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1.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 45(8): e26719, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38826009

RESUMO

Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a disorder characterised by motor and vocal tics, which may represent habitual actions as a result of enhanced learning of associations between stimuli and responses (S-R). In this study, we investigated how adults with GTS and healthy controls (HC) learn two types of regularities in a sequence: statistics (non-adjacent probabilities) and rules (predefined order). Participants completed a visuomotor sequence learning task while EEG was recorded. To understand the neurophysiological underpinnings of these regularities in GTS, multivariate pattern analyses on the temporally decomposed EEG signal as well as sLORETA source localisation method were conducted. We found that people with GTS showed superior statistical learning but comparable rule-based learning compared to HC participants. Adults with GTS had different neural representations for both statistics and rules than HC adults; specifically, adults with GTS maintained the regularity representations longer and had more overlap between them than HCs. Moreover, over different time scales, distinct fronto-parietal structures contribute to statistical learning in the GTS and HC groups. We propose that hyper-learning in GTS is a consequence of the altered sensitivity to encode complex statistics, which might lead to habitual actions.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Síndrome de Tourette , Humanos , Síndrome de Tourette/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade
2.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 50(7): 740-751, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722580

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that observers can learn to suppress locations in the visual field with a high distractor probability. Here, we investigated whether this learned suppression resulting from a spatial distractor imbalance transfers to a completely different search task that does not contain any distractors. Observers performed the additional singleton task and learned to suppress the location that was likely to contain a color singleton distractor. Within a block, the additional singleton task would randomly switch to a T-among-L task where observers searched in parallel (Experiment 1) or serially (Experiment 2) for a T among Ls. The upcoming search was either unpredictable (Experiment 1/2A) or cued (Experiment 1/2B). The results show that there was transfer of learning from one to the other task as the learned suppression stayed in place after the switch regardless of whether the T-among-L task was performed via parallel or serial search. Moreover, cueing that the task would switch had no effect on performance. The current findings indicate that implicit learned biases are rather inflexible and remain in place even when the task and the required search strategy are dramatically different and even when participants can anticipate that a change in the search required is imminent. This transfer of the suppression to a different task is consistent with the notion that suppression is proactively applied. Because the location is already suppressed proactively, that is, before display onset, regardless which display and task is presented, the suppressed location competes less for attention than all other locations. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Desempenho Psicomotor , Transferência de Experiência , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Feminino , Masculino , Transferência de Experiência/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7869, 2024 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570555

RESUMO

This study investigated the impact of target template variation or consistency on attentional bias in location probability learning. Participants conducted a visual search task to find a heterogeneous shape among a homogeneous set of distractors. The target and distractor shapes were either fixed throughout the experiment (target-consistent group) or unpredictably varied on each trial (target-variant group). The target was often presented in one possible search region, unbeknownst to the participants. When the target template was consistent throughout the biased visual search, spatial attention was persistently biased toward the frequent target location. However, when the target template was inconsistent and varied during the biased search, the spatial bias was attenuated so that attention was less prioritized to a frequent target location. The results suggest that the alternative use of target templates may interfere with the emergence of a persistent spatial bias. The regularity-based spatial bias depends on the number of attentional shifts to the frequent target location, but also on search-relevant contexts.


Assuntos
Atenção , Viés de Atenção , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Viés
4.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 86(3): 768-775, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316722

RESUMO

A large number of recent studies have demonstrated that efficient attentional selection depends to a large extent on the ability to extract regularities present in the environment. Through statistical learning, attentional selection is facilitated by directing attention to locations in space that were relevant in the past while suppressing locations that previously were distracting. The current study shows that we are not only able to learn to prioritize locations in space but also locations within objects independent of space. Participants learned that within a specific object, particular locations within the object were more likely to contain relevant information than other locations. The current results show that this learned prioritization was bound to the object as the learned bias to prioritize a specific location within the object stayed in place even when the object moved to a completely different location in space. We conclude that in addition to spatial attention prioritization of locations in space, it is also possible to learn to prioritize relevant locations within specific objects. The current findings have implications for the inferred spatial priority map of attentional weights as this map cannot be strictly retinotopically organized.


