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1.
Physiol Plant ; 176(4): e14415, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38962818

RESUMO

The monotonicity of color type in naturally colored cottons (NCCs) has become the main limiting factor to their widespread use, simultaneously coexisting with poor fiber quality. The synchronous improvement of fiber quality and color become more urgent and crucial as the demand for sustainable development increases. The homologous gene of wild cotton Gossypium stocksii LAC15 in G. hirsutum, GhLAC15, was also dominantly expressed in the developing fibers of brown cotton XC20 from 5 DPA (day post anthesis) to 25 DPA, especially at the secondary cell wall thickening stage (20 DPA and 25 DPA). In XC20 plants with downregulated GhLAC15 (GhLAC15i), a remarkable reduction in proanthocyanidins (PAs) and lignin contents was observed. Some of the key genes in the phenylpropane and flavonoid biosynthesis pathway were down-regulated in GhLAC15i plants. Notably, the fiber length of GhLAC15i plants showed an obvious increase and the fiber color was lightened. Moreover, we found that the thickness of cotton fiber cell wall was decreased in GhLAC15i plants and the fiber surface became smoother compared to that of WT. Taken together, this study revealed that GhLAC15 played an important role in PAs and lignin biosynthesis in naturally colored cotton fibers. It might mediate fiber color and fiber quality by catalyzing PAs oxidation and lignin polymerization, ultimately regulating fiber colouration and development.


Assuntos
Fibra de Algodão , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium , Lacase , Lignina , Proteínas de Plantas , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Gossypium/enzimologia , Lacase/metabolismo , Lacase/genética , Lignina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Cor , Pigmentação/genética
2.
PeerJ ; 12: e17572, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952978

RESUMO

The bioaccessibility of tannins as antioxidants in meat is essential to maximise their effectiveness in protecting the product. This property determines the amount of tannins available to interact with meat components, inhibiting lipid and protein oxidation and, consequently, prolonging shelf life and preserving the sensory quality of the product. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioaccessibility of condensed tannins (CT) from Acacia mearnsii extract (AME) and their effect on the physico-chemical characteristics of fattened lamb meat. Thirty-six Dorset × Hampshire lambs (3 months old and 20.8 ± 3.3 kg live weight) were used. The lambs were distributed equally (n = 9) into four treatments: T1, T2, T3 and T4, which included a basal diet plus 0%, 0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75% of CT from AME, respectively. At the end of the fattening period, bioaccessibility was evaluated, the animals were slaughtered and a sample of the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle was collected to assess colour, lipid oxidation, cooking weight loss and shear force on days 1, 4, 7 and 14 of shelf-life, in samples preserved at -20 °C. In addition, the long chain fatty acid profile was analysed. A completely randomised design was used, and the means were compared with Tukey's test (P < 0.05). The mean lightness (L*), yellowness (b*) and hue (H*) values were higher for T3 and T4. The addition of CT did not affect (P > 0.05) redness (a*), cooking weight loss (CWL) or shear force (SF). T4 decreased (P < 0.05) stearic acid and increased cis-9 trans-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Bioaccessibility was higher in the supplemented groups (T1 < T2, T3 and T4). In conclusion, supplementing CT from AME in the diet of lambs did not reduce lipid oxidation, but T3 or T4 improved some aspects of meat colour and CLA deposition.


Assuntos
Proantocianidinas , Animais , Ovinos , Proantocianidinas/farmacocinética , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Carne Vermelha/análise , Carne/análise , Culinária , Extratos Vegetais/química , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/química
3.
FASEB J ; 38(13): e23749, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38953707

