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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679369

RESUMO

In this paper, a control method of a novel tilt-rotor UAV with a blended wing body layout is studied. The novel UAV is capable of vertical take-off and landing and has strong stealth capabilities that can be applied to carrier-borne reconnaissance aircraft. However, the high aspect ratio of blended wing body UAVs leads to a wingtip or oar-tip touchdown problem when adopting the conventional position-attitude control (CPAC) scheme with a large crosswind disturbance. Moreover, when the UAV is subject to interference during reconnaissance, aerial photography, and landing missions, the conventional scheme cannot provide both attitude stability and track accuracy. First, a direct thrust vectoring control (DTVC) scheme is proposed. The control authority of the rotor tilt mechanism was added to enable the decoupling of the attitude and trajectory and to improve the response rate and response bandwidth of the flight trajectory. Second, considering the problems of strong couplings and parameter uncertainties and the nonlinear features and mismatched perturbations that are inevitable in the tilt-rotor, we designed a robust UAV controller based on the backstepping sliding mode control method and determined the stability of the control system through the Lyapunov function. Finally, in the case of crosswire interference during vertical takeoff and landing and the aerial photography missions of the UAV, the numerical simulation of the CPAC scheme and the DTVC scheme was carried out, respectively, and the Monte Carlo random test method was introduced to conduct the statistical test of the landing accuracy. The simulation results show that the DTVC scheme improves the landing accuracy and speed compared to the CAPC scheme and decouples the position control loop from the attitude control loop, finally enabling the UAV to complete the flight control in the VTOL phase.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Processos Grupais , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Método de Monte Carlo , Fotografação
2.
Br J Sociol ; 74(1): 83-104, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36628518

RESUMO

Occupying public spaces can be an effective tactic for conveying a semantic message of protest and gaining wider support; however, it may also severely disrupt the everyday lives of non-participants and causes a backfire. Therefore, it remains unclear whether and how the occupy movements have shifted political attitudes among the general public. Bringing a social-spatial perspective to the case of the Occupy Central Movement (OCM) in Hong Kong, this study investigates how the attitudinal impact of occupation has varied according to people's spatial proximity to the protest sites. Using two waves of individual-level panel data collected right before and after the OCM and detailed geo-information on the respondents' home addresses and the occupied areas, we apply a difference-in-differences (DIDs) design to identify the causal link between space and attitudes. In addition, propensity score matching (PSM) methods are used to ensure the comparability of nearby and faraway residents. The results show that after the OCM, residents living near the occupied areas not only maintained their support for the pro-democracy camp but also became more liberal as compared to faraway residents. This phenomenon can be explained by the "on-site" effect, which suggests that the direct exposure to protestors' solidarity and the repressive actions of authorities arouse bystanders' sympathy for the protestors and support for their political cause. Such influence appears to be long-lasting and can be evidenced by the local election results after the protest.


Assuntos
Atitude , Política , Humanos , Hong Kong , Meio Social , Processos Grupais
3.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 112(2): 197-217, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36633611

RESUMO

In clinical trials, biochemical markers provide useful information on the drug's mode of action, therapeutic response and side effect monitoring and can act as surrogate endpoints. In pharmacological intervention development for sarcopenia management, there is an urgent need to identify biomarkers to measure in clinical trials and that could be used in the future in clinical practice. The objective of the current consensus paper is to provide a clear list of biochemical markers of musculoskeletal health and aging that can be recommended to be measured in Phase II and Phase III clinical trials evaluating new chemical entities for sarcopenia treatment. A working group of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ESCEO) proposed classifying biochemical markers into 2 series: biochemical markers evaluating musculoskeletal status and biochemical markers evaluating causal factors. For series 1, the group agreed on 4 biochemical markers that should be assessed in Phase II or Phase III trials (i.e., Myostatin-Follistatin, Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor, N-terminal Type III Procollagen and Serum Creatinine to Serum Cystatin C Ratio - or the Sarcopenia Index). For series 2, the group agreed on 6 biochemical markers that should be assessed in Phase II trials (i.e., the hormones insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, and cortisol, and the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α), and 2 in Phase III trials (i.e., IGF-I and CRP). The group also proposed optional biochemical markers that may provide insights into the mode of action of pharmacological therapies. Further research and development of new methods for biochemical marker assays may lead to the evolution of these recommendations.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Osteoartrite , Osteoporose , Sarcopenia , Humanos , Sarcopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Consenso , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Envelhecimento , Processos Grupais , Biomarcadores , Organização Mundial da Saúde
4.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1160, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670128

