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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1278, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36690718

RESUMO

Warning sign plays an important role in risk avoidance. Many studies have found that images are better warnings than text, while others have revealed flaws of image-only warning signs. To better understand the factors underlying the effectiveness of different types of warning signs (image only, text only, or image and text), this study adopted event-related potential technology to explore the differences at the neurocognitive level using the oddball paradigm and the Go/No-go paradigm. Together, the behavioral and electroencephalogram results showed that text-only warnings had the lowest effectiveness, but there was little difference between the image-only and image-and-text warnings. The differences in the effects of the three warning signs were mainly in the areas of attention and cognitive control, implying differences in the underlying cognitive processes. Therefore, in the design of warning signs, the effects of different design attributes on cognitive processing should be taken into account based on actual needs in order to improve the effectiveness of the signs.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Produtos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Rotulagem de Produtos/métodos , Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Processos Mentais , Atenção
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 955, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653411

RESUMO

While sustainability is at the centre of many government agendas, there is a great risk of entrusting strategic decisions to those lacking in sustainability expertise. It is therefore necessary to ensure that universities are the green engines of sustainable communities. The present study administered a questionnaire to students enrolled in a Management Engineering programme at an Italian university, to collect their perceptions of and opinions on sustainability and energy issues. Students completed the questionnaire twice: once prior to beginning and once at the end of term. The results showed that students held more sustainable attitudes at the end of term, and perceived sustainable education and youth confidence as the building blocks of future society. They also observed that decarbonisation of the Italian energy system and national energy independence would require the significant development of renewable systems and interventions to promote energy efficiency. In addition, they recognised subsidies for green production, energy communities, differentiated waste collection and professional skills training as crucial. The sustainable university should support younger generations by encouraging student engagement in real-world projects and the development of long-term, structured teacher-student relationships.


Assuntos
Currículo , Estudantes , Humanos , Adolescente , Universidades , Escolaridade , Processos Mentais
3.
Nat Hum Behav ; 7(1): 15-26, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36707644

RESUMO

Flexibility in the design, analysis and interpretation of scientific studies creates a multiplicity of possible research outcomes. Scientists are granted considerable latitude to selectively use and report the hypotheses, variables and analyses that create the most positive, coherent and attractive story while suppressing those that are negative or inconvenient. This creates a risk of bias that can lead to scientists fooling themselves and fooling others. Preregistration involves declaring a research plan (for example, hypotheses, design and statistical analyses) in a public registry before the research outcomes are known. Preregistration (1) reduces the risk of bias by encouraging outcome-independent decision-making and (2) increases transparency, enabling others to assess the risk of bias and calibrate their confidence in research outcomes. In this Perspective, we briefly review the historical evolution of preregistration in medicine, psychology and other domains, clarify its pragmatic functions, discuss relevant meta-research, and provide recommendations for scientists and journal editors.


Assuntos
Processos Mentais , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos , Sistema de Registros
4.
J Atten Disord ; 27(4): 354-367, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635879

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To map the effect of motor-based interventions on motor skills in children with ADHD. METHOD: A systematic literature search was performed in Pubmed, Web of Science, and the SCOPUS database (last search: October 30th 2022). Methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro-scale and the quality of evidence was determined with the GRADE-method. Meta-analysis was performed when at least five studies were available. RESULTS: Thirteen studies (7 RCTs) satisfied the inclusion criteria, five of which were eligible for meta-analysis. Only one of the included studies reached the low risk of bias threshold. Comparing different motor-based interventions to any non-motor control intervention showed large motor skill improvements (SMD = 1.46; 95% CI = [1.00;1.93]; I² = 47.07%). The most effective type of motor-based intervention and the optimal treatment parameters could not be determined yet. CONCLUSION: Motor-based interventions in general seem to improve motor skills in children with ADHD. Additional RCTs are needed to increase current low GRADE confidence.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Destreza Motora , Humanos , Criança , Processos Mentais
5.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1144, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670114

