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1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130781, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391997

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate effects of dietary grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) supplementation on meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics and antioxidant capacity of finishing pigs. The data showed GSPE increased pH24 h, redness, crude protein content and decreased shear force, drip loss48 h, lactate content and glycolytic potential in longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle, accompanied by increased contents of total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), n-3 PUFA, and the ratio of PUFA to saturated fatty acid. GSPE promoted MyHC I mRNA and slow MyHC protein expression, and increased slow-twitch fiber percentage. The activities of total antioxidant capacity, total superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in LD muscle were increased by GSPE while malondialdehyde content was decreased. Together, this study demonstrated that dietary GSPE supplementation can effectively improve the color, water-holding capacity, tenderness and nutritional value of pork, and increase slow-twitch fiber percentage and antioxidant capacity of finishing pigs.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Extrato de Sementes de Uva , Ração Animal/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Carne/análise , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas , Proantocianidinas , Suínos
2.
Phytomedicine ; 95: 153880, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia (CIT) is a severe adverse drug reaction, and the main reason for CIT is the destruction of megakaryocytes (MKs, precursor cells of platelet) in bone marrow by chemotherapy. Peanut skin, the seed coat of Arachis hypogaea L., is a traditional Chinese medicine commonly used to treat thrombocytopenia. However, its active compounds and the mechanisms remain unclear. PURPOSE: This study aims to clarify the active compounds of peanut skin to exhibit thrombogenic effects against CIT and their underlying mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. STUDY DESIGN: The bioassay-guided isolation based on the proliferation of MKs was used to explore the possible platelet-enhancing ingredients in peanut skin. HSCCC technique coupled with preparative HPLC was used to separate the active compounds. Dami cells and carboplatin-treated mice model were used to evaluate the thrombogenic effects of PS-1. Network pharmacology, molecular docking, dynamics simulation studies, kinase activity, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA), isothermal dose-response fingerprint (ITDRFCETSA) and western blot analysis were performed to investigate the mechanisms of PS-1. RESULTS: Proanthocyanidin A1 (PS-1) and its stereoisomers (PS-2-4) were demonstrated to promote the proliferation of MKs (Dami cells), especially PS-1 (EC50 = 8.58 µM). Further studies demonstrated that PS-1 could induce the differentiation of Dami cells in dose/time-dependent manner. Biological target analysis showed that PS-1 directly bound to JAK2 (KD = 2.06 µM) to exert potent activating effect (EC50 = 0.66 µM). Oral administration of PS-1 (25 or 50 mg/kg) significantly improved CIT, but this effect was confirmed to be inhibited by JAK2 inhibitor AG490, indicating that PS-1 exerted its efficacy through JAK2 in vivo. CONCLUSION: Proanthocyanins (PS-1-4) derived from peanut skin were first clarified as platelet-enhancing ingredients to improve CIT. The underlying mechanism of PS-1 was proved to promote the proliferation and differentiation of MKs via JAK2/STAT3 pathway both in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Trombocitopenia , Animais , Plaquetas , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proantocianidinas , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Trombocitopenia/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150588, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582856

RESUMO

Denitrification is a major process of the nitrogen (N) cycle by converting nitrate (NO3-) back to gaseous nitrogen (N2), which leads to massive losses of N, including fertilizer N, from agricultural systems. One mitigation strategy for these N losses involves denitrification inhibition by plant-derived biological denitrification inhibitors (BDIs). Procyanidin was recently identified as a new class of BDI in root extracts from Fallopia spp. However, the efficacy of this compound on soil denitrification under different N fertilizer sources is not well understood. Here, a 14-day microcosm experiment was conducted using three nitrate-based fertilizers (NH4NO3, KNO3, and Ca(NO3)2) to investigate the impact of procyanidin on soil denitrification and associated microbial pathways. Results showed that procyanidin inhibited denitrification activity regardless of the source of N fertilizer applied, but the inhibitory efficacy of procyanidin varied with N fertilizer types. Addition of procyanidin had greater denitrification inhibition in the soils applied with NH4NO3 than with other types of N fertilizer. Moreover, nitrate reductase activity was significantly suppressed by procyanidin addition across all three N fertilizers tested. Quantification of denitrifying functional genes (nirS, nirK, and nosZ) demonstrated that procyanidin inhibited the activity and growth of nirS- and nirK-type denitrifiers, but stimulated the growth of nosZI-containing denitrifiers. These findings indicate that the inhibition of soil denitrification by procyanidin was mainly a result of the suppression of nitrate reductase activity and nirS- and nirK-type denitrifiers abundance. The use of procyanidin together with N fertilizers, especially NH4NO3, can be an effective way to reduce the N losses by denitrification.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Proantocianidinas , Desnitrificação , Fertilizantes/análise , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
4.
Food Chem ; 372: 130780, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624778