Assuntos
Atenção , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Transferência de Experiência , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Orientação , Orientação Espacial , Masculino , Feminino , Aprendizagem Espacial , Tempo de Reação , Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Percepção Espacial
5.
J Affect Disord ; 351: 184-193, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38286231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing research indicates that individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) exhibit a bias toward salient negative stimuli. However, the impact of such biased stimuli on concurrent cognitive and affective processes in individuals with depression remains inadequately understood. This study aimed to investigate the effects of salient environmental stimuli, specifically emotional faces, on reward-associated processes in MDD. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with recurrent MDD and thirty-two healthy controls (HC) matched for age, sex, and education were included in the study. We used a reward-related associative learning (RRAL) task primed with emotional (happy, sad, neutral) faces to investigate the effect of salient stimuli on reward-related learning and decision-making in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were instructed to ignore emotional faces during the task. The fMRI data were analyzed using a full-factorial general linear model (GLM) in Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM12). RESULTS: In depressed patients, cues primed with sad faces were associated with reduced amygdala activation. However, both HC and MDD group exhibited reduced ventral striatal activity while learning reward-related cues and receiving rewards. LIMITATIONS: The patients'medication usage was not standardized. CONCLUSIONS: This study underscores the functional alteration of the amygdala in response to cognitive tasks presented with negative emotionally salient stimuli in the environment of MDD patients. The observed alterations in amygdala activity suggest potential interconnected effects with other regions of the prefrontal cortex. Understanding the intricate neural connections and their disruptions in depression is crucial for unraveling the complex pathophysiology of the disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Humanos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Expressão Facial , Emoções/fisiologia , Felicidade , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Mapeamento Encefálico
6.
Int J Eat Disord ; 57(1): 195-200, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37870449

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive alterations play an important role in the pathophysiology and treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN). Previous studies suggest that some implicit learning processes may be inhibited in AN. However, this has not yet been fully explored. The purpose of this study is to analyze implicit learning in patients with AN in comparison to healthy controls. METHODS: In this pilot-study, a total of 21 patients diagnosed with AN and 21 matched controls were administered the weather prediction task (WPT), a probabilistic implicit category learning task that consists of two sub-variants. During the feedback (FB) version of the task, participants learn associations between tarot cards and weather outcomes via an operant learning model through which they receive immediate FB on their answers, whereas during the paired associate (PA) variant, participants are directly asked to memorize given associations. RESULTS: AN patients showed selective impairment on the FB task where they scored significantly lower both in comparison to controls (p = .001) who completed the same task and when compared to their own performance on the PA variant (p = .006). Clinical measures showed no significant correlations with test scores. DISCUSSION: Our results demonstrate implicit FB learning deficiencies in adult patients with AN. These impairments may have an impact on the effect of psychotherapeutic interventions and could partially explain the lack of treatment response in AN. Further studies are necessary to derive when and through which mechanisms these alterations originate, and to what extent they should be considered during treatment of the disorder. PUBLIC SIGNIFICANCE: Cognitive impairments pose a challenge in the management of anorexia nervosa. Improved comprehension of cognitive alterations could lead to a greater understanding of the disease and adaptation of psychotherapeutic treatments. In this study, we found that implicit feedback learning in anorexia nervosa is impaired compared to healthy controls. This could indicate the necessity of treatment adaptations in the form of therapy tools without feedback and a larger focus on psychoeducation.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Adulto , Humanos , Anorexia Nervosa/complicações , Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Projetos Piloto , Aprendizagem/fisiologia
7.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 86(1): 95-108, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37985596

RESUMO

Attention is tuned towards locations that frequently contain a visual search target (location probability learning; LPL). Peripheral vision, covering a larger field than the fovea, often receives information about the target. Yet what is the role of peripheral vision in attentional learning? Using gaze-contingent eye tracking, we examined the impact of simulated peripheral vision loss on location probability learning. Participants searched for a target T among distractor Ls. Unbeknownst to them, the T appeared disproportionately often in one quadrant. Participants searched with either intact vision or "tunnel vision," restricting the visible search items to the central 6.7º (in diameter) of the current gaze. When trained with tunnel vision, participants in Experiment 1 acquired LPL, but only if they became explicitly aware of the target's location probability. The unaware participants were not faster finding the target in high-probability than in low-probability locations. When trained with intact vision, participants in Experiment 2 successfully acquired LPL, regardless of whether they were aware of the target's location probability. Thus, whereas explicit learning may proceed with central vision alone, implicit LPL is strengthened by peripheral vision. Consistent with Guided Search (Wolfe, 2021), peripheral vision supports a nonselective pathway to guide visual search.


