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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(28): e2403888121, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38968102

RESUMO

Real-world communication frequently requires language producers to address more than one comprehender at once, yet most psycholinguistic research focuses on one-on-one communication. As the audience size grows, interlocutors face new challenges that do not arise in dyads. They must consider multiple perspectives and weigh multiple sources of feedback to build shared understanding. Here, we ask which properties of the group's interaction structure facilitate successful communication. We used a repeated reference game paradigm in which directors instructed between one and five matchers to choose specific targets out of a set of abstract figures. Across 313 games (N = 1,319 participants), we manipulated several key constraints on the group's interaction, including the amount of feedback that matchers could give to directors and the availability of peer interaction between matchers. Across groups of different sizes and interaction constraints, describers produced increasingly efficient utterances and matchers made increasingly accurate selections. Critically, however, we found that smaller groups and groups with less-constrained interaction structures ("thick channels") showed stronger convergence to group-specific conventions than large groups with constrained interaction structures ("thin channels"), which struggled with convention formation. Overall, these results shed light on the core structural factors that enable communication to thrive in larger groups.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Idioma , Processos Grupais , Relações Interpessoais , Adulto Jovem , Psicolinguística
2.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 5520, 2024 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951522

RESUMO

Voluntary participation is a central yet understudied aspect of collaboration. Here, we model collaboration as people's voluntary choices between joining an uncertain public goods provisioning in groups and pursuing a less profitable but certain individual option. First, we find that voluntariness in collaboration increases the likelihood of group success via two pathways, both contributing to form more optimistic groups: pessimistic defectors are filtered out from groups, and some individuals update their beliefs to become cooperative. Second, we reconcile these findings with existing literature that highlights the detrimental effects of an individual option. We argue that the impact of an outside individual option on collaboration depends on the "externality" of loners - the influence that those leaving the group still exert on group endeavors. Theoretically and experimentally, we show that if collaboration allows for flexible group formation, the negative externality of loners remains limited, and the presence of an individual option robustly aids collaborative success.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Otimismo , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Processos Grupais , Adulto Jovem , Comportamento de Escolha
3.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 9(1): 45, 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38985366

RESUMO

Massive studies have explored biological motion (BM) crowds processing for their remarkable social significance, primarily focused on uniformly distributed ones. However, real-world BM crowds often exhibit hierarchical structures rather than uniform arrangements. How such structured BM crowds are processed remains a subject of inquiry. This study investigates the representation of structured BM crowds in working memory (WM), recognizing the pivotal role WM plays in our social interactions involving BM. We propose the group-based ensemble hypothesis and test it through a member identification task. Participants were required to discern whether a presented BM belonged to a prior memory display of eight BM, each with distinct walking directions. Drawing on prominent Gestalt principles as organizational cues, we constructed structured groups within BM crowds by applying proximity and similarity cues in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In Experiment 3, we deliberately weakened the visibility of stimuli structures by increasing the similarity between subsets, probing the robustness of results. Consistently, our findings indicate that BM aligned with the mean direction of the subsets was more likely to be recognized as part of the memory stimuli. This suggests that WM inherently organizes structured BM crowds into separate ensembles based on organizational cues. In essence, our results illuminate the simultaneous operation of grouping and ensemble encoding mechanisms for BM crowds within WM.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Percepção de Movimento , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Feminino , Masculino , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Teoria Gestáltica , Processos Grupais
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15850, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982070

RESUMO

Ingroup favoritism and intergroup discrimination can be mutually reinforcing during social interaction, threatening intergroup cooperation and the sustainability of societies. In two studies (N = 880), we investigated whether promoting prosocial outgroup altruism would weaken the ingroup favoritism cycle of influence. Using novel methods of human-agent interaction via a computer-mediated experimental platform, we introduced outgroup altruism by (i) nonadaptive artificial agents with preprogrammed outgroup altruistic behavior (Study 1; N = 400) and (ii) adaptive artificial agents whose altruistic behavior was informed by the prediction of a machine learning algorithm (Study 2; N = 480). A rating task ensured that the observed behavior did not result from the participant's awareness of the artificial agents. In Study 1, nonadaptive agents prompted ingroup members to withhold cooperation from ingroup agents and reinforced ingroup favoritism among humans. In Study 2, adaptive agents were able to weaken ingroup favoritism over time by maintaining a good reputation with both the ingroup and outgroup members, who perceived agents as being fairer than humans and rated agents as more human than humans. We conclude that a good reputation of the individual exhibiting outgroup altruism is necessary to weaken ingroup favoritism and improve intergroup cooperation. Thus, reputation is important for designing nudge agents.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Comportamento Cooperativo , Adulto Jovem , Processos Grupais , Interação Social , Relações Interpessoais , Adolescente
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13096, 2024 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849419