RESUMO

Some human groups are organized hierarchically and some are distributed. Both types of groups occur in economic, political, and military domains, but it is unclear why hierarchical organizations are favored in certain contexts and distributed organizations are favored in others. I propose that these different organizational structures can be explained by human groups having different constraints on their ability to foster cooperation within the group. Human within-group cooperation is often maintained by monitoring and punishment. In hierarchical groups, monitoring and punishment are organized into tree-like command-and-control structures with supervisors responsible for monitoring the cooperation of their subordinates and punishing non-cooperators. By contrast, in distributed groups, monitoring is diffuse and punishment is collective. I propose that the organization of cooperative human groups is constrained by the costs of monitoring and punishment. I formalize this hypothesis with a model where individuals in a group cooperate to produce public goods while embedded in a network of monitoring and punishment responsibilities. I show that, when punishment costs are high and monitoring costs are low, socially-optimal monitoring and punishment networks are distributed. The size of these distributed networks is constrained by monitoring costs. However, when punishment costs are low, socially-optimal networks are hierarchical. Monitoring costs do not constrain the size of hierarchical networks but determine how many levels of supervision are required to foster cooperation in the hierarchical group. These results may explain the increasingly large and hierarchical groups throughout much of human history. They also suggest that the recent emergence of large-scale distributed organizations has been possible because new technologies, like the internet, have made monitoring costs extremely low.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Comportamento Social , Humanos , Processos Grupais , Punição , Custos e Análise de Custo , Teoria do Jogo
5.
Perspect Public Health ; 142(6): 347-354, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36458486

RESUMO

AIMS: Food allergy is a major public health concern. Failures of food allergen avoidance and the consequences for those with food hypersensitivity (allergies, intolerances and coeliac disease) have a forensic context. The aim of this study was to collate and analyse the use of action in the United Kingdom (UK) courts as redress following adverse food allergy reactions or failures of allergen management. METHODS: Details of prosecutions during the study period (1 January 2014 to 31 January 2020) were recorded from regular key word Internet searches. National and local news reports were primary sources, along with commentary from enforcement and regulatory professionals. Information was also collected from coroners' inquests by attending hearings and direct contact with coroners and participants in the hearings. Freedom of Information requests were made to local authority enforcement departments. In several cases, the authors had direct involvement in investigations. RESULTS: From 2014 to 2020, there was an increase in reports. Seventy prosecutions were recorded as well as two associated appeals and two applications for Hygiene Emergency Prohibition Notice. This resulted in 68 convictions; seven individuals received custodial sentences, three of which were suspended although one individual had a tagged curfew imposed. Fines ranged from £50 to £93,000. Details of the law applied and the evidence gathering processes are reported. CONCLUSION: Legal action, including landmark prosecutions for Gross Negligence Manslaughter and Preventing Future Deaths reports from coroners, with salience of criminal penalties, has led to changes in labelling law and improved allergen management practices better to protect the interests of patients with food hypersensitivities. A central system of collation of such data, and on 'near misses', will enable more focused root cause analysis to further improve allergen management and reduce patient risk.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Humanos , Processos Grupais , Higiene , Internet , Alérgenos
6.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0277866, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454890