RESUMO

Proanthocyanidins is flavan-3-ol polymers with many activities which attracted a lot of attention. However, most of the proanthocyanidins come from fruits and seeds, resulting in higher costs. The extraction of proanthocyanidins from leaves that were trimmed as wastes from fruit trees is of good economic benefits. The proanthocyanidins in persimmon leaves and loquat leaves were extracted and purified. The purity of persimmon and loquat leaves were 85.33 ± 0.11% and 88.45 ± 0.96% with yield of 3.40% and 2.37% respectively. Detailed structure information was analyzed. Persimmon leaves proanthocyanidins mainly consist of catechin with B-type link along with a small portion of gallocatechin, catechin gallate and A-type link. Loquat leaves proanthocyanidins consist of catechin, gallocatechin, gallocatechin gallate and afzelechin with B-type link along with a small portion of A-type link. The α-amylase inhibition effect of the two leaves was analyzed. Persimmon leaves proanthocyanidins and loquat leaves proanthocyanidins were two mixed-type inhibitors to α-amylase.


Assuntos
Catequina , Diospyros , Eriobotrya , Proantocianidinas , Frutas , Folhas de Planta
5.
Talanta ; 236: 122857, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635241

RESUMO

Phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites known to play crucial roles in important chemical reactions impacting the mouthfeel, colour and ageing potential of red wine. Their complexity has resulted in a number of advanced analytical methods, which often prevent routine phenolic analysis in winemaking. Fluorescence spectroscopy could be an alternative to current spectrophotometric techniques and its combination with chemometrics was investigated for its suitability in directly quantifying phenolic content of unaltered red wine and fermenting samples. Front-face fluorescence was optimised and used to build predictive models for total phenols, total condensed tannins, total anthocyanins, colour density and polymeric pigments. Machine learning algorithms were used for model development. The most successful models were built for total phenols, total condensed tannins and total anthocyanins with coefficient of determination (R2cal) and RMSECV of 0.81, 0.89, 0.80 and 5.71, 104.03 mg/L, 60.67 mg/L, respectively. The validation results showed R2val values of 0.77, 0.8 and 0.77, and RMSEP values of 7.6, 172.37 mg/L and 76.57 mg/L, respectively. A novel approach for the classification of South African red wine cultivars based on unique fluorescent fingerprints was also successful with an overall cross validation score of 0.8. The best classification ability (validation score = 0.93) was shown for the data set containing only fermenting wines for the most widely represented cultivars (>20 samples). This approach may provide a useful tool for authentication and quality control by regulatory bodies.


Assuntos
Proantocianidinas , Vinho , Antocianinas/análise , Fenóis/análise , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Vinho/análise
6.
New Phytol ; 233(1): 390-408, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643281

RESUMO

Since the roots are the very organ where plants first sense and respond drought stress, it is of great importance to better understand root responses to drought. Yet the underlying molecular mechanisms governing root responses to drought stress have been poorly understood. Here, we identified and functionally characterized a CCCH type transcription factor, PuC3H35, and its targets, anthocyanin reductase (PuANR) and early Arabidopsis aluminum induced1 (PuEARLI1), which are involved in mediating proanthocyanidin (PA) and lignin biosynthesis in response to drought stress in Populus ussuriensis root. PuC3H35 was root-specifically induced upon drought stress. Overexpressing PuC3H35 promoted PA and lignin biosynthesis and vascular tissue development, resulting in enhanced tolerance to drought stress by the means of anti-oxidation and mechanical supporting. We further demonstrated that PuC3H35 directly bound to the promoters of PuANR and PuEARLI1 and overexpressing PuANR or PuEARLI1 increased root PA or lignin levels, respectively, under drought stress. Taken together, these results revealed a novel regulatory pathway for drought tolerance, in which PuC3H35 mediated PA and lignin biosynthesis by collaboratively regulating 'PuC3H35-PuANR-PA' and 'PuC3H35-PuEARLI1-PuCCRs-lignin' modules in poplar roots.