RESUMO

To the problem of the complex pre-processing and post-processing to obtain head-position existing in the current crowd localization method using pseudo boundary box and pre-designed positioning map, this work proposes an end-to-end crowd localization framework named WSITrans, which reformulates the weakly-supervised crowd localization problem based on Transformer and implements crowd counting. Specifically, we first perform global maximum pooling (GMP) after each stage of pure Transformer, which can extract and retain more detail of heads. In addition, we design a binarization module that binarizes the output features of the decoder and fuses the confidence score to obtain more accurate confidence score. Finally, extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method achieves significant improvement on three challenging benchmarks. It is worth mentioning that the WSITrans improves F1-measure by 4.0%.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Processos Mentais
6.
Trends Neurosci Educ ; 29: 100191, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36470625

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Many studies have investigated the effect of signaling on graph processing, but not the effect of a question's timing as attentional guidance (AG). We investigated how the AG, task level, and visual load affect graph processing, among university students. DESIGN: We developed a graph processing task. The AG process created by displaying the question before the graph was displayed. We used behavioral measures and observation duration of eye movements to evaluate graph processing. FINDINGS: AG has more significant impact on graph processing than the cognitive load of the graph. This means that understanding the context before looking at the graph is important to graph processing. In addition, AG influencing was seen mainly in process duration, rather than on decision-making accuracy. ORIGINALITY: The results have important implications both for teachers and students how to develop interpretations of visual information into CONCLUSIONS: These results are discussed broadly in the article.


Assuntos
Atenção , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Compreensão , Processos Mentais
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554445

RESUMO

In the last few decades, humans have consumed more resources than in all of previous history. Hence, we are living in times in which the topic of environmental protection is a global concern. The paper aims to conduct a systematic literature review on consumer behavior, as well as identifying the main factors that interfere with consumer behavior toward green products. A total of 37 studies were found and systematized using inclusion and exclusion criteria. The papers were selected only if they featured research on consumer perceptions of green products. Using this search strategy, a literature analysis was performed based on papers extracted from Web of Science, Emerald Insights, Springer Link, and Science Direct. As a result, various factors that influence consumer behavior toward green products were identified, such as social norms, natural environmental orientation, the company's perceived green image, green product characteristics, perceived risks and inconvenience of buying green products, perceived benefits of buying green products, institutional trust, sociodemographic characteristics, and consumer confidence. Even though completing a systematic literature review is not something new in academic research, the novelty of this paper is found in its theme: consumer behavior toward green products. Although the analyzed articles highlight quite varied reasons, the articles emphasize that the green products should take into account the needs, expectations, and perceptions of customers.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Comportamento do Consumidor , Humanos , Confiança , Processos Mentais
8.
Psychoanal Q ; 91(4): 639-667, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36576042

RESUMO

In this paper I use clinical theory and illustration to explore details of the formulation of experience, which depends upon the metamorphosis of experience from not-me to feels-like-me. I take the position that the movement from not-me to feels-like-me, with the accompanying possibilities for formulating new meaning that open at such moments, happens when we not only know or feel something, but also, and simultaneously, sense ourselves in the midst of this process-that is, when we know and feel that it is we who are doing the knowing and feeling. When these two events co-occur, which depends upon the process of witnessing and the breach of dissociation, we come into possession of ourselves. Witnessing of one person by another is a process of recognition, but it is also a kind of affirmation performed by "someone who is trusted and justifies the trust and meets the dependence" (Winnicott 1971, p. 60).


Assuntos
Emoções , Processos Mentais , Humanos , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Confiança
9.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277497, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36445862

RESUMO

In this paper, we propose a partial randomized response technique to collect reliable sensitive data for estimation of population proportion in ranked set sampling (RSS) scheme using auxiliary information. The idea is to increase confidence and (or) co-operation of the respondents by providing them the option of both 'direct' and 'randomized' response for the inquired sensitive question. This option is quite logical because perception of sensitive (insensitive) inquiry can vary among respondents. The properties of the proposed method are discussed and compared with existing randomized response techniques. Cost analysis is also carried out to prove supremacy of the suggested method. Finally, an application to clinical trial on AIDS is included.


