then lysed to release intracellular mycobacteria which is quantified using the BACTEC MGIT system and colony-forming units determined relative to an inoculum control and stock standard curve. We discuss related optimisation and characterisation experiments, and review evidence that the direct NHP MGIA provides a biologically relevant model of vaccine-induced protection. The potential end-users of the NHP MGIA are academic and industry organisations that conduct the assessment of TB vaccine candidates and associated protective immunity using the NHP model. This approach aims to provide a method for high-throughput down-selection of vaccine candidates going forward to in vivo efficacy testing, thus expediting the development of a more efficacious TB vaccine and offering potential refinement and reduction to the use of NHPs for this purpose.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose , Tuberculose , Animais , Cobaias , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Camundongos , Primatas , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
6.
Vaccine ; 39(45): 6601-6613, 2021 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642088

RESUMO

AKS-452 is a biologically-engineered vaccine comprising an Fc fusion protein of the SARS-CoV-2 viral spike protein receptor binding domain antigen (Ag) and human IgG1 Fc (SP/RBD-Fc) in clinical development for the induction and augmentation of neutralizing IgG titers against SARS-CoV-2 viral infection to address the COVID-19 pandemic. The Fc moiety is designed to enhance immunogenicity by increasing uptake via Fc-receptors (FcγR) on Ag-presenting cells (APCs) and prolonging exposure due to neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) recycling. AKS-452 induced approximately 20-fold greater neutralizing IgG titers in mice relative to those induced by SP/RBD without the Fc moiety and induced comparable long-term neutralizing titers with a single dose vs. two doses. To further enhance immunogenicity, AKS-452 was evaluated in formulations containing a panel of adjuvants in which the water-in-oil adjuvant, Montanide™ ISA 720, enhanced neutralizing IgG titers by approximately 7-fold after one and two doses in mice, including the neutralization of live SARS-CoV-2 virus infection of VERO-E6 cells. Furthermore, ISA 720-adjuvanted AKS-452 was immunogenic in rabbits and non-human primates (NHPs) and protected from infection and clinical symptoms with live SARS-CoV-2 virus in NHPs (USA-WA1/2020 viral strain) and the K18 human ACE2-trangenic (K18-huACE2-Tg) mouse (South African B.1.351 viral variant). These preclinical studies support the initiation of Phase I clinical studies with adjuvanted AKS-452 with the expectation that this room-temperature stable, Fc-fusion subunit vaccine can be rapidly and inexpensively manufactured to provide billions of doses per year especially in regions where the cold-chain is difficult to maintain.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunoglobulina G , Camundongos , Primatas , Coelhos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas de Subunidades
8.
Neuron ; 109(20): 3312-3322.e5, 2021 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672984

RESUMO

Concurrent genetic neuromodulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in primates has provided a valuable opportunity to assess the modified brain-wide operation in the resting state. However, its application to link the network operation with behavior still remains challenging. Here, we combined chemogenetic silencing of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) with tactile fMRI and related behaviors in macaques. Focal chemogenetic silencing of functionally identified SI hand region impaired grasping behavior. The same silencing also attenuated hand stimulation-evoked fMRI signal at both the local silencing site and the anatomically and/or functionally connected downstream grasping network, suggesting altered network operation underlying the induced behavioral impairment. Furthermore, the hand region silencing unexpectedly disinhibited foot representation with accompanying behavioral hypersensitization. These results demonstrate that focal chemogenetic silencing with sensory fMRI in macaques unveils bidirectional network changes to generate multifaceted behavioral impairments, thereby opening a pivotal window toward elucidating the causal network operation underpinning higher brain functions in primates.


Assuntos
Técnicas Genéticas , Força da Mão , Córtex Somatossensorial/diagnóstico por imagem , Tato , Animais , , Neuroimagem Funcional , Mãos , Macaca fuscata , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/metabolismo , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Primatas , Córtex Somatossensorial/metabolismo , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiologia
9.
Nat Immunol ; 22(10): 1294-1305, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556879