RESUMO

"Felt understanding" is a crucial determinant of positive interpersonal and intergroup relationships. However, the question of why felt understanding shapes intergroup relations has been neglected. In a pre-registered test of the process in intergroup relations with a sample from East Asia, we manipulated felt understanding (understood versus misunderstood by an outgroup) in an experimental study (N = 476). The results supported the expectation that felt understanding would lead to a more positive intergroup orientation and action intention. The results of parallel mediation analyses showed that felt understanding indirectly predicted intergroup outcomes through felt positive regard, intergroup overlap, and outgroup stereotypes. Furthermore, the results of post-hoc sequential mediation analyses indicated that felt understanding indirectly predicted intergroup outcomes sequentially through felt positive regard and intergroup overlap, followed by outgroup stereotypes.


Assuntos
População do Leste Asiático , Relações Interpessoais , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , China , Compreensão , População do Leste Asiático/psicologia , Processos Grupais , Japão , Estereotipagem
6.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 661, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systematic biases in group decision making (i.e., group biases) may result in suboptimal decisions and potentially harm patients. It is not well known how impaired group decision making in patient care may affect medical training. This study aimed to explore medical residents' experiences and perspectives regarding impaired group decision making and the role of group biases in medical decision making. METHODS: This study used a qualitative approach with thematic analysis underpinned by a social constructionist epistemology. Semi-structured interviews of medical residents were conducted at a single internal medicine residency program. Residents were initially asked about their experiences with suboptimal medical decision making as a group or team. Then, questions were targeted to several group biases (groupthink, social loafing, escalation of commitment). Interviews were transcribed and transferred to a qualitative data analysis software. Thematic analysis was conducted to generate major themes within the dataset. RESULTS: Sixteen interviews with residents revealed five major themes: (1) hierarchical influence on group decision making; (2) group decision making under pressure; (3) post-call challenges in decision making; (4) interactions between teamwork and decision making; and (5) personal and cultural influences in group decision making. Subthemes were also identified for each major theme. Most residents were able to recognize groupthink in their past experiences working with medical teams. Residents perceived social loafing or escalation of commitment as less relevant for medical team decision making. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide unique insights into the complexities of group decision making processes in teaching hospitals. Team hierarchy significantly influenced residents' experiences with group decision making-most group decisions were attributed to consultants or senior team members, while lower ranking team members contributed less and perceived fewer opportunities to engage in group decisions. Other factors such as time constraints on decision making, perceived pressures from other staff members, and challenges associated with post-call days were identified as important barriers to optimal group decision making in patient care. Future studies may build upon these findings to enhance our understanding of medical team decision making and develop strategies to improve group decisions, ultimately leading to higher quality patient care and training.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Processos Grupais , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Medicina Interna/educação , Entrevistas como Assunto , Tomada de Decisões
7.
Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci ; 28(3): 369-388, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38880500

RESUMO

The necessity for resilient responses in occupational contexts often takes the form of unusual levels of workload that could have a dramatic impact on the performance of individuals or teams. Empirical research with the cusp catastrophe model for cognitive workload and performance, which are reviewed here, has isolated a class of variables known as elasticity versus rigidity that act as bifurcation variables in the process. Elasticity-rigidity variables derive from five sources â affect, cognitive coping strategies, conscientiousness and impulsivity, fluid intelligence, and the degrees of flexibility that are afforded by the task itself. The resilience process for work teams presents additional workload demands requiring team coordination and communication efforts and back-up, redundancy, behaviors. Finer-grained nonlinear time series analyses of performance and its surrounding events revealed that team self-efficacy varies chaotically as the team responds to a series of challenging events. The two types of dynamics combine to produce chaotic hysteresis in team performance.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Resiliência Psicológica , Humanos , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Dinâmica não Linear , Autoeficácia , Inteligência , Cognição , Processos Grupais
8.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 5212, 2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38890368