Assuntos
Clorexidina , Processos Mentais , Custos e Análise de Custo
10.
Brain Cogn ; 164: 105926, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36404419

RESUMO

Generalization across past events may guide our action in novel situations. Although generalization is a fundamental memory process, its neural underpinnings are not fully understood yet. In the present experiment, we combinedElectroencephalography(EEG) with multivariate representational similarity analysis (RSA) to examine in particular the role of spatio-temporal patterns of theta oscillations known to be important for associative memory processes, in memory generalization. We recorded EEG while healthy participants (n = 56) performed an acquired equivalence task. In this task, participants first acquired multiple associations among antecedent and consequent stimuli before they were required to transfer the acquired knowledge to novel stimulus pairs, thus probing memory generalization. Our behavioural data indicated that participants learned the initial associations well and transferred these associations successfully to novel test stimuli, demonstrating successful memory generalization. Our neural data revealed that, compared to mere memory retrieval, generalization was associated with significantly increased pattern dissimilarity of theta activity in the right centro-parietal area (electrodes P4 and P6). This pattern was specific to theta oscillations and not observed in other frequency bands. Our findings suggest an important role of theta oscillations in memory generalization, potentially serving the reactivation and integration of distinct events that enable the generalization across experiences.


Assuntos
Memória , Lobo Parietal , Humanos , Memória/fisiologia , Processos Mentais
11.
Comput Biol Med ; 151(Pt A): 106302, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401972

RESUMO

False-positive reduction is a crucial step of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for pulmonary nodules detection and it plays an important role in lung cancer diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a novel cross attention guided multi-scale feature fusion method for false-positive reduction in pulmonary nodule detection. Specifically, a 3D SENet50 fed with a candidate nodule cube is applied as the backbone to acquire multi-scale coarse features. Then, the coarse features are refined and fused by the multi-scale fusion part to achieve a better feature extraction result. Finally, a 3D spatial pyramid pooling module is used to enhance receptive field and a distributed aligned linear classifier is applied to get the confidence score. In addition, each of the five nodule cubes with different sizes centering on every testing nodule position is fed into the proposed framework to obtain a confidence score separately and a weighted fusion method is used to improve the generalization performance of the model. Extensive experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the classification performance of the proposed model. The data used in our work is from the LUNA16 pulmonary nodule detection challenge. In this data set, the number of true-positive pulmonary nodules is 1,557, while the number of false-positive ones is 753,418. The new method is evaluated on the LUNA16 dataset and achieves the score of the competitive performance metric (CPM) 84.8%.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Processos Mentais , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico por Computador , Coluna Vertebral , Atenção
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20212, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418459

RESUMO

Perceptions of current stimuli are sometimes biased toward or away from past perceptions. This phenomenon is called serial dependence. However, it remains unclear whether serial dependence originates from lower-order perceptual processing, higher-order perceptual processing or cognitive processing. We examined the effects of serial dependence when participants estimated the total number of coins or the monetary value of coins displayed and found attractive effects in both tasks. The attractive effect observed in the value estimation task suggests that serial dependence occurs through higher-order cognitive processes during calculation. We also examined the effect of response history (i.e., the responses of participants on previous trials), with multiple regression analyses that simultaneously evaluated the effects of the previous stimuli and responses. In both number and value estimation tasks, the immediately prior response had an attractive effect on current responses, while the immediately prior stimuli exerted a repulsive effect. This pattern suggests that the attractive serial dependence found in the single regression analysis was due to the correlation between stimulus and response in the previous trials and that the effect of past stimuli per se may be an adaptation that increases sensitivity to current stimuli.


Assuntos
Asco , Numismática , Humanos , Aclimatação , Processos Mentais , Registros
13.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(11): e1010713, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395332

