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3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(1)2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35009881

RESUMO

Blockchain ecosystems are rapidly maturing and meeting the needs of business environments (e.g., industry, manufacturing, and robotics). The decentralized approaches in industries enable novel business concepts, such as machine autonomy and servitization of manufacturing environments. Introducing the distributed ledger technology principles into the machine sharing and servitization economy faces several challenges, and the integration opens new interesting research questions. Our research focuses on data and event models and secure upgradeable smart contract platforms for machine servitization. Our research indicates that with the proposed approaches, we can efficiently separate on- and off-chain data and assure scalability of the DApp without compromising the trust. We demonstrate that the secure upgradeable smart contract platform, which was adapted for machine servitization, supports the business workflow and, at the same time, assures common identification and authorization of all the participants in the system, including people, devices, and legal entities. We present a hybrid decentralized application (DApp) for the servitization of 3D printing. The solution can be used for or easily adapted to other manufacturing domains. It comprises a modular, upgradeable smart contract platform and off-chain machine, customer and web management, and monitoring interfaces. We pay special attention to the data and event models during the design, which are fundamental for the hybrid data storage and DApp architecture and the responsiveness of off-chain interfaces. The smart contract platform uses a proxy contract to control the access of smart contracts and role-based access control in function calls for blockchain users. We deploy and evaluate the DApp in a consortium blockchain network for performance and privacy. All the actors in the solution, including the machines, are identified by their blockchain accounts and are compeers. Our solution thus facilitates integration with the traditional information-communication systems in terms of the hybrid architectures and security standards for smart contract design comparable to those in traditional software engineering.


Assuntos
Blockchain , Ecossistema , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Privacidade , Software
4.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 1550993, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34900176

RESUMO

The outbreak of the novel coronavirus has exposed many problems in the auxiliary information system for epidemic prevention and control, which needs to be resolved by using methods such as the antitampering of logistics data and the management and control of epidemic materials. This article discusses the introduction of emerging technologies such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), which support privacy protection into the auxiliary information system for epidemic prevention and control. Recently, this paper found that Khwaja et al.'s protocol (RAPUS protocol) is susceptible to database impersonation attacks and reader impersonation attacks. Therefore, this article proposes the enhanced protocol, which not only perfectly solves the problems of the abovementioned protocols but also comprehensively compares multiple protocols. The enhanced protocol has higher efficiency and security. The security of the proposed protocol (RAPUS + protocol) is analyzed by GNY logic and the AVISPA model. The designed scheme can help realize the safety and traceability of epidemic prevention materials and improve the automation and decision-making efficiency of the epidemic prevention.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dispositivo de Identificação por Radiofrequência , Humanos , Privacidade , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(24)2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960320

RESUMO

With the advancement of different technologies such as 5G networks and IoT the use of different cloud computing technologies became essential. Cloud computing allowed intensive data processing and warehousing solution. Two different new cloud technologies that inherit some of the traditional cloud computing paradigm are fog computing and edge computing that is aims to simplify some of the complexity of cloud computing and leverage the computing capabilities within the local network in order to preform computation tasks rather than carrying it to the cloud. This makes this technology fits with the properties of IoT systems. However, using such technology introduces several new security and privacy challenges that could be huge obstacle against implementing these technologies. In this paper, we survey some of the main security and privacy challenges that faces fog and edge computing illustrating how these security issues could affect the work and implementation of edge and fog computing. Moreover, we present several countermeasures to mitigate the effect of these security issues.


Assuntos
Computação em Nuvem , Privacidade
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(24)2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960366

RESUMO

Owing to the hasty growth of communication technologies in the Underwater Internet of Things (UIoT), many researchers and industries focus on enhancing the existing technologies of UIoT systems for developing numerous applications such as oceanography, diver networks monitoring, deep-sea exploration and early warning systems. In a constrained UIoT environment, communication media such as acoustic, infrared (IR), visible light, radiofrequency (RF) and magnet induction (MI) are generally used to transmit information via digitally linked underwater devices. However, each medium has its technical limitations: for example, the acoustic medium has challenges such as narrow-channel bandwidth, low data rate, high cost, etc., and optical medium has challenges such as high absorption, scattering, long-distance data transmission, etc. Moreover, the malicious node can steal the underwater data by employing blackhole attacks, routing attacks, Sybil attacks, etc. Furthermore, due to heavyweight, the existing privacy and security mechanism of the terrestrial internet of things (IoT) cannot be applied directly to UIoT environment. Hence, this paper aims to provide a systematic review of recent trends, applications, communication technologies, challenges, security threats and privacy issues of UIoT system. Additionally, this paper highlights the methods of preventing the technical challenges and security attacks of the UIoT environment. Finally, this systematic review contributes much to the profit of researchers to analyze and improve the performance of services in UIoT applications.