RESUMO

Innovation is challenging, and theory and experiments indicate that groups may be better able to identify and preserve innovations than individuals. But innovation within groups faces its own challenges, including groupthink and truncated diffusion. We performed experiments involving a game in which people search for ideas in various conditions: alone, in networked social groups, or in networked groups featuring autonomous agents (bots). The objective was to search a semantic space of 20,000 nouns with defined similarities for an arbitrary noun with the highest point value. Participants (N = 1875) were embedded in networks (n = 125) of 15 nodes to which we sometimes added 2 bots. The bots had 3 possible strategies: they shared a random noun generated by their immediate neighbors, or a noun most similar from among those identified, or a noun least similar. We first confirm that groups are better able to explore a semantic space than isolated individuals. Then we show that when bots that share the most similar noun operate in groups facing a semantic space that is relatively easy to navigate, group performance is superior. Simple autonomous agents with interpretable behavior can affect the capacity for creative discovery of human groups.


Assuntos
Criatividade , Semântica , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Processos Grupais , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci ; 28(3): 389-408, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38880501

RESUMO

Autonomic synchrony plays an important role in work team performance where coordinated actions are required on the part of the team members. The present study examined the connection between nine psychological variables that represent types of elasticity-rigidity, which are closely related to adaptability and autonomic synchrony, within teams playing a computer game that involved dynamic decision making. Elasticity-rigidity variables were first identified as part of the dynamics that transpire between workload and performance. They are used here to determine why some individuals within teams synchronize with teammates more strongly than others. The driver-empath model of group synchrony produces a single metric of synchrony (SE) within a team of three or more members. Driver scores, which are produced from the algorithm, indicate each person's total influence on the other group members. Empath scores, which are also produced from the SE algorithm, indicate a person's total receptivity to all other group members. It was found that coping flexibility, monitoring, emotional intelligence, and solving anagrams significantly predicted empath scores in the earlier part of the session. Anxiety and monitoring significantly predicted empath scores in the later part of the session. There were no significant correlations between driver scores and elasticity-rigidity variables.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Processos Grupais , Comportamento Cooperativo , Ansiedade/psicologia , Algoritmos , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo
11.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 552, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760834

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Problem-Based Learning (PBL) relies on self-directed learning in small groups in the presence of a tutor. While the effectiveness of PBL is often attributed to the dynamics of group function, change in group function over time and factors influencing group function development are less understood. This study aims to explore the development of PBL group function over time to better understand the factors that give rise to high-functioning groups. METHOD: We examined time-function graphs of group function and conducted semi-structured focus group discussions in 2023 with medical students enrolled in a PBL curriculum. Students reflected on their experiences in four different PBL groups, creating time-function graphs to characterize development of group function over 8-12-week periods. We analyzed graphs and transcripts in a staged approach using qualitative description and direct content analysis, sensitized by two frameworks: Tuckman's Stages of Group Development and the Dimensions of PBL Group Function. RESULTS: Three archetypes of PBL group function development were identified: Slow Shifters, Fast Flippers, and Coasters. (1) Slow Shifters were characterized by a complex and extended pattern of growth consistent with Tuckman's model, typically occurring amongst inexperienced groups, or groups faced with a novel task. (2) Fast Flippers were characterized by abrupt state changes in group function arising from internal or external disruptions. (3) Coasters were characterized by plateaus, where maintenance of group function was a frequently cited challenge. Abrupt changes and plateaus occurred more among mature groups and groups with significant PBL experience. CONCLUSIONS: PBL group function varies over time in 3 different patterns. Classic Tuckman's stages are apparent among inexperienced groups, or groups facing novel tasks, whereas experienced groups often face abrupt change or plateaus. PBL educators and students should consider the need for novelty and disruption in more experienced groups to incite growth.