RESUMO

Development of effective human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) vaccines requires synergy between innate and adaptive immune cells. Here we show that induction of the transcription factor CREB1 and its target genes by the recombinant canarypox vector ALVAC + Alum augments immunogenicity in non-human primates (NHPs) and predicts reduced HIV-1 acquisition in the RV144 trial. These target genes include those encoding cytokines/chemokines associated with heightened protection from simian immunodeficiency virus challenge in NHPs. Expression of CREB1 target genes probably results from direct cGAMP (STING agonist)-modulated p-CREB1 activity that drives the recruitment of CD4+ T cells and B cells to the site of antigen presentation. Importantly, unlike NHPs immunized with ALVAC + Alum, those immunized with ALVAC + MF59, the regimen in the HVTN702 trial that showed no protection from HIV infection, exhibited significantly reduced CREB1 target gene expression. Our integrated systems biology approach has validated CREB1 as a critical driver of vaccine efficacy and highlights that adjuvants that trigger CREB1 signaling may be critical for efficacious HIV-1 vaccines.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Vetores Genéticos/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Primatas/imunologia , Primatas/virologia , Vacinação/métodos
10.
Elife ; 102021 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542404

RESUMO

Many primate genes produce circular RNAs (circRNAs). However, the extent of circRNA conservation between closely related species remains unclear. By comparing tissue-specific transcriptomes across over 70 million years of primate evolution, we identify that within 3 million years circRNA expression profiles diverged such that they are more related to species identity than organ type. However, our analysis also revealed a subset of circRNAs with conserved neural expression across tens of millions of years of evolution. By comparing to species-specific circRNAs, we identified that the downstream intron of the conserved circRNAs display a dramatic lengthening during evolution due to the insertion of novel retrotransposons. Our work provides comparative analyses of the mechanisms promoting circRNAs to generate increased transcriptomic complexity in primates.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Primatas/genética , RNA Circular/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Sequência Conservada , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Íntrons , Filogenia , Primatas/metabolismo , RNA Circular/biossíntese , Retroelementos , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1958): 20210590, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521250

RESUMO

Non-human primates respond to the death of a conspecific in diverse ways, some of which may present phylogenetic continuity with human thanatological responses. Of these responses, infant corpse carrying by mothers (ICC) is the most frequently reported. Despite its prevalence, quantitative analyses of this behaviour are scarce and inconclusive. We compiled a database of 409 published cases across 50 different primate species of mothers' responses to their infants' deaths and used Bayesian phylogenetic regressions with an information-theoretic approach to test hypotheses proposed to explain between- and within-species variation in ICC. We found that ICC was more likely when the infant's death was non-traumatic (e.g. illness) versus traumatic (e.g. infanticide), and when the mother was younger. These results support the death detection hypothesis, which proposes that ICC occurs when there are fewer contextual or sensory cues indicating death. Such an interpretation suggests that primates are able to attain an awareness of death. In addition, when carried, infant age affected ICC duration, with longer ICC observed for younger infants. This result suggests that ICC is a by-product of strong selection on maternal behaviour. The findings are discussed in the context of the evolution of emotion, and implications for evolutionary thanatology are proposed.


Assuntos
Morte , Mães , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Cadáver , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Filogenia , Primatas
12.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 163(9): 553-563, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465559

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Animal experimentation is commonly practiced in scientific research worldwide. However, there are no globally accepted standards for regulating the ethical boundaries and accepted practices for animal experimentation. Large differences exist between countries. A report suggested that some researchers, especially from countries with more stringent animal experimentation regulations, may be relocating experimental research to countries with less stringent regulations. We followed a systematic literature review approach to identity publications and determine whether there is an increasing trend in expatriation of non-human primate experimentation by researchers based in Switzerland. We used the Projects People Publications database, which contains projects funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation, to identify researchers conducting experiments using non-human primates. This list of names, together with terms referring to non-human primates were used to search the Web of Science. Publications without an author affiliated to a Swiss institution, no living or only with free non-human primates, and non-original research were excluded. For each publication, we recorded the place of experimentation, funding source, number of animals, species and the statement of ethical approval. We retained 120 publications, involving more than 2,429 non-human primates. Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis were the most common species. We could not confirm an increasing trend in expatriation of non-human primate experimentation outside of Switzerland. Over time, publications appeared to report the ethical approval number more consistently. These results should be interpreted with caution because the sample included only studies that were: 1) published and 2) reported in the Web of Science. Consequently, studies with insignificant results may have been excluded because these studies are rarely published, and studies of poor quality may have been excluded because they are often published in lower quality journals, not indexed by the Web of Science.