Assuntos
Populus , Proantocianidinas , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lignina , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Populus/genética , Populus/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
7.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258265, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614022

RESUMO

Five groups of lambs (n = 9 each) were used to test the effect of plant extracts rich in hydrolysable (HT) or condensed tannin (CT) on animal performance, fatty acid composition of rumen content, liver and meat. The control group (CO) received a concentrate-based diet without tannins supplementation. The other groups received the same diet as the control lambs plus 4% chestnut (CH) and tara (TA) extracts as a source of HT and mimosa (MI) and gambier (GA) extracts as a source of CT. One-way ANOVA was used to assess the overall effect of dietary treatments, tannins supplementation (CO vs. CH+TA+MI+GA) and the effect of tannin type (HT vs. CT: CH+TA vs. MI+GA) on animal performance, rumen content, liver and intramuscular FA. Dietary CH negatively affected animal performance. The rumen content of the different groups showed similar levels of 18:3 c9c12c15, 18:2 c9c12, 18:2 c9t11, 18:1 t11 and 18:0, whereas 18:1 t10 was greater in CO. Also, 18:1 t10 tended to be lower in the rumen of HT than CT-fed lambs. These data were partially confirmed in liver and meat, where CO showed a greater percentage of individual trans 18:1 fatty acids in comparison with tannins-fed groups. Our findings challenge some accepted generalizations on the use of tannins in ruminant diets as they were ineffective to favour the accumulation of dietary PUFA or healthy fatty acids of biohydrogenation origin in the rumen content and lamb meat, but suggest a generalized influence on BH rather than on specific steps.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Ovinos/metabolismo , Animais , Análise Discriminante , Fígado/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Análise Multivariada
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(42): 12445-12455, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662108

RESUMO

Substantial efforts have been made in incorporating tannin-rich forages into grassland-based livestock production systems. However, the structural and functional diversity of tannins in different species limits their potential use at the field scale. We conducted a greenhouse experiment with 17 cultivars from 8 forage species and their cultivars. Ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to analyze their polyphenolic profile and proanthocyanidin (PA) structural features in leaves. Our results highlight large inter- and intraspecies variability of plants in terms of polyphenol and tannin concentrations in the leaves. A concomitant and significant variation was also registered in the structural features of PA-rich forages such as the mean degree of polymerization and prodelphinidin percentage. The concentration of PA also varied within plant organs; the highest concentration was in flowers, but leaves had the highest contribution to harvestable PA biomass. Our research highlights that identifying these variations helps in identifying the representativeness of bioactivity and provides the basis for targeted breeding programs.


Assuntos
Proantocianidinas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polifenóis , Taninos
9.
Exp Parasitol ; 230: 108169, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627787

RESUMO

More than 50 years after anthelmintic resistance was first identified, its prevalence and impact on the animal production industry continues to increase across the world. The term "anthelmintic resistance" (AR) can be briefly defined as the reduction in efficacy of a certain dose of anthelmintic drugs (AH) in eliminating the presence of a parasite population that was previously susceptible. The main aim of this study is to examine anthelmintic resistance in domestic herbivores. There are numerous factors playing a role in the development of AR, but the most important is livestock management. The price of AH and the need to treat a high number of animals mean that farmers face significant costs in this regard, yet, since 1981, little progress has been made in the discovery of new molecules and the time and cost required to bring a new AH to market has increased dramatically in recent decades. Furthermore, resistance has also emerged for new AH, such as monepantel or derquantel. Consequently, ruminant parasitism cannot be controlled solely by using synthetic chemicals. A change in approach is needed, using a range of preventive measures in order to achieve a sustainable control programme. The use of nematophagous fungi or of plant extracts rich in compounds with anthelmintic properties, such as terpenes, condensed tannins, or flavonoids, represent potential alternatives. Nevertheless, although new approaches are showing promising results, there is still much to do. More research focused on the control of AR is needed.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Fungos/fisiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Cavalos , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Fitoterapia/métodos , Fitoterapia/veterinária , Proantocianidinas/uso terapêutico
10.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684702