RESUMO

Monitoring and investigating temporal trends in antimicrobial data is a high priority for human and animal health authorities. Timely detection of temporal changes in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) can rely not only on monitoring and analyzing the proportion of resistant isolates based on the use of a clinical or epidemiological cut-off value, but also on more subtle changes and trends in the full distribution of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. The nature of the MIC distribution is categorical and ordinal (discrete). In this contribution, we developed a particular family of multicategory logit models for estimating and modelling MIC distributions over time. It allows the detection of a multitude of temporal trends in the full discrete distribution, without any assumption on the underlying continuous distribution for the MIC values. The experimental ranges of the serial dilution experiments may vary across laboratories and over time. The proposed categorical model allows to estimate the MIC distribution over the maximal range of the observed experiments, and allows the observed ranges to vary across labs and over time. The use and performance of the model is illustrated with two datasets on AMR in Salmonella.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Animais , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Processos Grupais
8.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2431, 2022 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36575512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In China, the new TB control model of trinity form had been implemented in all parts, and the comprehensively evaluation to the performances in primary TB control institutions were closely related to the working capacity and quality of TB service, but there was still no an unified evaluation indicators framework in practice and few relevant studies. The purpose of this study was to establish an indicators framework for comprehensively evaluating the performances in primary TB control institutions under the new TB control model of trinity form in Guangxi, China. METHODS: The Delphi method was used to establish an indicators framework for comprehensively evaluating the performances in primary TB control institutions under the new TB control model of trinity form, and the analytic hierarchy process(AHP) was used to determine the weights of all levels of indicators, from September 2021 to December 2021 in Guangxi, China. RESULTS: A total of 14 experts who had at least 10 years working experience and engaged in TB prevention and control and public health management from health committee, CDC, TB designated hospitals and university of Guangxi were consulted in two rounds. The average age of the experts were (43.3 ± 7.549) years old, and the effective recovery rate of the questionnaire was 100.0%. The average value of authority coefficient of experts (Cr) in the two rounds of consultation was above 0.800. The Kendall's harmony coefficient (W) of experts' opinions on the first-level indicators, the second-level indicators and the third-level indicators were 0.786, 0.201 and 0.169, respectively, which were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Finally, an indicators framework was established, which included 2 first-level indicators, 10 second-level indicators and 37 third-level indicators. The results of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) showed that the consistency test of all levels of indicators were CI < 0.10, which indicating that the weight of each indicator was acceptable. CONCLUSION: The indicators framework established in this study was in line with the reality, had reasonable weights, and could provide a scientific evaluation tool for comprehensively evaluating the performances in primary TB control institutions under the new TB control model of trinity form in Guangxi, China.


Assuntos
Processos Grupais , Hospitais , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnica Delfos , China/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497857

RESUMO

(1) Background: The aim of this study is to propose a model of the interactions of group dynamics using the conceptual framework to examine sports teams; (2) Methods: The hypothesized model includes measures of group structure (authentic leadership, perceived justice, coaching competency, role clarity/ambiguity, and role conflict), group cohesion (cohesion and team conflict), and group processes (collective efficacy and transactive memory systems). Participants were 581 professional soccer players (M = 24.51, SD = 3.73; 356 males and 225 females) who completed a multisection questionnaire assessing group dynamics variables; (3) Results: The results show that coach leadership predicts coaching competency and perceived justice, and both competency and justice predict role ambiguity and role conflict. Furthermore, role ambiguity and role conflict predict group cohesion and team conflict, whereas group cohesion and team conflict both predict the transactive memory system. Finally, collective efficacy is predicted by the transactive memory system; (4) Conclusions: The results suggest the importance of coach behavior (leadership, justice, and competency) and group processes to improving team functioning in a professional sports context.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Tutoria , Futebol , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Processos Grupais
10.
Acta Biomed ; 93(6): e2022346, 2022 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36533742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The COVID-19 pandemic forced many institutions to move Team-Based Learning to an online format. The primary aim of this study is to examine the performance of undergraduate nursing students on tRAT and iRAT during online TBL. The secondary aims are to evaluate the students' attitudes and their accountability, preferences and satisfaction with online TBL. METHODS: The study employed a one-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design. The primary outcome was evaluated by comparing the students' average scores in the tRAT versus the iRAT in each online TBL session. The secondary outcomes were evaluated through the questionnaire designed by Parmelee et al. (2009) and the Team-Based Learning Student Assessment Instrument (TBL-SAI) (Mennenga, 2012). RESULTS: A statistically significant improvement was identified between tRAT and iRAT performances in all online TBL sessions (p<0.001). Students' satisfaction with team experience showed a statistically significant increase (p=0.003). Participants considered the peer evaluation to be fair (p<0.001), although it didn't encourage them to study more (p=0.028). Finally, students felt they were able to make the right decisions (p<0.001). The mean scores for accountability (m=30±3.7) and preferences for TBL (m=51.8±6.3) were higher than their neutral values (n=24; n=48). Students' satisfaction was neutral (m=27.8±5, n=27). CONCLUSIONS: In online TBL, teamwork has improved individual performances and has been appreciated by the participants. The online TBL had a positive effect on the accountability of students who preferred it to frontal lectures.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Avaliação Educacional , Processos Grupais , Pandemias , Responsabilidade Social , Atitude
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 21875, 2022 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36536035