Assuntos
Internet das Coisas , Privacidade , Acústica , Segurança Computacional , Tecnologia
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(24)2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960376

RESUMO

The prediction of human mobility can facilitate resolving many kinds of urban problems, such as reducing traffic congestion, and promote commercial activities, such as targeted advertising. However, the requisite personal GPS data face privacy issues. Related organizations can only collect limited data and they experience difficulties in sharing them. These data are in "isolated islands" and cannot collectively contribute to improving the performance of applications. Thus, the method of federated learning (FL) can be adopted, in which multiple entities collaborate to train a collective model with their raw data stored locally and, therefore, not exchanged or transferred. However, to predict long-term human mobility, the performance and practicality would be impaired if only some models were simply combined with FL, due to the irregularity and complexity of long-term mobility data. Therefore, we explored the optimized construction method based on the high-efficient gradient-boosting decision tree (GBDT) model with FL and propose the novel federated voting (FedVoting) mechanism, which aggregates the ensemble of differential privacy (DP)-protected GBDTs by the multiple training, cross-validation and voting processes to generate the optimal model and can achieve both good performance and privacy protection. The experiments show the great accuracy in long-term predictions of special event attendance and point-of-interest visits. Compared with training the model independently for each silo (organization) and state-of-art baselines, the FedVoting method achieves a significant accuracy improvement, almost comparable to the centralized training, at a negligible expense of privacy exposure.


Assuntos
Privacidade , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos , Política
8.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 22(2): 19-32, jul.-dez. 2021. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1340810

RESUMO

O presente estudo parte de uma investigação mais ampla sobre a vergonha e o pudor na intimidade da família e tem por objetivo investigar a percepção do pudor em famílias com filhos adolescentes. Realizou-se uma pesquisa qualitativa na qual foram entrevistados oito sujeitos do segmento socioeconômico médio. Os resultados foram analisados de acordo com o método de análise de conteúdo, vertente temático-categorial e discutidos a partir do referencial teórico da psicanálise e das ciências sociais. Considerando o objetivo do presente estudo, apresentamos e discutimos as categorias: estranhamento do pudor; transmissão do pudor: um legado em questão; novos rumos da intimidade no lar e imagem no espaço público: protegendo a vergonha dos filhos. Os resultados apontam que os participantes atribuem ao pudor um significado de intimidade corporal e sexual transmitido pelas gerações anteriores e com pouca expressão na atual interação familiar. Concluímos que a transmissão geracional do pudor vem sofrendo uma descontinuidade, tendo em vista a maior proximidade afetiva com os filhos e seus reflexos na transformação da intimidade familiar.


ABSTRACT The present study is part of a broader investigation of shame and modesty in the intimacy of the family and aims to investigate the perception of modesty in families with adolescent children. Qualitative research was conducted in which eight 8 subjects from the middle socioeconomic segment were interviewed. According to the content analysis method, the results were analyzed, thematic-categorical, and discussed from the theoretical framework of psychoanalysis and social sciences. Considering the objective of the present study, we present and discuss the categories: the strangeness of modesty; transmission of modesty: a legacy in question; new directions of intimacy in the home and image in the public space: protecting the shame of children. The results show that the participants attribute to modesty a meaning of bodily and sexual intimacy transmitted by previous generations and little expression in the current family interaction. We conclude that the generational transmission of modesty has suffered a discontinuity, given the greater affective proximity to the children and their reflexes in the transformation of family intimacy.


RESUMEN El presente estudio, parte de una investigación más amplia sobre la vergüenza y la modestia en la intimidad de la familia y tiene como objetivo investigar la percepción de la modestia en familias con hijos adolescentes. Se realizó una investigación cualitativa en la que se entrevistó a 8 sujetos del segmento socioeconómico medio. Los resultados fueron analizados según el método de análisis de contenido, temático-categórico y discutidos desde el marco teórico del psicoanálisis y las ciencias sociales. Teniendo en cuenta el objetivo del presente estudio, presentamos y discutimos las categorías: extrañeza del pudor; transmisión del pudor: un legado en cuestión; nuevas direcciones de intimidad en el hogar e imagen en el espacio público: protegiendo la vergüenza de los niños. Los resultados muestran que los participantes atribuyen al pudor un significado de intimidad corporal y sexual transmitido por generaciones anteriores, y con escasa expresión en la interacción familiar actual. Concluimos que la transmisión generacional del pudor ha sufrido una discontinuidad, ante la mayor proximidad afectiva con los hijos y sus reflejos en la transformación de la intimidad familiar.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Valores Sociais , Privacidade , Sexualidade , Relações Familiares , Moral
9.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 5313027, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34970424