RESUMO

Procyanidins are contained in various foods, and their effects on starch hydrolysis have been reported. In Japan, black soybeans, which contain a trimeric procyanidin, procyanidin C1 (proC1), are cooked with rice and used to prepare dumplings. In this study, the effects of proC1 on the pancreatin-induced formation of reducing sugars and starch hydrolysis were studied using potato starch and corn starch. ProC1 inhibited both reactions; the inhibition was greater in potato starch than corn starch when added to heated potato starch and corn starch. When heated with proC1, its inhibitory effects decreased, especially in potato starch, suggesting the important role of proC1 itself for the inhibition of potato starch hydrolysis. ProC1 also inhibited the hydrolysis when added to heated, longer amylose (average molecular weight: 31,200), and the inhibition decreased when heated with the amylose. On the other hand, proC1 could not inhibit the hydrolysis when added to heated, shorter amylose (average molecular weight: 4500), but could when heated with the amylose, suggesting the important role of the degradation products of proC1 for the inhibition. We discuss the mechanism of the proC1-dependent inhibition of amylose hydrolysis, taking the molecular weight into account.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/metabolismo , Pancreatina/metabolismo , Amido/química , Amilose/química , Biflavonoides , Catequina , Culinária , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/fisiologia , Hidrólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Japão , Peso Molecular , Oryza/metabolismo , Pancreatina/química , Proantocianidinas , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502509

RESUMO

Excess aldosterone promotes pathological remodeling of the heart and imbalance in cardiac ion homeostasis of sodium, potassium and calcium. Novel treatment with proanthocyanidins in aldosterone-treated rats has resulted in downregulation of cardiac SGK1, the main genomic aldosterone-induced intracellular mediator of ion handling. It therefore follows that proanthocyanidins could be modulating cardiac ion homeostasis in aldosterone-treated rats. Male Wistar rats received aldosterone (1 mg kg-1 day-1) +1% NaCl for three weeks. Half of the animals in each group were simultaneously treated with the proanthocyanidins-rich extract (80% w/w) (PRO80, 5 mg kg-1 day-1). PRO80 prevented cardiac hypertrophy and decreased calcium content. Expression of ion channels (ROMK, NHE1, NKA and NCX1) and calcium transient mediators (CAV1.2, pCaMKII and oxCaMKII) were reduced by PRO80 treatment in aldosterone-treated rats. To conclude, our data indicate that PRO80 may offer an alternative treatment to conventional MR-blockade in the prevention of aldosterone-induced cardiac pathology.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Aldosterona/metabolismo , Aldosterona/farmacologia , Animais , Cardiomegalia/metabolismo , Coração/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Masculino , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(37): 11053-11064, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495660

RESUMO

Aronia melanocarpa (MICHX.) ELLIOTT, which belongs to the Rosaceae family, has increasingly come into focus of research due to the high content of polyphenols. In addition to antioxidative properties, further health-promoting effects of these polyphenols are still of interest. Especially, the proanthocyanidins offer thereby huge opportunities due to their high structural heterogeneity. Therefore, the present study focuses on the topoisomerase inhibiting effects of oligomeric proanthocyanidins (PACs), which are potentially depended on their degree of polymerization. The investigated PACs isolated from Aronia berries were characterized by chromatographic techniques and liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Four PAC enriched fractions were obtained from Aronia pomace containing 47 PACs with a degree of polymerization from three to six. Due to the low yield of hexamers, the potential inhibiting effects against human topoisomerase were investigated for the trimer to pentamer fractions. The relaxation and decatenation assays were performed to examine the inhibiting effect on topoisomerases under cell-free conditions. Moreover, rapid isolation of topoisomerase cleavage complexes in human colon carcinoma HT29 cells was performed to evaluate the effect on topoisomerases in a cell-based system. The fractions demonstrated inhibitory potential on topoisomerases I and II. In sum, an increasing effect strength depending on the degree of polymerization was shown.