Assuntos
Experimentação Animal , Animais , Primatas , Projetos de Pesquisa , Suíça
13.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1881-1889, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490832

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 has been the causative pathogen of the pandemic of COVID-19, resulting in catastrophic health issues globally. It is important to develop human-like animal models for investigating the mechanisms that SARS-CoV-2 uses to infect humans and cause COVID-19. Several studies demonstrated that the non-human primate (NHP) is permissive for SARS-CoV-2 infection to cause typical clinical symptoms including fever, cough, breathing difficulty, and other diagnostic abnormalities such as immunopathogenesis and hyperplastic lesions in the lung. These NHP models have been used for investigating the potential infection route and host immune response to SARS-CoV-2, as well as testing vaccines and drugs. This review aims to summarize the benefits and caveats of NHP models currently available for SARS-CoV-2, and to discuss key topics including model optimization, extended application, and clinical translation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Primatas/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Animais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , Primatas/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética
14.
Behav Brain Sci ; 44: e77, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588068

RESUMO

Comparative studies of primates indicate that humans have evolved unique motivations and cognitive skills for sharing emotions, experiences, and collaborative actions. Given the characteristics of music, the music and social bonding (MSB) hypothesis by Savage et al. fits this view. Within a cross-species approach, predispositions not observed in current communication system may contribute to a better understanding of the biological roots of human musicality.


Assuntos
Música , Animais , Emoções , Primatas
15.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256552, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496001

RESUMO

Our research goal was to investigate the primate pet trade in the United States. While dogs and cats are the most common type of pet, there are an estimated 15,000 pet primates in the United States and the demand for exotic pets in general has been rising. Most research on pet primates occurs in habitat countries and little is known about these pets in the United States. We collected data from six exotic pet-trade websites twice a month for 12 months. We recorded the type of primate for sale, sex, age, location, and price. We used Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit tests to compare whether the number of male and female pet primates for sale and the number of different age categories of pet primates for sale differed from equality and Spearman Correlation to examine associations between price and size and price and supply. We recorded 551 pet primates for sale between June 2019-June 2020, with 69.1% platyrrhines, 21.6% strepsirrhines, and 8.9% catarrhines. Marmosets were sold most often (36.7%, N = 202) followed by lemurs (21.6%, N = 119), capuchins (11.3%, N = 62), and squirrel monkeys (10.5%, N = 58). Almost two-thirds of the pet primates for sale were male (Chi-Square = 16.056, df = 1, P = 0. 00006) and 78.7% were under one year old (Chi-Square = 440.264, df = 2, P<0.00001). The median price was $3,800 though price was highly variable, even for the same taxa. There are several potential drivers for the primate pet trade, including media influence, fashion/status, and profitable breeding though these are not mutually exclusive. Primates do not make good pets and even when captive-bred, pet primates impact the conservation of their wild counterparts. Advertisement campaigns focusing on disease transmission and legal consequences and a federal ban on pet primate ownership are two avenues to pursue to end the ownership of pet primates in the United States.


Assuntos
Animais Exóticos , Comércio , Animais de Estimação , Doenças dos Primatas/transmissão , Primatas , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Feminino , Masculino , Propriedade/legislação & jurisprudência , Animais de Estimação/economia , Estados Unidos
16.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256309, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469439

RESUMO

Studies about the anatomy of the New World Primates are scarce, mainly comparative neuroanatomy, then a morphological comparative analysis about the tropical Primates were performed and a effort was made for an Old World Primates and modern humans relationship for the obtained data; plus, comments about behavior e and allometry were performed to try link the high cognition and abilities of the Sapajus with the neuroanatomical results, however, despite the deep neuroanatomic data obtained, we do not found an intrinsic relation to explain that.


Assuntos
Anatomia Comparada/métodos , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Neuroanatomia/métodos , Primatas/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Sapajus
17.
Comp Med ; 71(5): 411-432, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548126

RESUMO

COVID-19, the disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 betacoronavirus, was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. Since then, SARS-CoV-2 has triggered a devastating global health and economic emergency. In response, a broad range of preclinical animal models have been used to identify effective therapies and vaccines. Current animal models do not express the full spectrum of human COVID-19 disease and pathology, with most exhibiting mild to moderate disease without mortality. NHPs are physiologically, genetically, and immunologically more closely related to humans than other animal species; thus, they provide a relevant model for SARS-CoV-2 investigations. This overview summarizes NHP models of SARS-CoV-2 and their role in vaccine and therapeutic development.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , Primatas
18.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1837): 20200355, 2021 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538137