RESUMO

Pulmonary fibrosis is a formidable challenge in chronic and age-related lung diseases. Myofibroblasts secrete large amounts of extracellular matrix and induce pro-repair responses during normal wound healing. Successful tissue repair results in termination of myofibroblast activity via apoptosis; however, some myofibroblasts exhibit a senescent phenotype and escape apoptosis, causing over-repair that is characterized by pathological fibrotic scarring. Therefore, the removal of senescent myofibroblasts using senolytics is an important method for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. Procyanidin C1 (PCC1) has recently been discovered as a senolytic compound with very low toxicity and few side effects. This study aimed to determine whether PCC1 could improve lung fibrosis by promoting apoptosis in senescent myofibroblasts and to investigate the mechanisms involved. The results showed that PCC1 attenuates bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. In addition, we found that PCC1 inhibited extracellular matrix deposition and promoted the apoptosis of senescent myofibroblasts by increasing PUMA expression and activating the BAX signaling pathway. Our findings represent a new method of pulmonary fibrosis management and emphasize the potential of PCC1 as a senotherapeutic agent for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis, providing hope for patients with pulmonary fibrosis worldwide. Our results advance our understanding of age-related diseases and highlight the importance of addressing cellular senescence in treatment.


Assuntos
Bleomicina , Catequina , Senescência Celular , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miofibroblastos , Fibrose Pulmonar , Animais , Bleomicina/toxicidade , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Camundongos , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Catequina/farmacologia , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Biflavonoides/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
J Indian Prosthodont Soc ; 24(3): 279-283, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38946512

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of proanthocyanidin and C. sinensis-polyphenols on microtensile bonding properties of prepared teeth with resin-modified glass ionomer cement (GIC). SETTING AND DESIGN: This was an in vitro study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-eight maxillary premolars were selected and mounted into auto-polymerizing acrylic resin blocks. The samples were prepared and metal crowns were fabricated. The samples were randomly divided into three groups. Samples under Group 1 were not treated with any of the extracts and followed conventional bonding protocol. Samples under Group 2 and Group 3 were treated with proanthocyanidin and C. sinensis-polyphenols, respectively. After dentin treatment, these samples were luted to metal crowns using resin-modified GIC. Universal testing machine was used to measure the load at which the crowns were debonded and microtensile bond strength in MPa was calculated. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The results were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey HSD. RESULTS: Samples treated with C. sinensis polyphenols (Group 3) had maximum bond strength followed by Group 2, where the samples were treated with proanthocyanidin. CONCLUSION: C. sinensis polyphenols due to their anti-proteolytic and antioxidant properties showed improved bond strength compared to proanthocyanidin, a cross-linking agent, followed by conventional bonding protocol.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Coroas , Colagem Dentária , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro , Polifenóis , Proantocianidinas , Resistência à Tração , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/química , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro/química , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Polifenóis/química , Humanos , Colagem Dentária/métodos , Camellia sinensis/química , Técnicas In Vitro , Cimentos de Resina/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Análise do Estresse Dentário
5.
Planta ; 260(2): 38, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951258

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Our findings shed light on the regulation of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in chickpea seed coats. Expression of R2R3-MYB transcription factors CaLAP1 and CaLAP2 enhanced the anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins content in chickpea. The seed coat color is a major economic trait in leguminous crop chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs) are two classes of flavonoids that mainly contribute to the flower, seed coat and color of Desi chickpea cultivars. Throughout the land plant lineage, the accumulation of anthocyanins and PAs is regulated by MYB and bHLH transcription factors (TFs), which form an MBW (MYB, bHLH, and WD40) complex. Here, we report two R2R3-MYB TFs in chickpea belonging to the anthocyanin-specific subgroup-6, CaLAP1 (Legume Anthocyanin Production 1), and CaLAP2 (Legume Anthocyanin Production 2), which are mainly expressed in the flowers and developmental stages of the seeds. CaLAP1 and CaLAP2 interact with TT8-like CabHLH1 and WD40, forming the MBW complex, and bind to the promoter sequences of anthocyanin- and PA biosynthetic genes CaCHS6, CaDFR2, CaANS, and CaANR, leading to anthocyanins and PA accumulation in the seed coat of chickpea. Moreover, these CaLAPs partially complement the anthocyanin-deficient phenotype in the Arabidopsis thaliana sextuple mutant seedlings. Overexpression of CaLAPs in chickpea resulted in significantly higher expression of anthocyanin and PA biosynthetic genes leading to a darker seed coat color with higher accumulation of anthocyanin and PA. Our findings show that CaLAPs positively modulate anthocyanin and PA content in seed coats, which might influence plant development and resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Cicer , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Proantocianidinas , Sementes , Fatores de Transcrição , Cicer/genética , Cicer/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/biossíntese , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Food Res Int ; 188: 114326, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823825