Assuntos
Grupos Focais , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Currículo , Processos Grupais , Feminino , Masculino
12.
J Interprof Care ; 38(4): 612-620, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717795

RESUMO

Communicating effectively, including the ability to negotiate, has been claimed to be key competencies in interprofessional practice. However, these day-to-day contributions to interprofessional teamwork are not yet sufficiently understood. The aim of this article is to explore the day-to-day interprofessional negotiations in biopsychosocial pain rehabilitation. A qualitative design with an ethnographic approach was applied to the overall study. Participant observation of interprofessional encounters and clinical encounters in a pain rehabilitation ward was undertaken in 2016 for a period of 19 weeks. Intermittent interviews with 12 professionals were conducted. Data were analyzed in an abductive process using thematic analysis. We present the results as two themes: 1) Silent conflicting interests in the office, and 2) Silent dissatisfaction with meetings. The study showed that the team members had opportunities to negotiate in interprofessional offices and meetings, while they perceived insufficient time for discussion, and their individual work being interrupted by each other in the offices. They did not discuss their dissatisfaction, but silently bargained on how to spend time together. Professionals can contribute to teamwork through silent bargains that can promote a low level of conflict and thereby preserve a good workflow.


Assuntos
Relações Interprofissionais , Negociação , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Masculino , Feminino , Antropologia Cultural , Comportamento Cooperativo , Adulto , Entrevistas como Assunto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Manejo da Dor , Comunicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Processos Grupais
13.
J Interprof Care ; 38(4): 695-704, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734870

RESUMO

Bias in advanced heart failure therapy allocation results in inequitable outcomes for minoritized populations. The purpose of this study was to examine how bias is introduced during group decision-making with an interprofessional team using Breathett's Model of Heart Failure Decision-Making. This was a secondary qualitative descriptive analysis from a study focused on bias in advanced heart failure therapy allocation. Team meetings were recorded and transcribed from four heart failure centers. Breathett's Model was applied both deductively and inductively to transcripts (n = 12). Bias was identified during discussions about patient characteristics, clinical fragility, and prior clinical decision-making. Some patients were labeled as "good citizens" or as adherent/non-adherent while others benefited from strong advocacy from interprofessional team members. Social determinants of health also impacted therapy allocation. Interprofessional collaboration with advanced heart failure therapy allocation may be enhanced with the inclusion of patient advocates and limit of clinical decision-making using subjective data.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Humanos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Relações Interprofissionais , Comportamento Cooperativo , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Masculino , Feminino , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Tomada de Decisões , Processos Grupais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 48(3): 593-602, 2024 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38813606

RESUMO

With the rise of online instruction, a better understanding of the factors that contribute to belonging and motivation in these contexts is essential to creating optimal learning environments. Although group work is known to be beneficial to student success, few studies have investigated its role in the context of asynchronous online courses. The present study addresses this gap through a survey of 146 undergraduate students in an asynchronous online physiology lab over two semesters, one with required group work and one without group work. Students were surveyed to evaluate the influence of group work on their motivation and sense of belonging, as well as their perceptions of inclusive and exclusive features of the course. Students assigned to groups had a higher sense of belonging (P = 0.006) and beliefs about their competence (P = 0.002) and perceived lower effort and psychological costs associated with the course (P = 0.04 and 0.04, respectively) compared to students not assigned to groups. Students assigned to groups reported that peer interactions made them feel included in the course (70% of coded responses) while those not assigned to groups valued instructor interactions (51% of coded responses) as inclusive. Negative peer interactions were commonly reported as exclusive by students assigned to groups (28% of coded responses) while a lack of peer interactions (23% of coded responses) made students not assigned to groups feel excluded. These data indicate that assigning groups in asynchronous online courses is an effective way to increase student motivation and perceptions of belonging.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study explores the effect of assigned group work in an asynchronous online physiology laboratory course on student motivation and belonging. Students' perceptions of belonging and competence-related beliefs were higher, and effort and psychological costs were lower, when assigned to groups compared to students not assigned to groups. Students assigned to groups noted peer interactions as the most inclusive aspect of the course, whereas instructor interactions were noted as inclusive by those not assigned group work.