Assuntos
Photinia , Proantocianidinas , Rosaceae , Frutas , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia
13.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576939

RESUMO

Whey proteins and oligomeric proanthocyanidins have nutritional value and are widely used in combination as food supplements. However, the effect of the interactions between proanthocyanidins and whey proteins on their stability has not been studied in depth. In this work, we aimed to characterize the interactions between ß-Lactoglobulin (ß-LG) and α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and oligomeric proanthocyanidins, including A1, A2, B1, B2, B3, and C1, using multi-spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. Fluorescence spectroscopic data revealed that all of the oligomeric proanthocyanidins quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of ß-LG or α-LA by binding-related fluorescence quenching. Among the six oligomeric proanthocyanidins, A1 showed the strongest affinity for ß-LG (Ka = 2.951 (±0.447) × 104 L∙mol-1) and α-LA (Ka = 1.472 (±0.236) × 105 L∙mol-1) at 297 K. ß-LG/α-LA and proanthocyanidins can spontaneously form complexes, which are mainly induced by hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals forces. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that the secondary structures of the proteins were rearranged after binding to oligomeric proanthocyanidins. During in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, the recovery rate of A1 and A2 increased with the addition of WPI by 11.90% and 38.43%, respectively. The addition of WPI (molar ratio of 1:1) increased the retention rate of proanthocyanidins A1, A2, B1, B2, B3, and C1 during storage at room temperature by 14.01%, 23.14%, 30.09%, 62.67%, 47.92%, and 60.56%, respectively. These results are helpful for the promotion of protein-proanthocyanidin complexes as functional food ingredients in the food industry.


Assuntos
Proantocianidinas/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Dicroísmo Circular , Digestão , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Lactalbumina/química , Lactoglobulinas/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/farmacocinética , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura , Termodinâmica , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/metabolismo
14.
Dent Mater ; 37(11): 1633-1644, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563363

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of proanthocyanidins (PACs) with type I collagen using sixteen chemically defined PACs with degree of polymerization (DP) 2-6. METHODS: Under a dentin model, the biomimicry of PACs with type I collagen was investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and infrared spectroscopy. The dentin matrix was modified with PACs from Pinus massoniana [monomers (Mon-1 and Mon-2), dimers (Dim-1-Dim-4), trimers (Tri-1-Tri-4), tetramers (Tet-1-Tet-5), and hexamer (Hex-1)]. A strain sweep method in a 3-point bending submersion clamp was used to assess the viscoelastic properties [storage (E'), loss (E"), and complex moduli (E*) and tan δ] of the dentin matrix before and after biomodification. Biochemical analysis of the dentin matrix was assessed with FTIR spectroscopy. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc tests (α = 0.05). RESULTS: DP had a significant effect on modified dentin moduli (tetramers ≈ trimers > hexamers ≈ dimers > monomers ≈ control, p < 0.001). Trimers and tetramers yielded 6- to 8-fold increase in the mechanical properties of modified dentin and induced conformational changes to the secondary structure of collagen. Modifications to the tertiary structure of collagen was shown in all PAC modified-dentin matrices. SIGNIFICANCE: Findings establish three key SARs: (i) increasing DP generally enhances biomimicry potential of PACs in modulating the mechanical and chemical properties of dentin (ii) the secondary structure of dentin collagen is affected by the position of B-type inter-flavanyl linkages (4ß â†’ 6 and 4ß â†’ 8); and (iii) the terminal monomeric flavan-3-ol unit plays a modulatory role in the viscoelasticity of dentin.


Assuntos
Colágeno/química , Dentina/química , Proantocianidinas , Proantocianidinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(38): 11292-11302, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533948

RESUMO

Biorefineries of polyphenols from plant leaves maximize their commercial value for developing biomedicines and nutrients. However, condensed tannins (CTs) constitute extensive polyphenols from plant leaves, which hinders the maximization due to extremely low bioavailability. Therefore, a simple, and sustainable one-step method was established to simultaneously extract polyphenols and depolymerize CTs with only endogenous flavan-3-ols from Chinese bayberry leaves via acid catalysis, which markedly improved the bioavailability of total polyphenols. Afterward, purification of polyphenols from depolymerized extract was studied with specific polymeric resins. Silica C18 showed the highest absorption efficiency of total polyphenols, while Amberlite XAD-7 and XAD-2 presented high selectivity toward polyphenols with high and low molecular weight, respectively. Combined depolymerization of CTs and purification with Amberlite XAD-2 showed the highest bioavailability and cellular free-radical scavenging activity of total polyphenols, which proved to be an ideal methodology for improving the bioavailability and activity of polyphenols from plant leaves.