Assuntos
Atenção , Aprendizagem , Humanos , Percepção Visual , Conscientização , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Tempo de Reação
8.
Cortex ; 161: 77-92, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36913824

RESUMO

Our sensory systems are known to extract and utilize statistical regularities in sensory inputs across space and time for efficient perceptual processing. Past research has shown that participants can utilize statistical regularities of target and distractor stimuli independently within a modality either to enhance the target or to suppress the distractor processing. Utilizing statistical regularities of task-irrelevant stimuli across different modalities also enhances target processing. However, it is not known whether distractor processing can also be suppressed by utilizing statistical regularities of task-irrelevant stimulus of different modalities. In the present study, we investigated whether the spatial (Experiment 1) and non-spatial (Experiment 2) statistical regularities of task-irrelevant auditory stimulus could suppress the salient visual distractor. We used an additional singleton visual search task with two high-probability colour singleton distractor locations. Critically, the spatial location of the high-probability distractor was either predictive (valid trials) or unpredictive (invalid trials) based on the statistical regularities of the task-irrelevant auditory stimulus. The results replicated earlier findings of distractor suppression at high-probability locations compared to the locations where distractors appear with lower probability. However, the results did not show any RT advantage for valid distractor location trials as compared with invalid distractor location trials in both experiments. When tested on whether participants can express awareness of the relationship between specific auditory stimulus and the distractor location, they showed explicit awareness only in Experiment 1. However, an exploratory analysis suggested a possibility of response biases at the awareness testing phase of Experiment 1. Overall, results indicate that irrespective of awareness of the relationship between auditory stimulus and distractor location regularities, there was no reliable influence of task-irrelevant auditory stimulus regularities on distractor suppression.


Assuntos
Atenção , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Humanos , Atenção/fisiologia , Probabilidade , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
9.
Neuroimage ; 268: 119849, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36640947

RESUMO

Learning in a stochastic and changing environment is a difficult task. Models of learning typically postulate that observations that deviate from the learned predictions are surprising and used to update those predictions. Bayesian accounts further posit the existence of a confidence-weighting mechanism: learning should be modulated by the confidence level that accompanies those predictions. However, the neural bases of this confidence are much less known than the ones of surprise. Here, we used a dynamic probability learning task and high-field MRI to identify putative cortical regions involved in the representation of confidence about predictions during human learning. We devised a stringent test based on the conjunction of four criteria. We localized several regions in parietal and frontal cortices whose activity is sensitive to the confidence of an ideal observer, specifically so with respect to potential confounds (surprise and predictability), and in a way that is invariant to which item is predicted. We also tested for functionality in two ways. First, we localized regions whose activity patterns at the subject level showed an effect of both confidence and surprise in qualitative agreement with the confidence-weighting principle. Second, we found neural representations of ideal confidence that also accounted for subjective confidence. Taken together, those results identify a set of cortical regions potentially implicated in the confidence-weighting of learning.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Humanos , Teorema de Bayes , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13092, 2022 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35907973

RESUMO

Probability matching has long been taken as a prime example of irrational behaviour in human decision making; however, its nature and uniqueness in the animal world is still much debated. In this paper we report a set of four preregistered experiments testing adult humans and Guinea baboons on matched probability learning tasks, manipulating task complexity (binary or ternary prediction tasks) and reinforcement procedures (with and without corrective feedback). Our findings suggest that probability matching behaviour within primate species is restricted to humans and the simplest possible binary prediction tasks; utility-maximising is seen in more complex tasks for humans as pattern-search becomes more effortful, and we observe it across the board in baboons, altogether suggesting that it is a cognitively less demanding strategy. These results provide further evidence that neither human nor non-human primates default to probability matching; however, unlike other primates, adult humans probability match when the cost of pattern search is low.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Primatas , Adulto , Animais , Humanos , Probabilidade , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Reforço Psicológico
11.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 84(5): 1460-1476, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538292