RESUMO

Mobile application (app) use is increasingly becoming an essential part of our daily lives. Due to their significant usefulness, people rely on them to perform multiple tasks seamlessly in almost all aspects of everyday life. Similarly, there has been immense progress in artificial intelligence (AI) technology, especially deep learning, computer vision, natural language processing, and robotics. These technologies are now actively being implemented in smartphone apps and healthcare, providing multiple healthcare services. However, several factors affect the usefulness of mobile healthcare apps, and usability is an important one. There are various healthcare apps developed for each specific task, and the success of these apps depends on their performance. This study presents a systematic review of the existing apps and discusses their usability attributes. It highlights the usability models, outlines, and guidelines proposed in previous research for designing apps with improved usability characteristics. Thirty-nine research articles were reviewed and examined to identify the usability attributes, framework, and app design conducted. The results showed that satisfaction, efficiency, and learnability are the most important usability attributes to consider when designing eHealth mobile apps. Surprisingly, other significant attributes for healthcare apps, such as privacy and security, were not among the most indicated attributes in the studies.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Telemedicina , Inteligência Artificial , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Privacidade
10.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 2398460, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34912444

RESUMO

Considering the importance of energy in our lives and its impact on other critical infrastructures, this paper starts from the whole life cycle of big data and divides the security and privacy risk factors of energy big data into five stages: data collection, data transmission, data storage, data use, and data destruction. Integrating into the consideration of cloud environment, this paper fully analyzes the risk factors of each stage and establishes a risk assessment index system for the security and privacy of energy big data. According to the different degrees of risk impact, AHP method is used to give indexes weights, genetic algorithm is used to optimize the initial weights and thresholds of BP neural network, and then the optimized weights and thresholds are given to BP neural network, and the evaluation samples in the database are used to train it. Then, the trained model is used to evaluate a case to verify the applicability of the model.


Assuntos
Big Data , Privacidade , Computação em Nuvem , Segurança Computacional , Medição de Risco
11.
BMC Med Ethics ; 22(1): 164, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34911502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has highlighted once more the great need for comprehensive access to, and uncomplicated use of, pre-existing patient data for medical research. Enabling secondary research-use of patient-data is a prerequisite for the efficient and sustainable promotion of translation and personalisation in medicine, and for the advancement of public-health. However, balancing the legitimate interests of scientists in broad and unrestricted data-access and the demand for individual autonomy, privacy and social justice is a great challenge for patient-based medical research. METHODS: We therefore conducted two questionnaire-based surveys among North-German outpatients (n = 650) to determine their attitude towards data-donation for medical research, implemented as an opt-out-process. RESULTS: We observed a high level of acceptance (75.0%), the most powerful predictor of a positive attitude towards data-donation was the conviction that every citizen has a duty to contribute to the improvement of medical research (> 80% of participants approving data-donation). Interestingly, patients distinguished sharply between research inside and outside the EU, despite a general awareness that universities and public research institutions cooperate with commercial companies, willingness to allow use of donated data by the latter was very low (7.1% to 29.1%, depending upon location of company). The most popular measures among interviewees to counteract reservations against commercial data-use were regulation by law (61.4%), stipulating in the process that data are not sold or resold (84.6%). A majority requested control of both the use (46.8%) and the protection (41.5%) of the data by independent bodies. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, data-donation for medical research, implemented as a combination of legal entitlement and easy-to-exercise-right to opt-out, was found to be widely supported by German patients and therefore warrants further consideration for a transposition into national law.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , COVID-19 , Atitude , Humanos , Privacidade , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(24)2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960473