RESUMO

The relationship between interactions, flexibility and disorder in proteins has been explored from many angles over the years: folding upon binding, flexibility of the core relative to the periphery, entropy changes, etc. In this work, we provide statistical evidence for the involvement of highly mobile and disordered regions in complex assembly. We ordered the entire set of X-ray crystallographic structures in the Protein Data Bank into hierarchies of progressive interactions involving identical or very similar protein chains, yielding 40205 hierarchies of protein complexes with increasing numbers of partners. We then examine them as proxies for the assembly pathways. Using this database, we show that upon oligomerisation, the new interfaces tend to be observed at residues that were characterised as softly disordered (flexible, amorphous or missing residues) in the complexes preceding them in the hierarchy. We also rule out the possibility that this correlation is just a surface effect by restricting the analysis to residues on the surface of the complexes. Interestingly, we find that the location of soft disordered residues in the sequence changes as the number of partners increases. Our results show that there is a general mechanism for protein assembly that involves soft disorder and modulates the way protein complexes are assembled. This work highlights the difficulty of predicting the structure of large protein complexes from sequence and emphasises the importance of linking predictors of soft disorder to the next generation of predictors of complex structure. Finally, we investigate the relationship between the Alphafold2's confidence metric pLDDT for structure prediction in unbound versus bound structures, and soft disorder. We show a strong correlation between Alphafold2 low confidence residues and the union of all regions of soft disorder observed in the hierarchy. This paves the way for using the pLDDT metric as a proxy for predicting interfaces and assembly paths.


Assuntos
Processos Mentais , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Cristalografia por Raios X , Entropia
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18708, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333460

RESUMO

Eye movements provide a sensitive window into cognitive processing during reading. In the present study, we investigated beginning readers' longitudinal changes in temporal and spatial measures of eye movements during oral versus silent reading, the extent to which variation in eye movements is attributable to individual differences and text differences, and the functional form of growth trajectories of eye-movement variables. Data were from 363 English-speaking children (52% male; 59.8% White) in the US who were followed longitudinally from Grade 1 to Grade 3. Results showed a rapid decrease in temporal eye-movement measures (e.g., first fixation) and an increase in spatial eye-movement measures (initial landing position) in both oral and silent reading. The majority of variance in eye movements was attributable to individual differences whereas some variance in initial landing position was due to text differences. Most eye-movement measures had nonlinear growth trajectories where fast development tapered off near the end of Grade 3 while initial fixation count and total gaze count in silent reading had a linear growth trajectory. The findings provide a first large-scale look into the developmental progression of eye movements during oral and silent reading during a critical period when reading skills rapidly develop.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Leitura , Criança , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Individualidade , Processos Mentais , Percepção Social
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20603, 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36446840

RESUMO

Effortful control comprises attentional control, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility subprocesses. Effortful control is impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorder, yet its neural underpinnings remain elusive. By conducting a coordinate-based meta-analysis, this study compared the brain activation patterns between autism and typically developing individuals and examined the effect of age on brain activation in each effortful control subprocesses. Meta-analytic results from 22 studies revealed that, individuals with autism showed hypoactivation in the default mode network for tasks tapping inhibitory control functioning (threshold-free cluster enhancement p < 0.001). When these individuals perform tasks tapping attentional control and cognitive flexibility, they exhibited aberrant activation in various brain networks including default mode network, dorsal attention, frontoparietal, visual and somatomotor networks (uncorrected ps < 0.005). Meta-regression analyses revealed that brain regions within the default mode network showed a significant decreasing trend in activation with increasing age (uncorrected p < 0.05). In summary, individuals with autism showed aberrant activation patterns across multiple brain functional networks during all cognitive tasks supporting effortful control, with some regions showing a decrease in activation with increasing age.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Humanos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Processos Mentais
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36450397

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The proliferation and growing demands of genetic testing are anticipated to revolutionise medical practice. As gatekeepers of healthcare systems, general practitioners (GPs) are expected to play a critical role in the provision of clinical genetic services. This paper aims to review existing literature on GPs' experience, attitudes and needs towards clinical genetic services. DESIGN: A systematic mixed studies review of papers published between 2010 and 2022. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: The inclusion criterion was peer-reviewed articles in English and related to GPs' experience, views and needs on any genetic testing. INFORMATION SOURCES: The PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane, EMBASE databases were searched using Mesh terms, Boolean and wildcards combinations to identify peer-reviewed articles published from 2010 to 2022. Study quality was assessed using Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Only articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected. A thematic meta-synthesis was conducted on the final sample of selected articles to identify key themes. RESULTS: A total of 62 articles were included in the review. Uncertainty over GPs' role in providing genetic services were attributed by the lack of confidence and time constraints and rarity of cases may further exacerbate their reluctance to shoulder an expanded role in clinical genetics. Although educational interventions were found to increasing GPs' knowledge and confidence to carry out genetic tasks, varied interest on genetic testing and preference for a shared care model with other genetic health professionals have resulted in minimal translation to clinical adoption. CONCLUSION: This review highlights the need for deeper exploration of GPs' varied experience and attitudes towards clinical genetic services to better facilitate targeted intervention in the adoption of clinical genetics.