RESUMO

Location probability learning-the acquisition of an attentional bias toward locations that frequently contained a search target-shows many characteristics of a search habit. To what degree does it depend on oculomotor control, as might be expected if habit-like attention is grounded in eye movements? Here, we examined the impact of a spatially incompatible oculomotor signal on location probability learning (LPL). On each trial of a visual search task, participants first saccaded toward a unique C-shape, whose orientation determined whether participants should continue searching for a T target among L distractors. The C-shape often appeared in one, "C-rich" quadrant that differed from where the T was frequently located. Experiment 1 showed that participants acquired LPL toward the high-probability, "T-rich" quadrant, an effect that persisted in an unbiased testing phase. Participants were also faster finding the target in the vicinity of the C-shape, but this effect did not persist after the C-shape was removed. Experiment 2 found that the C-shape affected search only when it was task-relevant. Experiment 3 replicated and extended the findings of Experiment 1 using eye tracking. Thus, location probability learning is robust in the face of a spatially incompatible saccade, demonstrating partial independence between experience-guided attention and goal-driven oculomotor control. The findings are in line with the modular view of attention, which conceptualizes the search habit as a high-level process abstracted from eye movements.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Movimentos Sacádicos
12.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 84(4): 1077-1086, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35426029

RESUMO

It is well known that attentional selection is sensitive to the regularities presented in the display. In the current study we employed the additional singleton paradigm and systematically manipulated the probability that the target would be presented in one particular location within the display (probabilities of 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%). The results showed the higher the target probability, the larger the performance benefit for high- relative to low-probability locations both when a distractor was present and when it was absent. We also showed that when the difference between high- and low-probability conditions was relatively small (30%) participants were not able to learn the contingencies. The distractor presented at a high-probability target location caused more interference than when presented at a low-probability target location. Overall, the results suggest that attentional biases are optimized to the regularities presented in the display tracking the experienced probabilities of the locations that were most likely to contain a target. We argue that this effect is not strategic in nature nor the result of repetition priming. Instead, we assume that through statistical learning the weights within the spatial priority map are adjusted optimally, generating the efficient selection priorities.


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção , Aprendizagem , Atenção , Humanos , Probabilidade , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Tempo de Reação
13.
Brain Res Bull ; 181: 157-166, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35122898

RESUMO

Pramipexole is a potent agonist of D3 and D2 dopamine receptors, currently approved for clinical use in Parkinson's disease (PD) and restless leg syndrome. Several studies have shown that pramipexole significantly increases the risk of pathological gambling and impulse-control disorders. While these iatrogenic complications can impose a severe social and financial burden, their treatment poses serious clinical challenges. Our group previously reported that the steroidogenic inhibitor finasteride reduced pathological gambling severity in PD patients who developed this complication following pramipexole treatment. To study the mechanisms underlying these effects, here we tested the impact of finasteride in a rat model of pramipexole-induced alterations of probability discounting. We previously showed that, in rats exposed to low doses of the monoamine-depleting agent reserpine (1 mg/kg/day, SC), pramipexole (0.3 mg/kg/day, SC) increased the propensity to engage in disadvantageous choices. This effect was paralleled by a marked D3 receptor upregulation in the nucleus accumbens. First, we tested how finasteride (25-50 mg/kg, IP) intrinsically affects probability discounting. While the highest dose of finasteride produced a marked lack of interest in lever pressing (manifested as a significant increase in omissions), the 25 mg/kg (IP) dose did not intrinsically modify probability discounting. However, this finasteride regimen significantly reduced the adverse effects of reserpine and pramipexole in probability discounting by diminishing rats' propensity to engage in highly disadvantageous probabilistic choices. The same regimen also reversed the upregulation of D3 receptors in the nucleus accumbens induced by reserpine and pramipexole. These findings confirm that finasteride opposes the impulsivity caused by pramipexole and suggest that this effect may be underpinned by a normalizing effect on D3 receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens.