RESUMO

The need for continuous monitoring of physiological information of critical organs of the human body, combined with the ever-growing field of electronics and sensor technologies and the vast opportunities brought by 5G connectivity, have made implantable medical devices (IMDs) the most necessitated devices in the health arena. IMDs are very sensitive since they are implanted in the human body, and the patients depend on them for the proper functioning of their vital organs. Simultaneously, they are intrinsically vulnerable to several attacks mainly due to their resource limitations and the wireless channel utilized for data transmission. Hence, failing to secure them would put the patient's life in jeopardy and damage the reputations of the manufacturers. To date, various researchers have proposed different countermeasures to keep the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of IMD systems with privacy and safety specifications. Despite the appreciated efforts made by the research community, there are issues with these proposed solutions. Principally, there are at least three critical problems. (1) Inadequate essential capabilities (such as emergency authentication, key update mechanism, anonymity, and adaptability); (2) heavy computational and communication overheads; and (3) lack of rigorous formal security verification. Motivated by this, we have thoroughly analyzed the current IMD authentication protocols by utilizing two formal approaches: the Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic (BAN logic) and the Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA). In addition, we compared these schemes against their security strengths, computational overheads, latency, and other vital features, such as emergency authentications, key update mechanisms, and adaptabilities.


Assuntos
Segurança Computacional , Confidencialidade , Humanos , Lógica , Privacidade , Próteses e Implantes
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(24)2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960507

RESUMO

As a standard digital signature may be verified by anybody, it is unsuitable for personal or economically sensitive applications. The chameleon signature system was presented by Krawczyk and Rabin as a solution to this problem. It is based on a hash then sign model. The chameleon hash function enables the trapdoor information holder to compute a message digest collision. The holder of a chameleon signature is the recipient of a chameleon signature. He could compute collision on the hash value using the trapdoor information. This keeps the recipient from disclosing his conviction to a third party and ensures the privacy of the signature. The majority of the extant chameleon signature methods are built on the computationally infeasible number theory problems, like integer factorization and discrete log. Unfortunately, the construction of quantum computers would be rendered insecure to those schemes. This creates a solid requirement for construct chameleon signatures for the quantum world. Hence, this paper proposes a novel quantum secure chameleon signature scheme based on hash functions. As a hash-based cryptosystem is an essential candidate of a post-quantum cryptosystem, the proposed hash-based chameleon signature scheme would be a promising alternative to the number of theoretic-based methods. Furthermore, the proposed method is key exposure-free and satisfies the security requirements such as semantic security, non-transferability, and unforgeability.


Assuntos
Segurança Computacional , Privacidade
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(12): e24109, 2021 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Academic literature highlights blockchain's potential to transform health care, particularly by seamlessly and securely integrating existing data silos while enabling patients to exercise automated, fine-grained control over access to their electronic health records. However, no serious scholarly attempt has been made to assess how these technologies have in fact been applied to real-world health care contexts. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this paper is to assess whether blockchain's theoretical potential to deliver transformative benefits to health care is likely to become a reality by undertaking a critical investigation of the health care sector's actual experience of blockchain technologies to date. METHODS: This mixed methods study entailed a series of iterative, in-depth, theoretically oriented, desk-based investigations and 2 focus group investigations. It builds on the findings of a companion research study documenting real-world engagement with blockchain technologies in health care. Data were sourced from academic and gray literature from multiple disciplinary perspectives concerned with the configuration, design, and functionality of blockchain technologies. The analysis proceeded in 3 stages. First, it undertook a qualitative investigation of observed patterns of blockchain for health care engagement to identify the application domains, data-sharing problems, and the challenges encountered to date. Second, it critically compared these experiences with claims about blockchain's potential benefits in health care. Third, it developed a theoretical account of challenges that arise in implementing blockchain in health care contexts, thus providing a firmer foundation for appraising its future prospects in health care. RESULTS: Health care organizations have actively experimented with blockchain technologies since 2016 and have demonstrated proof of concept for several applications (use cases) primarily concerned with administrative data and to facilitate medical research by enabling algorithmic models to be trained on multiple disparately located sets of patient data in a secure, privacy-preserving manner. However, blockchain technology is yet to be implemented at scale in health care, remaining largely in its infancy. These early experiences have demonstrated blockchain's potential to generate meaningful value to health care by facilitating data sharing between organizations in circumstances where computational trust can overcome a lack of social trust that might otherwise prevent valuable cooperation. Although there are genuine prospects of using blockchain to bring about positive transformations in health care, the successful development of blockchain for health care applications faces a number of very significant, multidimensional, and highly complex challenges. Early experience suggests that blockchain is unlikely to rapidly and radically revolutionize health care. CONCLUSIONS: The successful development of blockchain for health care applications faces numerous significant, multidimensional, and complex challenges that will not be easily overcome, suggesting that blockchain technologies are unlikely to revolutionize health care in the near future.