Assuntos
Myrica , Proantocianidinas , Antioxidantes , Disponibilidade Biológica , China , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta , Polifenóis
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 2923-2930, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467682

RESUMO

The present study determined the quantitative markers of total proanthocyanidins in the purification of the industrial waste Choerospondias axillaris pericarp based on the comparison results of high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) and mass spectrometry(MS) and optimized the purification process with two stable procyanidins as markers. The adsorption and desorption of five different macroporous adsorption resins, the static adsorption kinetics curve of NKA-Ⅱ resin, the maximum sample load, and the gradient elution were investigated. The UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS was employed for qualitative analysis of the newly-prepared total proanthocyanidins of C. axillaris pericarp. As revealed by the results, NKA-Ⅱ resin displayed strong adsorption and desorption toward total proanthocyanidins. The sample solution(50 mg·mL~(-1)) was prepared from 70% ethanol crude extract of C. axillaris pericarp dissolved in water and 7-fold BV of the sample solution was loaded, followed by static adsorption for 12 h. After 8-fold BV of distilled water and 6-fold BV of 10% ethanol were employed to remove impurities, the solution was eluted with 8-fold BV of 50% ethanol, concentrated, and dried under reduced pressure, and purified total proanthocyanidin powder was therefore obtained. Measured by vanillin-hydrochloric acid method, the purity and transfer rate of total proanthocyanidins were 47.67% and 59.92%, respectively, indicating the feasibi-lity of the optimized process. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS qualitative analysis identified 16 procyanidins in C. axillaris total proanthocyanidins. The optimized purification process is simple in operation and accurate in component identification, and it can be applied to the process investigation of a class of components that are difficult to be separated and purified. It can also provide technical support and research ideas for the comprehensive utilization of industrial waste.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Proantocianidinas , Adsorção , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Extratos Vegetais , Proantocianidinas/análise , Resinas Sintéticas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(16): 4131-4138, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467724

RESUMO

Eleven condensed tannins were isolated from the roots of Indigofera stachyodes by various column chromatography techniques including silica gel, octadecyl silica(ODS), Sephadex LH-20, and semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). These compounds were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties, nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) and mass spectrometry(MS) data as stachyotannin A(1), epicatechin-(2ß→O→7,4ß→8)-epiafzelechin-(4ß→8)-catechin(2), cinnamtannin D1(3), cinnamtannin B1(4), epicatechin-(2ß→O→7,4ß→8)-epiafzelechin-(4α→8)-epicatechin(5), gambiriin C(6), proanthocyanidin A1(7), proanthocyanidin A2(8), aesculitannin B(9), proanthocyanidin A4(10), and procyanidin B5(11). Compound 1 is a new compound. Compounds 2-11 were isolated from Indigofera for the first time. Furthermore, compounds 1, 2, and 4-11 showed inhibitory effects on thrombin-induced ATP release in platelets.


Assuntos
Indigofera , Proantocianidinas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Extratos Vegetais
18.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256992, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473789