Assuntos
Inibidores de 5-alfa Redutase/farmacologia , Comportamento de Escolha/efeitos dos fármacos , Agonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Finasterida/farmacologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Accumbens/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Accumbens/metabolismo , Pramipexol/farmacologia , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Receptores de Dopamina D3/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Dopamina D3/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ratos , Receptores de Dopamina D3/agonistas
14.
Neuroimage ; 249: 118895, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017125

RESUMO

Anxiety influences how the brain estimates and responds to uncertainty. The consequences of these processes on behaviour have been described in theoretical and empirical studies, yet the associated neural correlates remain unclear. Rhythm-based accounts of Bayesian predictive coding propose that predictions in generative models of perception are represented in alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta oscillations (13-30 Hz). Updates to predictions are driven by prediction errors weighted by precision (inverse variance) encoded in gamma oscillations (>30 Hz) and associated with the suppression of beta activity. We tested whether state anxiety alters the neural oscillatory activity associated with predictions and precision-weighted prediction errors (pwPE) during learning. Healthy human participants performed a probabilistic reward-based learning task in a volatile environment. In our previous work, we described learning behaviour in this task using a hierarchical Bayesian model, revealing more precise (biased) beliefs about the tendency of the reward contingency in state anxiety, consistent with reduced learning in this group. The model provided trajectories of predictions and pwPEs for the current study, allowing us to assess their parametric effects on the time-frequency representations of EEG data. Using convolution modelling for oscillatory responses, we found that, relative to a control group, state anxiety increased beta activity in frontal and sensorimotor regions during processing of pwPE, and in fronto-parietal regions during encoding of predictions. No effects of state anxiety on gamma modulation were found. Our findings expand prior evidence on the oscillatory representations of predictions and pwPEs into the reward-based learning domain. The results suggest that state anxiety modulates beta-band oscillatory correlates of pwPE and predictions in generative models, providing insights into the neural processes associated with biased belief updating and poorer learning.


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Recompensa , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Incerteza
15.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 48(1): 1-12, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35073135

RESUMO

The visual system can learn statistical regularities and form search habits that guide attention to a region where a target frequently appears. Although regularities in the real world can change over time, little is known about how such changes affect habit learning. Using a location probability learning task, we demonstrated that a constant target location probability resulted in a long-term habit-like attentional bias to the target-frequent location. However, when the target probability changed over time in any pattern, the same amount of learning induced only a short-term bias and disrupted the formation of long-term search habits. Moreover, although temporal changes in regularity during initial learning interfered with the acquisition of a search habit, they did not modulate the already consolidated bias. These results suggest that the stability and flexibility of habitual attention learning depend on when and how the statistical regularities in the environment change. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Hábitos , Humanos , Probabilidade , Tempo de Reação
16.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 84(6): 1901-1912, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921336

RESUMO

Central vision loss disrupts voluntary shifts of spatial attention during visual search. Recently, we reported that a simulated scotoma impaired learned spatial attention towards regions likely to contain search targets. In that task, search items were overlaid on natural scenes. Because natural scenes can induce explicit awareness of learned biases leading to voluntary shifts of attention, here we used a search display with a blank background less likely to induce awareness of target location probabilities. Participants searched both with and without a simulated central scotoma: a training phase contained targets more often in one screen quadrant and a testing phase contained targets equally often in all quadrants. In Experiment 1, training used no scotoma, while testing alternated between blocks of scotoma and no-scotoma search. Experiment 2 training included the scotoma and testing again alternated between scotoma and no-scotoma search. Response times and saccadic behaviors in both experiments showed attentional biases towards the high-probability target quadrant during scotoma and no-scotoma search. Whereas simulated central vision loss impairs learned spatial attention in the context of natural scenes, our results show that this may not arise from impairments to the basic mechanisms of attentional learning indexed by visual search tasks without scenes.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Escotoma , Atenção/fisiologia , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Movimentos Sacádicos
17.
Exp Psychol ; 69(5): 241-252, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36655884