RESUMO

Tormentilla erecta (L.) Raeusch is a widespread plant in Europe and Western Asia. Its rhizomes (Tormentilae rhizoma) are the main ingredient of herbal alcoholic beverages and can be used as a natural preservative in beer production. Apart from its unique taste qualities, therapeutic properties in gastrointestinal tract ailments are attributed to the tincture obtained from Tormentillae rhizoma. The presented research aimed to determine the mutual relationship between the components of Tormentillae tincture, present in popular alcoholic beverages, and intestinal epithelium (Caco-2 cell monolayers). A comprehensive qualitative and quantitative analysis of the tincture was performed, including the determination of condensed and hydrolyzable tannins as well as triterpenoids (UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS). Incubation of the tincture with Caco-2 monolayers has shown that only triterpenes pass through the monolayer, while condensed tannins are mainly bound to the monolayer surface. Ellagic acid derivatives were the only components of the Tormentillae tinctura being metabolized by cell monolayers to the compounds not previously described in the literature, which may be crucial in the treatment of intestinal diseases with inflammatory background.


Assuntos
Mucosa Intestinal , Rizoma , Humanos , Células CACO-2 , Rizoma/química , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Triterpenos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Transporte Biológico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/metabolismo , Ácido Elágico/metabolismo
7.
Food Res Int ; 188: 114508, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823847

RESUMO

Procyanidins, which are oligomerized flavan-3-ols with a polyphenolic structure, are bioactive substances that exhibit various biological effects. However, the relationship between the degree of polymerization (DP) of procyanidins and their bioactivities remains largely unknown. In this study, the preventive effects of procyanidins with different DP (EC, PB2 and PC1) on glucose improvement and liver lipid deposition were investigated using a high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetes mouse model. The results demonstrated that all the procyanidins with different DP effectively reduced fasting blood glucose and glucose/insulin tolerance, decreased the lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol content) in serum and liver tissue as well as the liver oil red staining, indicating the improvement of glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and hepatic lipid deposition in diabetic mice. Furthermore, the procyanidins down-regulated expression of glucose regulated 78-kDa protein (GRP78) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), indicating a regulation role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The inhibition of ER stress by tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) treatment abolished the effects of procyanidins with different DP in PA-induced HepG2 cells, confirming that procyanidins alleviate liver hyperlipidemia through the modulation of ER stress. Molecular docking results showed that EC and PB2 could better bind GRP78 and CHOP. Collectively, our study reveals that the structure of procyanidins, particularly DP, is not directly correlated with the improvement of blood glucose and lipid deposition, while highlighting the important role of ER stress in the bioactivities of procyanidins.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Chaperona BiP do Retículo Endoplasmático , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado , Proantocianidinas , Animais , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Masculino , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Polimerização , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Biflavonoides/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estreptozocina , Resistência à Insulina , Catequina/farmacologia
8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 273(Pt 1): 133059, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866269

RESUMO

Kratom, Mitragyna speciosa, is one of the most popular herbs in the West and Southeast Asia. A number of previous works have focused on bioactive alkaloids in this plant; however, non-alkaloids have never been investigated for their biological activities. Antiviral and virucidal assays of a methanol leaf extract of Kratom, M. speciosa, revealed that a crude extract displayed virucidal activity against the SARS-CoV-2. Activity-guided isolation of a methanol leaf extract of Kratom led to the identification of B-type procyanidin condensed tannins of (-)-epicatechin as virucidal compounds against SARS-CoV-2. The fraction containing condensed tannins exhibited virucidal activity with an EC50 value of 8.38 µg/mL and a selectivity index (SI) value >23.86. LC-MS/MS analysis and MALDI-TOF MS identified the structure of the virucidal compounds in Kratom as B-type procyanidin condensed tannins, while gel permeation chromatograph (GPC) revealed weight average molecular weight of 238,946 Da for high molecular-weight condensed tannins. In addition to alkaloids, (-)-epicatechin was found as a major component in the leaves of M. speciosa, but it did not have virucidal activity. Macromolecules of (-)-epicatechin, i.e., procyanidin condensed tannins, showed potent virucidal activity against SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that the high molecular weights of these polyphenols are important for virucidal activity.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Biflavonoides , Catequina , Mitragyna , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta , Proantocianidinas , SARS-CoV-2 , Catequina/química , Catequina/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/química , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Mitragyna/química , Biflavonoides/farmacologia , Biflavonoides/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Células Vero , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , Animais , COVID-19/virologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19
9.
Food Res Int ; 190: 114635, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38945624