RESUMO

The efficacy of cranberry (Vaccinium spp.) as adjuvant therapy in preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs) remains controversial. This study aims to update and determine cranberry effects as adjuvant therapy on the recurrence rate of UTIs in susceptible groups. According to PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a literature search in Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library from their inception dates to June 2021. We included articles with data on the incidence of UTIs in susceptible populations using cranberry-containing products. We then conducted a trial sequential analysis to control the risk of type I and type II errors. This meta-analysis included 23 trials with 3979 participants. We found that cranberry-based products intake can significantly reduce the incidence of UTIs in susceptible populations (risk ratio (RR) = 0.70; 95% confidence interval(CI): 0.59 ~ 0.83; P<0.01). We identified a relative risk reduction of 32%, 45% and 51% in women with recurrent UTIs (RR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.56 ~ 0.81), children (RR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.31 ~ 0.97) and patients using indwelling catheters (RR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.33 ~ 0.73). Meanwhile, a relative risk reduction of 35% in people who use cranberry juice compared with those who use cranberry capsule or tablet was observed in the subgroup analysis (RR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.54 ~ 0.77). The TSA result for the effects of cranberry intake and the decreased risk of UTIs in susceptible groups indicated that the effects were conclusive. In conclusion, our meta-analysis demonstrates that cranberry supplementation significantly reduced the risk of developing UTIs in susceptible populations. Cranberry can be considered as adjuvant therapy for preventing UTIs in susceptible populations. However, given the limitations of the included studies in this meta-analysis, the conclusion should be interpreted with caution.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Frutas/química , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Proantocianidinas/administração & dosagem , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cápsulas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Comprimidos , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 41(8): 1158-1164, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549705

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore whether procyanidin B2 (PCB2) regulates the P13K/Akt/Nrf2 signaling pathway to protect neurons from oxidative stress induced by cypermethrin (CYP). METHODS: Primary cultures of cerebral cortex neurons from C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 5 groups: normal control group (cultured in serum-free neurobasal-B27 medium), PCB2 treatment group(treated with 5 µg/mL PCB2 for 24 h), CYP exposure group(treated with 50 µmol/L CYP for 24 h), PCB2 pretreatment group(pretreated with 5 µg/mL PCB2 for 30 min followed by exposure to 50 µmol/L CYP for 24 h), and LY294002 treatment group (pretreated with 20 µmol/L LY294002 for 30 min before treatment with PCB2 for 30 min and then CYP for 24 h).CCK-8 assay was used to analyze the neuronal viability after the treatments.Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the cells was detected using the fluorescent probe DCFH-DA and flow cytometry.The changes in nuclear morphology and mitochondrial membrane potential of the cells were examined with Hoechst 33342 and JC-1 staining, respectively.Western blotting was performed to detect the protein expressions of Nrf2, HO-1, p-Akt and Akt in the cells. RESULTS: In CYP exposure group, the cells showed significantly decreased viability and mitochondrial membrane potential with obvious apoptotic morphological changes and abnormal ROS production.By comparison, the cells in PCB2 preconditioning group showed improved cell survival rate, reduced abnormalities in nuclear morphology, increased mitochondrial membrane potential, and lowered intracellular ROS production.CYP exposure caused Nrf2 nuclear translocation and up-regulated Nrf2, HO-1, p-Akt protein expressions in the cells, which were inhibited by PCB2 pretreatment.Inhibition of the P13K/Akt signaling pathway obviously neutralized the protective effect of PCB2 against CYP-induced neuronal injury. CONCLUSIONS: PCB2 regulates the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway by activating the P13K/Akt signaling pathway to protect mouse cerebral cortical neurons against oxidative injury induced by cypermethrin.


Assuntos
Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Animais , Apoptose , Biflavonoides , Catequina , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Proantocianidinas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Piretrinas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577027

RESUMO

This research assessed the molecular mechanism of procyanidins (PCs) against neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and its metabolite 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) induced Parkinson's disease (PD) models. In vitro, PC12 cells were incubated with PCs or deprenyl for 24 h, and then exposed to 1.5 mM MPP+ for 24 h. In vivo, zebrafish larvae (AB strain) 3 days post-fertilization (dpf) were incubated with deprenyl or PCs in 400 µM MPTP for 4 days. Compared with MPP+/MPTP alone, PCs significantly improved antioxidant activities (e.g., glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT)), and decreased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Furthermore, PCs significantly increased nuclear Nrf2 accumulation in PC12 cells and raised the expression of NQO1, HO-1, GCLM, and GCLC in both PC12 cells and zebrafish compared to MPP+/MPTP alone. The current study shows that PCs have neuroprotective effects, activate the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway and alleviate oxidative damage in MPP+/MPTP-induced PD models.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Proantocianidinas , Animais , Antioxidantes , Estresse Oxidativo , Células PC12 , Ratos
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