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to offer a first investigation of the neuro-cognitive processes and the temporal dynamics at the neural level, together with cultural, social and psychological dimensions, that may support resistance to orders to harm another person. Using a novel experimental approach to study experimentally disobedience, we recruited individuals from the first generation born after the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Seventy-two were recruited and tested in Rwanda and 72 were recruited and tested in Belgium. Results indicated that a higher neural response to the pain of others and a higher feeling of responsibility when people obeyed orders were associated with more resistance to immoral orders. We also observed that participants who had a higher processing, as measured through mid-frontal theta activity, when listening to the orders of the experimenter disobeyed less frequently to immoral orders. Further, participants experiencing a higher conflict before administering a shock to the 'victim' also disobeyed more frequently to immoral orders. Finally, a low cultural relationship to authority and a high estimated family suffering during the genocide were also associated with more disobedience to immoral orders. The present study opens new paths for interdisciplinary field research dedicated to the study of obedience.


Assuntos
Genocídio , Comportamento Social , Humanos , Genocídio/psicologia , Ruanda , Processos Grupais , Cognição
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554583

RESUMO

Parental psychological control has been found to be a vital familial factor that is closely related to adolescents' addiction behaviors with regard to smartphones and the internet. However, the underlying mechanisms of these associations are less clear. The aim of the present study was to examine whether shyness mediated the relationships between parental psychological control and these two addiction behaviors. A positivist paradigm was used in the present study. The questionnaires (parental psychological control, shyness, and smartphone and internet addiction questionnaires) were used to collect data from a sample of 1857 Chinese adolescents (961 female, 896 male) in junior and senior middle schools. Descriptive statistics as well as correlation and mediation tests were employed to analyze the data. We observed that adolescents with siblings showed a higher level of internet addiction than those with no siblings. Moreover, three dimensions of parental psychological control were positively associated with addiction behaviors. The following analyses displayed that the correlation between authority assertion and smartphone addiction was greater than that between authority assertion and internet addiction. Subsequently, shyness was significantly positively related to parental psychological control and addiction behaviors. Importantly, we found that the relations between the three dimensions of parental psychological control and the addiction behaviors concerning smartphones and the internet were partially mediated by shyness. This study contributes to our understanding of how parental psychological control predicts high levels of adolescents' addiction behaviors surrounding smartphones and the internet.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Timidez , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Smartphone , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Processos Grupais , Internet
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(23)2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36501820

RESUMO

The data economy is based on data and information sharing and tremendously impacts society as it facilitates innovative collaborations and decision-making strategies. Nonetheless, most dataset-sharing solutions rely on a centralized authority that rules data ownership, availability, and accessibility. Recent works have explored the integration of distributed storage and blockchain to enhance decentralization, data access, and smart contracts for automating the interactions between actors and data. However, current solutions propose a smart contract design limiting the system's scalability in terms of actors and shared datasets. Furthermore, little is known about the performance of these architectures when using distributed storage instead of centralized storage approaches. This paper proposes a scalable architecture called DeBlock for data sharing in a trusted way among unreliable actors. The architecture integrates a public blockchain that provides a transparent record of datasets and interactions, with a distributed storage for data storage in a completely decentralized way. Furthermore, the architecture provides a smart-contract design for a transparent catalog of datasets, actors, and interactions with efficient search and retrieval capabilities. To assess the system's feasibility, robustness, and scalability, we implement a prototype using the Ethereum blockchain and leveraging two decentralized storage protocols, Swarm and IPFS. We evaluate the performance of our proposed system in different scenarios (e.g., varying the amount and size of the shared datasets). Our results demonstrate that our proposal outperforms benchmarks in gas consumption, latency, and resource requirements, especially when increasing the number of actors and shared datasets.