RESUMO

Finger millet, like other cereals, contains high amounts of antinutrients that bind minerals, making them unavailable for absorption. This study explores the effect of traditional fermentation on nutritional, antinutritional, and subsequent mineral bioaccessibility (specifically iron, zinc, and calcium) of finger millet based Injera. Samples of fermented dough and Injera prepared from light brown and white finger millet varieties were analyzed for nutritional composition, antinutritional content, and mineral bioaccessibility following standard procedures. With some exceptions, the proximate composition of fermented dough was significantly affected by fermentation time. Compared to unfermented flour, the phytate and condensed tannin content significantly (p < 0.05) decreased for fermented dough and Injera samples. A strong decline in phytate and condensed tannin content was observed in white finger millet Injera as fermentation time increased, compared to light brown finger millet based Injera. The mineral bioaccessibility of Injera prepared from finger millet and maize composite flour increased with fermentation time, leading to a significant increase in bioaccessible iron, zinc, and calcium, ranging from 15.4-40.0 %, 26.8-50.8 %, and 60.9-88.5 %, respectively. The results suggest that traditional fermentation can be an effective method to reduce phytate and condensed tannin content, simultaneously increasing the bioaccessibility of minerals in the preparation of finger millet based Injera.


Assuntos
Disponibilidade Biológica , Eleusine , Fermentação , Valor Nutritivo , Ácido Fítico , Ácido Fítico/análise , Farinha/análise , Minerais/análise , Etiópia , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Proantocianidinas/análise , Zinco/análise
10.
Molecules ; 29(12)2024 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38930937

RESUMO

Polyphenols from agro-food waste represent a valuable source of bioactive molecules that can be recovered to be used for their functional properties. Another option is to use them as starting material to generate molecules with new and better properties through semi-synthesis. A proanthocyanidin-rich (PACs) extract from avocado peels was used to prepare several semi-synthetic derivatives of epicatechin by acid cleavage in the presence of phenol and thiol nucleophiles. The adducts formed by this reaction were successfully purified using one-step centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) and identified by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. The nine derivatives showed a concentration-dependent free radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay. All compounds were also tested against a panel of pathogenic bacterial strains formed by Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 7644 and 19115), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 9144), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11775 and 25922), and Salmonella enterica (ATCC 13076). In addition, adducts were tested against two no-pathogenic strains, Limosilactobacillus fermentum UCO-979C and Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus UCO-25A. Overall, thiol-derived adducts displayed antimicrobial properties and, in some specific cases, inhibited biofilm formation, particularly in Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 7644). Interestingly, phenolic adducts were inactive against all the strains and could not inhibit its biofilm formation. Moreover, depending on the structure, in specific cases, biofilm formation was strongly promoted. These findings contribute to demonstrating that CPC is a powerful tool to isolate new semi-synthetic molecules using avocado peels as starting material for PACc extraction. These compounds represent new lead molecules with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Catequina , Persea , Proantocianidinas , Persea/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/síntese química , Proantocianidinas/química , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/síntese química , Proantocianidinas/isolamento & purificação , Catequina/química , Catequina/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/síntese química
11.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 662, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840232