Assuntos
Motivação , Fisiologia , Humanos , Fisiologia/educação , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Educação a Distância/métodos , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Laboratórios , Percepção , Adulto , Processos Grupais
15.
J Emerg Manag ; 22(2): 139-154, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695711

RESUMO

Situation awareness (SA) in complex socio-technical systems is considered a key cognitive activity, as control crews are often engaged in simultaneous task processes and are required to monitor and evaluate system parameters, making decisions and projections for the future accordingly. However, measuring SA at the team level is still a challenging area of research within the topic. In our research, we applied verbal protocol analysis as an alternative method to assess nuclear power plant control room crews' team SA. We conducted a study of 10 control room crews, examining their intrateam communication and its relatedness to team performance. We have found that communication categories related to the second and third levels of team SA increased significantly after the onset of an emergency event. Furthermore, while none of the team communication categories was related to team performance before the emergency event, all of them showed a strong positive correlation with team performance after the emergency situation occurred. Our results underline the importance of adequate verbalization of key information within the team, so as to support the rapid and accurate development of team SA during emergency situations.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Comunicação , Centrais Nucleares , Humanos , Masculino , Processos Grupais , Feminino , Adulto
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(21): e2313801121, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753509

RESUMO

Groups often outperform individuals in problem-solving. Nevertheless, failure to critically evaluate ideas risks suboptimal outcomes through so-called groupthink. Prior studies have shown that people who hold shared goals, perspectives, or understanding of the environment show similar patterns of brain activity, which itself can be enhanced by consensus-building discussions. Whether shared arousal alone can predict collective decision-making outcomes, however, remains unknown. To address this gap, we computed interpersonal heart rate synchrony, a peripheral index of shared arousal associated with joint attention, empathic accuracy, and group cohesion, in 44 groups (n = 204) performing a collective decision-making task. The task required critical examination of all available information to override inferior, default options and make the right choice. Using multidimensional recurrence quantification analysis (MdRQA) and machine learning, we found that heart rate synchrony predicted the probability of groups reaching the correct consensus decision with >70% cross-validation accuracy-significantly higher than that predicted by the duration of discussions, subjective assessment of team function or baseline heart rates alone. We propose that heart rate synchrony during group discussion provides a biomarker of interpersonal engagement that facilitates adaptive learning and effective information sharing during collective decision-making.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Relações Interpessoais , Processos Grupais , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 165: 111189, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613246

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To provide guidance on rating imprecision in a body of evidence assessing the accuracy of a single test. This guide will clarify when Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) users should consider rating down the certainty of evidence by one or more levels for imprecision in test accuracy. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A project group within the GRADE working group conducted iterative discussions and presentations at GRADE working group meetings to produce this guidance. RESULTS: Before rating the certainty of evidence, GRADE users should define the target of their certainty rating. GRADE recommends setting judgment thresholds defining what they consider a very accurate, accurate, inaccurate, and very inaccurate test. These thresholds should be set after considering consequences of testing and effects on people-important outcomes. GRADE's primary criterion for judging imprecision in test accuracy evidence is considering confidence intervals (i.e., CI approach) of absolute test accuracy results (true and false, positive, and negative results in a cohort of people). Based on the CI approach, when a CI appreciably crosses the predefined judgment threshold(s), one should consider rating down certainty of evidence by one or more levels, depending on the number of thresholds crossed. When the CI does not cross judgment threshold(s), GRADE suggests considering the sample size for an adequately powered test accuracy review (optimal or review information size [optimal information size (OIS)/review information size (RIS)]) in rating imprecision. If the combined sample size of the included studies in the review is smaller than the required OIS/RIS, one should consider rating down by one or more levels for imprecision. CONCLUSION: This paper extends previous GRADE guidance for rating imprecision in single test accuracy systematic reviews and guidelines, with a focus on the circumstances in which one should consider rating down one or more levels for imprecision.