RESUMO

The ability to learn sequences depends on different factors governing sequence structure, such as transitional probability (TP, probability of a stimulus given a previous stimulus), adjacent or nonadjacent dependency, and frequency. Current evidence indicates that adjacent and nonadjacent pairs are not equally learnable; the same applies to second-order and first-order TPs and to the frequency of the sequences. However, the relative importance of these factors and interactive effects on learning remain poorly understood. The first experiment tested the effects of TPs and dependency separately on the learning of nonlinguistic visual sequences, and the second experiment used the factors of the first experiment and added a frequency factor to test their interactive effects with verbal sequences of stimuli (pseudo-words). The results of both experiments showed higher performance during online learning for first-order TPs in adjacent pairs. Moreover, Experiment 2 indicated poorer performance during offline recall for nonadjacent dependencies and low-frequency sequences. We discuss the results that different factors are not used equally in prediction and memorization.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Rememoração Mental , Humanos , Probabilidade , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade
18.
Psicol. reflex. crit ; 35: 30, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1406425

RESUMO

Abstract Language learners can rely on phonological and semantic information to learn novel words. Using a cross-situational word learning paradigm, we explored the role of phonotactic probabilities on word learning in ambiguous contexts. Brazilian-Portuguese speaking adults (N = 30) were exposed to two sets of word-object pairs. Words from one set of labels had slightly higher phonotactic probabilities than words from the other set. By tracking co-occurrences of words and objects, participants were able to learn word-object mappings similarly across both sets. Our findings contrast with studies showing a facilitative effect of phonotactic probability on word learning in non-ambiguous contexts.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Idioma , Brasil
19.
Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 62(3): 180-192, dic. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1434349

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN La predicción de la estadía hospitalaria luego de una artroplastia total de cadera (ATC) electiva es crucial en la evaluación perioperatoria de los pacientes, con un rol determinante desde el punto de vista operacional y económico. Internacionalmente, se han empleado macrodatos (big data, en inglés) e inteligencia artificial para llevar a cabo evaluaciones pronósticas de este tipo. El objetivo del presente estudio es desarrollar y validar, con el empleo del aprendizaje de máquinas (machine learning, en inglés), una herramienta capaz de predecir la estadía hospitalaria de pacientes chilenos mayores de 65 años sometidos a ATC por artrosis. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS Empleando los registros electrónicos de egresos hospitalarios anonimizados del Departamento de Estadísticas e Información de Salud (DEIS), se obtuvieron los datos de 8.970 egresos hospitalarios de pacientes sometidos a ATC por artrosis entre los años 2016 y 2018. En total, 15 variables disponibles en el DEIS, además del porcentaje de pobreza de la comuna de origen del paciente, fueron incluidos para predecir la probabilidad de que un paciente presentara una estadía acortada (< 3 días) o prolongada (> 3 días) luego de la cirugía. Utilizando técnicas de aprendizaje de máquinas, 8 algoritmos de predicción fueron entrenados con el 80% de la muestra. El 20% restante se empleó para validar las capacidades predictivas de los modelos creados a partir de los algoritmos. La métrica de optimización se evaluó y ordenó en un ranking utilizando el área bajo la curva de característica operativa del receptor (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, AUC-ROC, en inglés), que corresponde a cuan bien un modelo puede distinguir entre dos grupos. RESULTADOS El algoritmo XGBoost obtuvo el mejor desempeño, con una AUC-ROC promedio de 0,86 (desviación estándar [DE]: 0,0087). En segundo lugar, observamos que el algoritmo lineal de máquina de vector de soporte (support vector machine, SVM, en inglés) obtuvo una AUC-ROC de 0,85 (DE: 0,0086). La importancia relativa de las variables explicativas demostró que la región de residencia, el servicio de salud, el establecimiento de salud donde se operó el paciente, y la modalidad de atención son las variables que más determinan el tiempo de estadía de un paciente. DISCUSIÓN El presente estudio desarrolló algoritmos de aprendizaje de máquinas basados en macrodatos chilenos de libre acceso, y logró desarrollar y validar una herramienta que demuestra una adecuada capacidad discriminatoria para predecir la probabilidad de estadía hospitalaria acortada versus prolongada en adultos mayores sometidos a ATC por artrosis. CONCLUSIÓN Los algoritmos creados a traves del empleo del aprendizaje de máquinas permiten predecir la estadía hospitalaria en pacientes chilenos operado de artroplastia total de cadera electiva