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the available scientific evidence from in vitro studies regarding the effect induced by the flavonoids contained in grape seed extracts (GSE) and cranberry on the microbiological activity of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). METHODS: This systematic review was performed following the parameters of the PRISMA statement (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis). Electronic and manual searches were conducted using PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, EBSCO, and Cochrane databases. Reference lists of selected articles were reviewed to identify relevant studies. The search was not limited by year and was conducted solely in English. Eligible studies comprised publications describing in vitro studies that evaluated the effect of flavonoids derived from GSE and cranberry extracts on the microbiological activity of S. mutans. Common variables were identified to consolidate the data. Authors of this review independently screened search results, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. RESULTS: Of the 420 studies identified from the different databases, 22 publications were finally selected for review. The risk of bias was low in 13 articles and moderate in 9. The studies analyzed in this review revealed that cranberry extract has an inhibitory effect on the bacterial growth of S. mutans in ranges from 0.5 mg/mL to 25 mg/mL, and GSE exerts a similar effect from 0.5 mg/mL to 250 mg/mL. Additionally, the extracts or their fractions showed reduced biofilm formation capacity, decreased polymicrobial biofilm biomass, deregulation of glycosyltransferases (Gtf) B and C expression, and buffering of pH drop. In addition to adequate antioxidant activity related to polyphenol content. CONCLUSIONS: The overall results showed that the extracts of cranberry and grape seed were effective in reducing the virulence factors of the oral pathogen. According to the data, proanthocyanidins are the active components in cranberry and grape seed that effectively resist S. mutans. They can inhibit the formation of insoluble polysaccharides in the extracellular matrix and prevent glycan-mediated adhesion, cohesion, and aggregation of the proteins in S. mutans. This suggests that these natural extracts could play an important role in the prevention of cariogenic bacterial colonization, as well as induce a decrease in their microbiological activity.


Assuntos
Flavonoides , Extrato de Sementes de Uva , Extratos Vegetais , Streptococcus mutans , Vaccinium macrocarpon , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Vitis , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia
12.
Molecules ; 29(11)2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38893505

RESUMO

Cynometra iripa Kostel. is a Fabaceae species of mangrove used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for treating inflammatory conditions. The present study aims to establish monographic botanical and chemical quality criteria for C. iripa leaf and bark as herbal substances and to evaluate their in vitro antioxidant potential. Macroscopic and microscopic qualitative and quantitative analyses, chemical LC-UV/DAD-ESI/MS profiling, and the quantification of key chemical classes were performed. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH and FRAP assays. Macroscopically, the leaf is asymmetrical with an emarginated apex and cuneate base. Microscopically, it shows features such as two-layered adaxial palisade parenchyma, vascular bundles surrounded by 3-6 layers of sclerenchyma, prismatic calcium oxalate crystals (5.89 ± 1.32 µm) along the fibers, paracytic stomata only on the abaxial epidermis (stomatal index-20.15), and non-glandular trichomes only on petiolules. The microscopic features of the bark include a broad cortex with large lignified sclereids, prismatic calcium oxalate crystals (8.24 ± 1.57 µm), and secondary phloem with distinct 2-5 seriated medullary rays without crystals. Chemical profile analysis revealed that phenolic derivatives, mainly condensed tannins and flavonoids, are the main classes identified. A total of 22 marker compounds were tentatively identified in both plant parts. The major compounds identified in the leaf were quercetin-3-O-glucoside and taxifolin pentoside and in the bark were B-type dimeric proanthocyanidins and taxifolin 3-O-rhamnoside. The total phenolics content was higher in the leaf (1521 ± 4.71 mg GAE/g dry weight), while the total flavonoids and condensed tannins content were higher in the bark (82 ± 0.58 mg CE/g and 1021 ± 5.51 mg CCE/g dry weight, respectively). A total of 70% of the hydroethanolic extracts of leaf and bark showed higher antioxidant activity than the ascorbic acid and concentration-dependent scavenging activity in the DPPH assay (IC50 23.95 ± 0.93 and 23.63 ± 1.37 µg/mL, respectively). A positive and statistically significant (p < 0.05) correlation between the phenol content and antioxidant activity was found. The results obtained will provide important clues for the quality control criteria of C. iripa leaf and bark, as well as for the knowledge of their pharmacological potential as possible anti-inflammatory agents with antioxidant activity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Casca de Planta , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta , Casca de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Medicina Herbária/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Proantocianidinas/química , Proantocianidinas/análise , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia
13.
Food Chem ; 454: 139776, 2024 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824782