Assuntos
Abordagem GRADE , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Julgamento , Tamanho da Amostra
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 460, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rehabilitation is considered paramount for enhancing quality of life and reducing healthcare costs. As a result of healthcare reforms, Norwegian municipalities have been given greater responsibility for allocating rehabilitation services following discharge from hospital. Individual decision letters serve as the basis for implementing services and they have been described as information labels on the services provided by the municipality. They play an important role in planning and implementing the services in collaboration with the individual applicants. Research indicates that the implementation of policies may lead to unintended consequences, as individuals receiving municipal services perceive them as fragmented. This perception is characterised by limited user involvement and a high focus on body functions. The aim of this study was to examine how municipal decision letters about service allocation incorporate the recommendations made in the official national guideline and reflect a holistic approach to rehabilitation, coordination and user involvement for individuals with comprehensive needs. METHODS: The decision letters of ten individuals with moderate to severe brain injury allocating rehabilitation services in two municipalities were examined. It was assessed whether the content was in accordance with the authorities' recommendations, and a discourse analysis was conducted using four tools adapted from an established integrated approach. RESULTS: The letters primarily contained standard texts concerning legal and administrative regulations. They were predominantly in line with the official guideline to municipal service allocation. From a rehabilitation perspective, the focus was mainly on medically oriented care, scarcely referring to psychosocial needs, activity, and participation. The intended user involvement seemed to vary between active and passive status, while the coordination of services was given limited attention. CONCLUSIONS: The written decision letters did fulfil legal and administrative recommendations for service allocation. However, they did not fulfil their potential to serve as a means of conveying rehabilitation issues, such as specification of the allocated services, a holistic approach to health, coordination, or the involvement of users in decision processes. These elements must be incorporated throughout the allocation process if the policies are to be implemented as intended. Findings can have international relevance for discussions between clinicians and policy makers.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Processos Grupais , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde
19.
Rev Med Suisse ; 20(868): 722-725, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568066

RESUMO

Entheogens are a group of little-known psychoactive substances which consumption is nevertheless frequently mentioned in outpatient care and which can have harmful effects. This raises the question of appropriate management of their effects, as well as the treatment of any overdose. In this article, we focus on five of these substances, which are rarely described in the medical literature. At present, few studies exist on their long-term effects on health, and this type of niche consumption does not seem problematic from the authorities' point of view. Rapid screening is unavailable because it has not been developed, and the management of overdoses is often limited to non-specific supportive treatment with benzodiazepines.


Les enthéogènes sont un groupe de substances psychoactives méconnues mais dont la consommation apparaît toutefois lors de consultations ambulatoires et qui peuvent engendrer des effets néfastes. Se pose alors la question de la prise en charge adaptée concernant leurs effets mais également le traitement d'un éventuel surdosage. Dans cet article, le focus a été mis sur cinq de ces substances peu décrites dans la littérature médicale. Actuellement, peu d'études existent sur leurs effets à long terme sur la santé et ce type de consommation de niche ne semble pas problématique du point de vue des autorités. Le dépistage rapide n'est pas disponible car pas développé et la prise en charge des surdosages se limite souvent à un traitement de soutien non spécifique par benzodiazépines.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Psicotrópicos , Humanos , Assistência Ambulatorial , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Processos Grupais , Psicotrópicos/efeitos adversos
20.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298167, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626130

RESUMO

The advancement of the sports industry's development constitutes a critical concern shared by regional authorities and the scholarly community, reflecting its significant role in economic and social development. This study employs a Fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) methodology to examine the 31 provincial-level administrative units in China. The objective is to elucidate the influence of technological, organizational, and environmental factors on the industry's development level, considering both a holistic national framework and dissected regional approaches (Eastern, Central, and Western China). This paper's contribution to the literature is structured around the following core findings: (1) The study establishes that a singular condition does not suffice as an essential prerequisite for achieving a heightened development state within the sports industry. (2) At the national level, there are three pathways to enhance the development level of the sports industry, specifically identified as "network-human resources dominant pathway," "technological innovation-human resources dominant pathway," and "comprehensive synergistic pathway."(3) From a regional perspective, the Eastern region has two pathways for sports industry enhancement: "network-economic pathway" and "comprehensive synergistic pathway." The Central region follows a "technology pathway," while the Western region has three pathways: "organization-environment pathway," "network-organization-environment pathway," and "organization pathway."(4) The synthesis of these findings underscores the multifactorial nature of sports industry development, suggesting a paradigm where diverse routes can lead to equivalent outcomes. This heterogeneity indicates that provinces or regions can tailor their development strategies to their unique situational contexts.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Industrial , Indústrias , Humanos , Recursos Humanos , China , Processos Grupais , Desenvolvimento Econômico
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