Assuntos
Blockchain , Confiança , Benchmarking , Processos Grupais , Disseminação de Informação
14.
Soc Sci Med ; 315: 115556, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36410137

RESUMO

Peru's Ministry of Health promotes the provision of culturally competent and universal health care. To do so they have implemented policies aimed at addressing indigenous peoples' social, geographic, and financial barriers to health care as well as cultural gaps between them and (bio)medical providers. While scholars argued that these policies have fallen short, their explanations have ignored the role that medical providers' professional authority plays in implementing these policies. This study examined how medical providers aim to provide culturally competent care and facilitate patients' use of medical services while protecting their professional authority. This includes preserving control over their space of work and their capacity to legitimately diagnose, treat, and prognosticate medical problems. Ethnographic observations and 50 interviews conducted between May 2017 and February 2018 show that to facilitate the provision of culturally competent and universal health care, medical providers engaged in non-clinical tasks, trespassed bureaucratic rules, tolerated and integrated the use of traditional medicine, and expanded the time and place of their practice. To advance these strategies, medical providers sacrificed aspects of their social authority (e.g., their autonomy over their work) and their cultural authority (e.g., their ability to define treatment). However, providers also asserted aspects of their professional authority such as the ability to give patients instructions and advice and control over the use of traditional medicine. The latter had the potential of deterring some women from having institutional births, thus reproducing some of the constraints that indigenous people face in accessing health care.


Assuntos
Competência Cultural , Assistência de Saúde Universal , Humanos , Feminino , Peru , Processos Grupais , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde
15.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 766, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of online classes is always a concern, and it can be overcome by opting for active learning strategies like team-based learning (TBL). This study was conducted to find out the effectiveness of online TBL as an active learning strategy. We also aimed to explore the satisfaction and perception of students toward TBL. METHODS: This is a mixed-method study conducted among 29 third-year Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) students of Gandaki Medical College using purposive sampling method in the duration of January to September 2021. Three two hours online TBL sessions were used for teaching introduction to medical ethics. The individual readiness assurance test (IRAT) scores were compared to the group readiness assurance test (GRAT) scores to evaluate the effect of TBL through cooperative learning. Learner reactions and satisfaction of students towards TBL were assessed using a validated questionnaire comprising of a five-point Likert scale. An open-ended question asking the participants to describe their overall experience of the TBL sessions was also included to explore their perceptions towards TBL. The data were collected using Google form and exported to Microsoft Excel and the quantitative data were then analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. To check the normal distribution of the data, Kolmogorov Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk test were used. Non-parametric tests were used for the non-normally distributed data. P value of < 0.05 was regarded as significant. Thematic analysis was conducted for the qualitative data. RESULTS: The median GRAT scores were significantly higher (p = 0.006 in TBL 1 and 0.001 in TBL 2) than IRAT scores. Learner reactions toward TBL sessions were positive as shown by the mean scores which were in the range of 3.59 to 4.66. Five themes were generated from the codes: "effective learning method", "positive experience", "gained knowledge", "expression of gratitude" and "the way of conduction of the sessions". CONCLUSION: Online TBL in medical ethics was effective as a teaching learning tool in our setting. The students were satisfied with the learning process and rated the learning strategy positively.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Ética Médica/educação , Processos Grupais , Nepal , Projetos Piloto , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos
16.
Am J Health Behav ; 46(5): 503-514, 2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333830

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study, I aimed to find empirical support for the increasingly frequent assumption about the regulatory potential of legitimacy with regard to people's health behaviors. The research determined the effect of legitimacy on 3 crucial health behaviors. It also tested whether patients' perception of doctors as competent played a role in the recognition of doctors' legitimacy. METHODS: The study included 210 participants, patients of independent primary healthcare facilities and specialist hospital outpatient clinics. The collected empirical data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). I tested 6 SEM models. RESULTS: The study supported the main hypothesized relationship, showing that legitimacy was a factor increasing compliance with medical advice and regulating the treatment process. It also supported the relationship, postulated in the second hypothesis, between doctor's perceived competence and the perceived legitimacy of healthcare institutions. CONCLUSIONS: The results of analyses indicate that the perception of a healthcare institution as trustworthy and patients' recognition of the legitimacy of doctors' authority increases their willingness to voluntarily comply with medical advice and continue treatment.