RESUMO

To efficiently harness resources from Pinus koraiensis seed scales, a type of forestry waste, rigorous studies on the extraction, purification, stability, and free radical scavenging capacity of the proanthocyanidins derived from these seed scales were conducted. Kinetic models showed that under ultrasonic conditions, the proanthocyanidins content reached 2.66 mg/g within 0.5 h. The optimal storage parameters include darkness, 4 °C, and pH 4. The degrees of polymerization of the mixture and the high- and low-polymer components were 4.89, 7.42 and 3.07, respectively, with the low-polymer component exhibiting the highest radical scavenging activity. Through HPLC-QE-MS/MS, 1H NMR, and FT-IR analyses, we identified proanthocyanidin B1, proanthocyanidin B2, (-)-epicatechin, and polymeric trimer esters. The Pinus koraiensis proanthocyanidins exhibited a high molecular weight, a complex internal molecular structure, and commendable stability, with crystallization requiring elevated temperatures. Therefore, the proanthocyanidins from Pinus koraiensis seed scales have emerged as highly promising novel natural antioxidants.


Assuntos
Sequestradores de Radicais Livres , Pinus , Polimerização , Proantocianidinas , Sementes , Proantocianidinas/química , Proantocianidinas/isolamento & purificação , Pinus/química , Sementes/química , Cinética , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Peso Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
Adv Food Nutr Res ; 110: 327-398, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38906590

RESUMO

Condensed tannins are considered nutritionally undesirable, because they precipitate proteins, inhibit digestive enzymes, and can affect the absorption of vitamins and minerals. From the consumer's point of view, they impart astringency to foods. Yet, they are viewed as a double-edged sword, since they possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Intake of a small quantity of the right kind of tannins may in fact be beneficial to human health. This chapter reports on the chemical structure of condensed tannins, their content in plants and food of plant origin, how they are extracted, and methods for their determination. A description of the effects of processing on condensed tannins is discussed and includes soaking, dehulling, thermal processing (i.e., cooking, boiling, autoclaving, extrusion), and germination. The astringency of condensed tannins is described in relation to their interactions with proteins. Finally, details about the biological properties of condensed tannins, including their antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-obesity activities, are reviewed.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Manipulação de Alimentos , Proantocianidinas , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/química , Humanos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia
15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 272(Pt 1): 132741, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825292

RESUMO

Wound healing in diabetic patients presents significant challenges in clinical wound care due to high oxidative stress, excessive inflammation, and a microenvironment prone to infection. In this study, we successfully developed a multifunctional tandem dynamic covalently cross-linked hydrogel dressing aimed at diabetic wound healing. This hydrogel was constructed using cyanoacetic acid functionalized dextran (Dex-CA), 2-formylbenzoylboric acid (2-FPBA) and natural oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC), catalyzed by histidine. The resulting Dex-CA/OPC/2-FPBA (DPOPC) hydrogel can be dissolved triggered by cysteine, thereby achieving "controllable and non-irritating" dressing change. Furthermore, the incorporation of OPC as a hydrogel building block endowed the hydrogel with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The cross-linked network of the DPOPC hydrogel circumvents the burst release of OPC, enhancing its biosafety. In vivo studies demonstrated that the DPOPC hydrogel significantly accelerated the wound healing process in diabetic mice compared to a commercial hydrogel, achieving an impressive wound closure rate of 98 % by day 14. The DPOPC hydrogel effectively balanced the disrupted inflammatory state during the healing process. This dynamic hydrogel based on natural polyphenols is expected to be an ideal candidate for dressings intended for chronic wounds.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Hidrogéis , Proantocianidinas , Cicatrização , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proantocianidinas/química , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Hidrogéis/química , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Camundongos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Reagentes de Ligações Cruzadas/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Dextranos/química
16.
Gut Microbes ; 16(1): 2370917, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38944838