Assuntos
Blockchain , Atenção à Saúde , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Setor de Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Privacidade
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34949033

RESUMO

The use of WhatsApp in health care has increased, especially since the COVID-19 pandemic, but there is a need to safeguard electronic patient information when incorporating it into a medical record, be it electronic or paper based. The aim of this study was to review the literature on how clinicians who use WhatsApp in clinical practice keep medical records of the content of WhatsApp messages and how they store WhatsApp messages and/or attachments. A scoping review of nine databases sought evidence of record keeping or data storage related to use of WhatsApp in clinical practice up to 31 December 2020. Sixteen of 346 papers met study criteria. Most clinicians were aware that they must comply with statutory reporting requirements in keeping medical records of all electronic communications. However, this study showed a general lack of awareness or concern about flaunting existing privacy and security legislation. No clear mechanisms for record keeping or data storage of WhatsApp content were provided. In the absence of clear guidelines, problematic practices and workarounds have been created, increasing legal, regulatory and ethical concerns. There is a need to raise awareness of the problems clinicians face in meeting these obligations and to urgently provide viable guidance.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Privacidade , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833723

RESUMO

With the emerging growth of digital data in information systems, technology faces the challenge of knowledge prevention, ownership rights protection, security, and privacy measurement of valuable and sensitive data. On-demand availability of various data as services in a shared and automated environment has become a reality with the advent of cloud computing. The digital fingerprinting technique has been adopted as an effective solution to protect the copyright and privacy of digital properties from illegal distribution and identification of malicious traitors over the cloud. Furthermore, it is used to trace the unauthorized distribution and the user of multimedia content distributed through the cloud. In this paper, we propose a novel fingerprinting technique for the cloud environment to protect numeric attributes in relational databases for digital privacy management. The proposed solution with the novel fingerprinting scheme is robust and efficient. It can address challenges such as embedding secure data over the cloud, essential to secure relational databases. The proposed technique provides a decoding accuracy of 100%, 90%, and 40% for 10% to 30%, 40%, and 50% of deleted records.


Assuntos
Segurança Computacional , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Computação em Nuvem , Confidencialidade , Privacidade , Tecnologia
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833732

RESUMO

Internet of Things (IoT) applications bring evolved and intelligent services that can help improve users' daily lives. These applications include home automation, health care, and smart agriculture. However, IoT development and adoption face various security and privacy challenges that need to be overcome. As a promising security paradigm, context-aware security enables one to enforce security and privacy mechanisms adaptively. Moreover, with the advancements in edge computing, context-aware security services can dynamically be placed close to a user's location and enable the support of low latency communication and mobility. Therefore, the design of an adaptive and decentralized access control mechanism becomes a necessity. In this paper, we propose a decentralized context-aware authorization management as a service based on the blockchain. The proposed architecture extends the Authentication and Authorization for Constrained Environments (ACE) framework with blockchain technology and context-awareness capabilities. Instead of a classic Open Authorization 2.0 (OAuth) access token, it uses a new contextual access token. The evaluation results show our proposition's effectiveness and advantages in terms of usability, security, low latency, and energy consumption.


Assuntos
Blockchain , Internet das Coisas , Segurança Computacional , Atenção à Saúde , Privacidade
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833792

RESUMO

Recent advances in mobile technologies have facilitated the development of a new class of smart city and fifth-generation (5G) network applications. These applications have diverse requirements, such as low latencies, high data rates, significant amounts of computing and storage resources, and access to sensors and actuators. A heterogeneous private edge cloud system was proposed to address the requirements of these applications. The proposed heterogeneous private edge cloud system is characterized by a complex and dynamic multilayer network and computing infrastructure. Efficient management and utilization of this infrastructure may increase data rates and reduce data latency, data privacy risks, and traffic to the core Internet network. A novel intelligent middleware platform is proposed in the current study to manage and utilize heterogeneous private edge cloud infrastructure efficiently. The proposed platform aims to provide computing, data collection, and data storage services to support emerging resource-intensive and non-resource-intensive smart city and 5G network applications. It aims to leverage regression analysis and reinforcement learning methods to solve the problem of efficiently allocating heterogeneous resources to application tasks. This platform adopts parallel transmission techniques, dynamic interface allocation techniques, and machine learning-based algorithms in a dynamic multilayer network infrastructure to improve network and application performance. Moreover, it uses container and device virtualization technologies to address problems related to heterogeneous hardware and execution environments.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Computação em Nuvem , Aprendizado de Máquina , Privacidade
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