RESUMO

Future biodiversity loss threatens the integrity of complex ecological associations, including among hosts and parasites. Almost half of primate species are threatened with extinction, and the loss of threatened hosts could negatively impact parasite associations and ecosystem functions. If endangered hosts are highly connected in host-parasite networks, then future host extinctions will also drive parasite extinctions, destabilizing ecological networks. If threatened hosts are not highly connected, however, then network structure should not be greatly affected by the loss of threatened hosts. Networks with high connectance, modularity, nestedness and robustness are more resilient to perturbations such as the loss of interactions than sparse, nonmodular and non-nested networks. We analysed the interaction network involving 213 primates and 763 parasites and removed threatened primates (114 species) to simulate the effects of extinction. Our analyses revealed that connections to 23% of primate parasites (176 species) may be lost if threatened primates go extinct. In addition, measures of network structure were affected, but in varying ways because threatened hosts have fewer parasite interactions than non-threatened hosts. These results reveal that host extinctions will perturb the host-parasite network and potentially lead to secondary extinctions of parasites. The ecological consequences of these extinctions remain unclear. This article is part of the theme issue 'Infectious disease macroecology: parasite diversity and dynamics across the globe'.


Assuntos
Extinção Biológica , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Parasitos/fisiologia , Primatas/parasitologia , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Modelos Biológicos
19.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 600, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nucleotide excision repair is the primary DNA repair mechanism that removes bulky DNA adducts such as UV-induced pyrimidine dimers. Correspondingly, genome-wide mapping of nucleotide excision repair with eXcision Repair sequencing (XR-seq), provides comprehensive profiling of DNA damage repair. A number of XR-seq experiments at a variety of conditions for different damage types revealed heterogenous repair in the human genome. Although human repair profiles were extensively studied, how repair maps vary between primates is yet to be investigated. Here, we characterized the genome-wide UV-induced damage repair in gray mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus, in comparison to human. RESULTS: We derived fibroblast cell lines from mouse lemur, exposed them to UV irradiation, and analyzed the repair events genome-wide using the XR-seq protocol. Mouse lemur repair profiles were analyzed in comparison to the equivalent human fibroblast datasets. We found that overall UV sensitivity, repair efficiency, and transcription-coupled repair levels differ between the two primates. Despite this, comparative analysis of human and mouse lemur fibroblasts revealed that genome-wide repair profiles of the homologous regions are highly correlated, and this correlation is stronger for highly expressed genes. With the inclusion of an additional XR-seq sample derived from another human cell line in the analysis, we found that fibroblasts of the two primates repair UV-induced DNA lesions in a more similar pattern than two distinct human cell lines do. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that mouse lemurs and humans, and possibly primates in general, share a homologous repair mechanism as well as genomic variance distribution, albeit with their variable repair efficiency. This result also emphasizes the deep homologies of individual tissue types across the eukaryotic phylogeny.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Dímeros de Pirimidina , Animais , Dano ao DNA/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Primatas/genética , Raios Ultravioleta
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 798: 149268, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333432

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a public health concern; but antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and integrons that link to AMR of Escherichia coli from non-human primates remain largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate antibiotic resistance, emerging environmental pollutants ARGs, and integrons factors (intI1, intI2 and intI3) in 995 E. coli isolates obtained from 50 species of captive non-human primates of 13 zoos in China. Our result showed 83.62% of the E. coli isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic and 47.94% isolates showed multiple drug resistances (MDR). The E. coli isolates mainly showed resistance to tetracycline (tetracycline 62.71%, doxycycline 61.11%), ß-lactams (ampicillin 54.27%, amoxicillin 52.36%), and sulfonamide (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 36.78%). A total of 423 antibiotic resistance patterns were observed, of which DOX/TET (49 isolates, 4.92%) was the most common pattern. Antibiotic resistance rates among 13 zoos had a significant difference (P < 0.01). We further detected 22 ARGs in the 995 E. coli isolates, of which tetA had the highest occurrence (70.55%). The presence of integrons class 1 and 2 were 24.22% and 1.71%, respectively, while no class 3 integron was found. Significant positive associations were observed among integrons and antibiotics, of which the strongest association was observed for integrons / Gentamicin (OR, 2.642) and integrons / Cefotaxime (OR, 2.512). In addition, cassette arrays were detected in 64 strains of class 1 integron-positive isolates (26.56%) and 10 strains of class 2 integron-positive isolates (58.82%). Eighteen cassette arrays were found within 64 class 1 integron isolates, while 3 cassette arrays were identified within 10 class 2 integron isolates. Our results indicate a high diversity of antibiotic resistance phenotypes in non-human primate E. coli isolates, which carry multiple ARGs and integrons. Corresponding preventive measures should be taken to prevent the spread of integron-mediated ARGs in non-human primates and their living environments in zoos.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Integrons , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Integrons/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Primatas
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