RESUMO

Polyphenols are phytochemicals commonly found in plant-based diets which have demonstrated immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the interplay between polyphenols and pathogens at mucosal barrier surfaces has not yet been elucidated in detail. Here, we show that proanthocyanidin (PAC) polyphenols interact with gut parasites to influence immune function and gut microbial-derived metabolites in mice. PAC intake inhibited mastocytosis during infection with the small intestinal roundworm Heligmosomoides polygyrus, and altered the host tissue transcriptome at the site of infection with the large intestinal whipworm Trichuris muris, with a notable enhancement of type-1 inflammatory and interferon-driven gene pathways. In the absence of infection, PAC intake promoted the expansion of Turicibacter within the gut microbiota, increased fecal short chain fatty acids, and enriched phenolic metabolites such as phenyl-γ-valerolactones in the cecum. However, these putatively beneficial effects were reduced in PAC-fed mice infected with T. muris, suggesting concomitant parasite infection can attenuate gut microbial-mediated PAC catabolism. Collectively, our results suggest an inter-relationship between a phytonutrient and infection, whereby PAC may augment parasite-induced inflammation (most prominently with the cecum dwelling T. muris), and infection may abrogate the beneficial effects of health-promoting phytochemicals.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Nematospiroides dubius , Polifenóis , Proantocianidinas , Tricuríase , Trichuris , Animais , Camundongos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Trichuris/metabolismo , Tricuríase/parasitologia , Tricuríase/imunologia , Nematospiroides dubius/imunologia , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Infecções por Strongylida/imunologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/metabolismo , Feminino , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/microbiologia
17.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 60(5)2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38792987

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Lower limb skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and it is common in several clinical situations such as aortic aneurysms repairment, peripheral arterial surgery, vascular injury repairment, and shock. Although it is generally accepted that oxidative stress mediators have a significant role in IR injury, its precise mechanism is still unknown. Anecdotally, it is sustained not only by structural and functional changes in the organ it affects but also by damage to distant organs. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the effect of proanthocyanidin on IR injury. Materials and Methods: In our study, 18 male Wistar albino rats were used. The subjects were divided into three groups containing six mice each (control, C; ischemia-reperfusion, IR; ischemia-reperfusion and proanthocyanidin; IR-PRO). Intraperitoneal proanthocyanidin was given to the IR and proanthocyanidin groups 30 min before laparotomy, and 1 h ischemia led to these two groups. After one hour, reperfusion started. Muscle atrophy-hypertrophy, muscle degeneration-congestion, fragmentation-hyalinization, muscle oval-central nucleus ratio, leukocyte cell infiltration, catalase enzyme activity, and TBARS were all examined in lower-limb muscle samples after one hour of reperfusion. Results: When skeletal muscle samples were evaluated histopathologically, it was discovered that muscle atrophy-hypertrophy, muscle degeneration-congestion, fragmentation-hyalinization, and leukocyte cell infiltration with oval-central nucleus standardization were significantly higher in the IR group than in the C and IR-P groups. Oval-central nucleus standardization was significantly higher in the IR and IR-PRO groups than in the control group. TBARS levels were significantly higher in the IR group than in the control and IR-PRO groups, while catalase enzyme activity was found to be significantly lower in the IR group than in the control and IR-PRO groups. Conclusions: As a consequence of our research, we discovered that proanthocyanidins administered before IR have a protective impact on skeletal muscle in rats. Further research in this area is required.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético , Proantocianidinas , Ratos Wistar , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Animais , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731985