Assuntos
Médicos , Humanos , Processos Grupais , Relações Médico-Paciente
17.
Span J Psychol ; 25: e28, 2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36321422

RESUMO

School represents an important context for children's social, moral, and identity development. Research indicates that supportive teacher-student relationships are significantly related to positive student academic achievement. Unfortunately, teacher bias as well as peer exclusion based on group identity (gender, race, ethnicity, and nationality) pervade many school contexts. The presence of these biases in the classroom is negatively related to students' academic development, especially for children who are minoritized and marginalized. Very little research has connected teacher bias and children's reasoning about bias and inequalities in the classroom context. The classroom is a complex environment in which to examine children's social and moral reasoning about bias, given teachers' position of authority which often includes power, status, and prestige. We propose that understanding both teacher bias and peer intergroup exclusion are essential for promoting more fair classrooms. This paper reviews foundational theory as well as the social reasoning developmental model as a framework for studying how children think about fairness and bias in the classroom context. We then discuss current research on children's social-cognitive and moral capacities, particularly in the contexts of societal inequality and social inclusion or exclusion. Finally, this article proposes new directions for research to promote fairness and inclusivity in schools and suggests how these new lines of research might inform school-based interventions.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Humanos , Estudantes/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Processos Grupais , Professores Escolares
18.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 43(18): 5605-5615, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36441845

RESUMO

Past historical events and experimental research have shown that complying with orders from an authority has a strong impact on harming/destructive behavior, but no one has ever looked into the potential intervention and its neural underpinning to reveal the toll of coercion. We used a paradigm of virtual obedience to authority, in which an experimenter ordered a volunteer to press a handheld button to initiate actions that carried different consequences, including harming or helping others. In this study, we scanned the brain with functional neuroimaging and applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to modulate the activation of the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) in healthy volunteers in a single-blinded, sham-controlled, crossover trial with anodal, cathodal, and sham stimulation. We observed that cathodal stimulation, compared to anodal and sham stimulation, significantly reduced reaction times (RTs) to initiating harming actions. The effect of tDCS on the rTPJ, orbitofrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex had opposite directions depending on coercive harming or helping actions. Cathodal tDCS-induced changes in the strength of the functional connectivity between the rTPJ and amygdala predicted the effect of cathodal tDCS on harming RTs. The findings provide evidence supporting the rTPJ having a role in coercion-induced changes in the sense of agency. Neuromodulation with tDCS might help in unveiling the power of authority and assisting in the emergence of prosocial behavior, thus shedding light on coping strategies against coercion beyond merely examining its effects.


Assuntos
Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Humanos , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Estudos Cross-Over , Neuroimagem Funcional , Processos Grupais , Giro do Cíngulo , Método Simples-Cego
19.
Soc Sci Med ; 315: 115529, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36427478

RESUMO

This paper examines key processes from the social identity model of traumatic identity change in the context of the aftermath of a natural disaster. It focuses on the roles of (i) group membership gain, (ii) group membership continuity, (iii) social identity revitalisation, and (iv) the severity of natural disaster exposure on post-traumatic growth (PTG) and post-traumatic stress (PTS). PARTICIPANTS: (N = 410, Mage = 53.24 years) comprised adult survivors of the Australian 2019-20 Black Summer bushfires, recruited to complete an online survey via geo-targeted Facebook advertisements. RESULTS: showed that group membership gain was positively correlated with PTG, whilst group membership continuity negatively correlated with PTS, highlighting the different roles played by group gain and continuity in post-trauma recovery. Preliminary evidence for the validity of a new author-developed social identity revitalisation measure was found, which mediated some relationships between group gain and continuity and PTG and PTS. Lastly, the extent that participants were affected by the fires moderated the relationship between group gain and PTS. Specifically, for those most affected, group gain was correlated with lower reported PTS, whilst for those less affected, group gain was correlated with higher reported PTS. We discuss implications for theory and draw attention to the concept of revitalisation, which shows promise as a potentially critical contributor to post-trauma recovery.


Assuntos
Desastres Naturais , Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Austrália , Identificação Social , Processos Grupais
20.
Rev Infirm ; 71(283): 39-42, 2022.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36427941

RESUMO

Disability, a factor of vulnerability to incestThere is a lack of visibility on the issue of sexual violence among people with disabilities. There is an omerta on this subject within the social and medico-social establishments that receive them. Intra-family sexual violence is kept silent, as it is everywhere else. The vulnerability of children with disabilities is a risk factor for rape and sexual assault, and communication problems hinder their disclosure. Interview with Marie Rabatel, President of the Francophone Association of Autistic Women, expert of the High Authority of Health on the issues of violence against women with disabilities, member of the Independent Commission on incest and sexual violence against children.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Pessoas com Deficiência , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Incesto , Violência , Processos Grupais
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