Assuntos
Clínicos Gerais , Humanos , Processos Mentais , Emoções , Serviços em Genética , Atitude
17.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276070, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36301944

RESUMO

Suicide capability is theorised to facilitate the movement from suicidal ideation to suicide attempt. Three types of contributors are posited to comprise suicide capability: acquired, dispositional, and practical. Despite suicide capability being critical in the movement from ideation-to-attempt, there has been no systematic synthesis of empirical evidence relating to suicide capability that would enable further development and refinement of the concept. This study sought to address this synthesis gap. A scoping review was conducted on suicide capability studies published January 2005 to January 2022. Eleven electronic databases and grey literature sources were searched returning 5,212 potential studies. After exclusion criteria application, 90 studies were included for final analysis. Results synthesis followed a textual narrative approach allocating studies based on contributors of suicide capability. Most studies focused on investigating only one factor within contributors. Painful and provocative events appear to contribute to acquired capability more so than fearlessness about death. Whilst emerging evidence for dispositional and practical contributors is promising, the small number of studies prevents further conclusions from being drawn. An unexpected additional cognitive contributor was identified. The focus of a single factor from most studies and the limited number of studies on contributors other than acquired capability limits the theoretical development and practical application of suicide capability knowledge. Given that suicide is a complex and multifaceted behaviour, future research that incorporates a combination of contributors is more likely to advance our understandings of suicide capability.


Assuntos
Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio , Humanos , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Dor/psicologia , Processos Mentais
18.
Trends Cogn Sci ; 26(12): 1035-1037, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272939

RESUMO

People often dislike effort and avoid it when they can, but effort can also imbue tasks with meaning. This is the case for real-life tasks, but also novel tasks devoid of true purpose. Why does effort feel meaningful, under what conditions, and for whom?


Assuntos
Processos Mentais , Motivação , Humanos , Emoções
19.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275502, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36288276

RESUMO

A primary focus of research on conspiracy theories has been understanding the psychological characteristics that predict people's level of conspiracist ideation. However, the dynamics of conspiracist ideation-i.e., how such tendencies change over time-are not well understood. To help fill this gap in the literature, we used data from two longitudinal studies (Study 1 N = 107; Study 2 N = 1,037) conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. We find that greater belief in COVID-19 conspiracy theories at baseline predicts both greater endorsement of a novel real-world conspiracy theory involving voter fraud in the 2020 American Presidential election (Study 1) and increases in generic conspiracist ideation over a period of several months (Studies 1 and 2). Thus, engaging with real-world conspiracy theories appears to act as a gateway, leading to more general increases in conspiracist ideation. Beyond enhancing our knowledge of conspiracist ideation, this work highlights the importance of fighting the spread of conspiracy theories.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Estados Unidos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Política , Processos Mentais
20.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 143: 104924, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283538

RESUMO

Joint action has increasingly become a key topic to understand the emergence of the human mind. The phenomenon is closely linked to several theoretical concepts, such as shared intentionality, which are difficult to operationalize empirically. We therefore employ a paradigm-driven, bottom-up approach, and as such discuss co-representing the partner's and one's own actions as key mechanism for joint action. After embedding co-representation in the broader landscape of related theoretical concepts, we review neurobiological, ontogenetic, and phylogenetic studies, with a focus on whether co-representation and its flexible deployment should be construed as a low- or high-level cognitive process. The empirical findings convergently suggest that co-representation does not require strong inhibitory skills or mentalistic understanding and occurs automatically. Moreover, more cooperative species are better at flexibly suppressing co-representation when required for cooperation success, and frequently rely on cooperation markers, such as mutual gaze. We thus contribute to closing the current gap between theoretical concepts related to joint action research and their empirical investigation, and end by highlighting additional approaches for doing so.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Filogenia , Processos Mentais , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde
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