RESUMO

The effect of UV-B radiation exposure on transgenerational plasticity, the phenomenon whereby the parental environment influences both the parent's and the offspring's phenotype, is poorly understood. To investigate the impact of exposing successive generations of rice plants to UV-B radiation on seed morphology and proanthocyanidin content, the local traditional rice variety 'Baijiaolaojing' was planted on terraces in Yuanyang county and subjected to enhanced UV-B radiation treatments. The radiation intensity that caused the maximum phenotypic plasticity (7.5 kJ·m-2) was selected for further study, and the rice crops were cultivated for four successive generations. The results show that in the same generation, enhanced UV-B radiation resulted in significant decreases in grain length, grain width, spike weight, and thousand-grain weight, as well as significant increases in empty grain percentage and proanthocyanidin content, compared with crops grown under natural light conditions. Proanthocyanidin content increased as the number of generations of rice exposed to radiation increased, but in generation G3, it decreased, along with the empty grain ratio. At the same time, biomass, tiller number, and thousand-grain weight increased, and rice growth returned to control levels. When the offspring's radiation memory and growth environment did not match, rice growth was negatively affected, and seed proanthocyanidin content was increased to maintain seed activity. The correlation analysis results show that phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), and 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL) enzyme activity positively influenced proanthocyanidin content. Overall, UV-B radiation affected transgenerational plasticity in seed morphology and proanthocyanidin content, showing that rice was able to adapt to this stressor if previous generations had been continuously exposed to treatment.


Assuntos
Oryza , Proantocianidinas , Raios Ultravioleta , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Oryza/efeitos da radiação , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/efeitos da radiação , Sementes/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/efeitos da radiação , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Fenótipo
19.
Mol Pain ; 20: 17448069241256466, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716504

RESUMO

Background: Recent studies have shown that peripheral nerve regeneration process is closely related to neuropathic pain. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling was involved in different types of pain and nerve regeneration. TLR4 induced the recruitment of myeloid differentiation factor-88 adaptor protein (MyD88) and NF-κB-depended transcriptional process in sensory neurons and glial cells, which produced multiple cytokines and promoted the induction and persistence of pain. Our study aimed to investigate procyanidins's effect on pain and nerve regeneration via TLR4-Myd88 signaling. Methods: Spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model was established to measure the analgesic effect of procyanidins. Anatomical measurement of peripheral nerve regeneration was measured by microscopy and growth associated protein 43 (GAP43) staining. Western blotting and/or immunofluorescent staining were utilized to detect TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor-88 adaptor protein (MyD88), ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (IBA1) and nuclear factor kappa-B-p65 (NF-κB-p65) expression, as well as the activation of astrocyte and microglia. The antagonist of TLR4 (LPS-RS-Ultra, LRU) were intrathecally administrated to assess the behavioral effects of blocking TLR4 signaling on pain and nerve regeneration. Result: Procyanidins reduced mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia and significantly suppressed the number of nerve fibers regenerated and the degree of myelination in SNL model. Compared with sham group, TLR4, MyD88, IBA1 and phosphorylation of NF-κB-p65 were upregulated in SNL rats which were reversed by procyanidins administration. Additionally, procyanidins also suppressed activation of spinal astrocytes and glial cells. Conclusion: Suppression of TLR4-MyD88 signaling contributes to the alleviation of neuropathic pain and reduction of nerve regeneration by procyanidins.


Assuntos
Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide , Regeneração Nervosa , Neuralgia , Proantocianidinas , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Animais , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Regeneração Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Ratos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Nervos Espinhais/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Physiol Plant ; 176(3): e14333, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710501

RESUMO

Condensed tannins are widely present in the fruits and seeds of plants and effectively prevent them from being eaten by animals before maturity due to their astringent taste. In addition, condensed tannins are a natural compound with strong antioxidant properties and significant antibacterial effects. Four samples of mature and near-mature Quercus fabri acorns, with the highest and lowest condensed tannin content, were used for genome-based transcriptome sequencing. The KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were highly enriched in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and starch and sucrose metabolism. Given that the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway is a crucial step in the synthesis of condensed tannins, we screened for significantly differentially expressed transcription factors and structural genes from the transcriptome data of this pathway and found that the expression levels of four MADS-box, PAL, and 4CL genes were significantly increased in acorns with high condensed tannin content. The quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) experiment further validated this result. In addition, yeast one-hybrid assay confirmed that three MADS-box transcription factors could bind the promoter of the 4CL gene, thereby regulating gene expression levels. This study utilized transcriptome sequencing to discover new important regulatory factors that can regulate the synthesis of acorn condensed tannins, providing new evidence for MADS-box transcription factors to regulate the synthesis of secondary metabolites in fruits.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proantocianidinas , Quercus , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/biossíntese , Quercus/genética , Quercus/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo
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