Introduction The prediction of the length of hospital stay after elective total hip arthroplasty (THA) is crucial in the perioperative evaluation of the patients, and it plays a decisive role from the operational and economic point of view. Internationally, big data and artificial intelligence have been used to perform prognostic evaluations of this type. The present study aims to develop and validate, through the use of artificial intelligence (machine learning), a tool capable of predicting the hospital stay of patients over 65 years of age undergoing THA for osteoarthritis. Material and Methods Using the electronic records of hospital discharges de-identified from the Department of Health Statistics and Information (Departamento de Estadísticas e Información de Salud, DEIS, in Spanish), the data of 8,970 hospital discharges of patients who had undergone THA for osteoarthritis between 2016 and 2018 were obtained. A total of 15 variables available in the DEIS registry, in addition to the poverty rate in the patient's borough of origin were included to predict the probability that a patient would have a shortened (< 3 days) or prolonged (> 3 days) stay after surgery. By using machine learning techniques, 8 prediction algorithms were trained with 80% of the sample. The remaining 20% was used to validate the predictive capabilities of the models created from the algorithms. The optimization metric was evaluated and ranked using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC), which corresponds to how well a model can distinguish between two groups. Results The XGBoost algorithm had the best performance, with an average AUC-ROC of 0.86 (standard deviation [SD]: 0.0087). Secondly, we observed that the linear support vector machine (SVM) algorithm obtained an AUC-ROC of 0.85 (SD: 0.0086). The relative importance of the explanatory variables showed that the region of residence, the administrative health service, the hospital where the patient was operated on, and the care modality are the variables that most determine the length of stay. Discussion The present study developed machine learning algorithms based on freeaccess Chilean big data, which helped create and validate a tool that demonstrates an adequate discriminatory capacity to predict shortened versus prolonged hospital stay in elderly patients undergoing elective THA. Conclusion The algorithms created through the use of machine learning allow to predict the hospital stay in Chilean patients undergoing elective total hip arthroplasty Introduction The prediction of the length of hospital stay after elective total hip arthroplasty (THA) is crucial in the perioperative evaluation of the patients, and it plays a decisive role from the operational and economic point of view. Internationally, big data and artificial intelligence have been used to perform prognostic evaluations of this type. The present study aims to develop and validate, through the use of artificial intelligence (machine learning), a tool capable of predicting the hospital stay of patients over 65 years of age undergoing THA for osteoarthritis. Material and Methods Using the electronic records of hospital discharges de-identified from the Department of Health Statistics and Information (Departamento de Estadísticas e Información de Salud, DEIS, in Spanish), the data of 8,970 hospital discharges of patients who had undergone THA for osteoarthritis between 2016 and 2018 were obtained. A total of 15 variables available in the DEIS registry, in addition to the poverty rate in the patient's borough of origin were included to predict the probability that a patient would have a shortened (< 3 days) or prolonged (> 3 days) stay after surgery. By using machine learning techniques, 8 prediction algorithms were trained with 80% of the sample. The remaining 20% was used to validate the predictive capabilities of the models created from the algorithms. The optimization metric was evaluated and ranked using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC), which corresponds to how well a model can distinguish between two groups. Results The XGBoost algorithm had the best performance, with an average AUC-ROC of 0.86 (standard deviation [SD]: 0.0087). Secondly, we observed that the linear


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Hospitalização , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Chile
20.
PLoS Biol ; 19(9): e3001119, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491980

RESUMO

Statistical learning (SL) is the ability to extract regularities from the environment. In the domain of language, this ability is fundamental in the learning of words and structural rules. In lack of reliable online measures, statistical word and rule learning have been primarily investigated using offline (post-familiarization) tests, which gives limited insights into the dynamics of SL and its neural basis. Here, we capitalize on a novel task that tracks the online SL of simple syntactic structures combined with computational modeling to show that online SL responds to reinforcement learning principles rooted in striatal function. Specifically, we demonstrate-on 2 different cohorts-that a temporal difference model, which relies on prediction errors, accounts for participants' online learning behavior. We then show that the trial-by-trial development of predictions through learning strongly correlates with activity in both ventral and dorsal striatum. Our results thus provide a detailed mechanistic account of language-related SL and an explanation for the oft-cited implication of the striatum in SL tasks. This work, therefore, bridges the long-standing gap between language learning and reinforcement learning phenomena.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Reforço Psicológico , Corpo Estriado/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Reconhecimento Fisiológico de Modelo , Adulto Jovem
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