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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(2)2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983872

RESUMO

Deforestation affects local and regional hydroclimate through changes in heating and moistening of the atmosphere. In the tropics, deforestation leads to warming, but its impact on rainfall is more complex, as it depends on spatial scale and synoptic forcing. Most studies have focused on Amazonia, highlighting that forest edges locally enhance convective rainfall, whereas rainfall decreases over drier, more extensive, deforested regions. Here, we examine Southern West Africa (SWA), an example of "late-stage" deforestation, ongoing since 1900 within a 300-km coastal belt. From three decades of satellite data, we demonstrate that the upward trend in convective activity is strongly modulated by deforestation patterns. The frequency of afternoon storms is enhanced over and downstream of deforested patches on length scales from 16 to 196 km, with greater increases for larger patches. The results are consistent with the triggering of storms by mesoscale circulations due to landscape heterogeneity. Near the coast, where sea breeze convection dominates the diurnal cycle, storm frequency has doubled in deforested areas, attributable to enhanced land-sea thermal contrast. These areas include fast-growing cities such as Freetown and Monrovia, where enhanced storm frequency coincides with high vulnerability to flash flooding. The proximity of the ocean likely explains why ongoing deforestation across SWA continues to increase storminess, as it favors the impact of mesoscale dynamics over moisture availability. The coastal location of deforestation in SWA is typical of many tropical deforestation hotspots, and the processes highlighted here are likely to be of wider global relevance.


Assuntos
Processos Climáticos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , África Ocidental , Agricultura , Brasil , Inundações , Florestas , Namíbia , Chuva , Árvores
2.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249488, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852572

RESUMO

The world's most severe thunderstorm asthma event occurred in Melbourne, Australia on 21 November 2016, coinciding with the peak of the grass pollen season. The aetiological role of thunderstorms in these events is thought to cause pollen to rupture in high humidity conditions, releasing large numbers of sub-pollen particles (SPPs) with sizes very easily inhaled deep into the lungs. The humidity hypothesis was implemented into a three-dimensional atmospheric model and driven by inputs from three meteorological models. However, the mechanism could not explain how the Melbourne event occurred as relative humidity was very low throughout the atmosphere, and most available grass pollen remained within 40 m of the surface. Our tests showed humidity induced rupturing occurred frequently at other times and would likely lead to recurrent false alarms if used in a predictive capacity. We used the model to investigate a range of other possible pollen rupturing mechanisms which could have produced high concentrations of SPPs in the atmosphere during the storm. The mechanisms studied involve mechanical friction from wind gusts, electrical build up and discharge incurred during conditions of low relative humidity, and lightning strikes. Our results suggest that these mechanisms likely operated in tandem with one another, but the lightning method was the only mechanism to generate a pattern in SPPs following the path of the storm. If humidity induced rupturing cannot explain the 2016 Melbourne event, then new targeted laboratory studies of alternative pollen rupture mechanisms would be of considerable value to help constrain the parameterisation of the pollen rupturing process.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Atmosfera , Poaceae/fisiologia , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/epidemiologia , Austrália , Processos Climáticos , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Pólen/fisiologia
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(7)2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563756

RESUMO

Mountain ranges generate clouds, precipitation, and perennial streamflow for water supplies, but the role of forest cover in mountain hydrometeorology and cloud formation is not well understood. In the Luquillo Experimental Forest of Puerto Rico, mountains are immersed in clouds nightly, providing a steady precipitation source to support the tropical forest ecosystems and human uses. A severe drought in 2015 and the removal of forest canopy (defoliation) by Hurricane Maria in 2017 created natural experiments to examine interactions between the living forest and hydroclimatic processes. These unprecedented land-based observations over 4.5 y revealed that the orographic cloud system was highly responsive to local land-surface moisture and energy balances moderated by the forest. Cloud layer thickness and immersion frequency on the mountain slope correlated with antecedent rainfall, linking recycled terrestrial moisture to the formation of mountain clouds; and cloud-base altitude rose during drought stress and posthurricane defoliation. Changes in diurnal cycles of temperature and vapor-pressure deficit and an increase in sensible versus latent heat flux quantified local meteorological response to forest disturbances. Temperature and water vapor anomalies along the mountain slope persisted for at least 12 mo posthurricane, showing that understory recovery did not replace intact forest canopy function. In many similar settings around the world, prolonged drought, increasing temperatures, and deforestation could affect orographic cloud precipitation and the humans and ecosystems that depend on it.


Assuntos
Processos Climáticos , Florestas , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Ciclo Hidrológico , Altitude , Clima Tropical
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(7)2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558246

RESUMO

In the Amazon rainforest, land use following deforestation is diverse and dynamic. Mounting evidence indicates that the climatic impacts of forest loss can also vary considerably, depending on specific features of the affected areas. The size of the deforested patches, for instance, was shown to modulate the characteristics of local climatic impacts. Nonetheless, the influence of different types of land use and management strategies on the magnitude of local climatic changes remains uncertain. Here, we evaluated the impacts of large-scale commodity farming and rural settlements on surface temperature, rainfall patterns, and energy fluxes. Our results reveal that changes in land-atmosphere coupling are induced not only by deforestation size but also, by land use type and management patterns inside the deforested areas. We provide evidence that, in comparison with rural settlements, deforestation caused by large-scale commodity agriculture is more likely to reduce convective rainfall and increase land surface temperature. We demonstrate that these differences are mainly caused by a more intensive management of the land, resulting in significantly lower vegetation cover throughout the year, which reduces latent heat flux. Our findings indicate an urgent need for alternative agricultural practices, as well as forest restoration, for maintaining ecosystem processes and mitigating change in the local climates across the Amazon basin.


Assuntos
Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Processos Climáticos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/estatística & dados numéricos , Ecossistema
5.
Pediatr Res ; 89(4): 958-961, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An epidemic of thunderstorm asthma in pediatric patients occurred in Yulin, a northwest city of China, on 11 September 2018. We described the epidemic and retrospectively analyzed the demographic and clinical aspects of the involved children. METHODS: The caseload data of patients were collected from the hospital information system in Yulin Pediatric Hospital. The detailed document of hospitalized children with thunderstorm asthma was sourced from the medical records. RESULTS: The mean number of daily visits to emergency/outpatient department and the daily admission to hospital were 2.7 and 16 times, respectively, than on the other days of September. A gender prominence of males was observed in both emergency/outpatient and inpatient department. Among the 51 hospitalized children with detailed medical records, 56% of them had never experienced or were diagnosed with asthma and 25% had confirmed diagnosis of asthma. Sixty-seven percent had a history of allergic rhinitis during August and September. Seventy-six percent of the hospitalized children presented as moderate asthma. Ninety-four percent of the pediatric patients had positive IgE against mugwort pollen and 78% were monosensitized to pollen. CONCLUSION: Thunderstorm asthma can affect children, especially who has allergic rhinitis or asthma without preventive management. Mugwort is also an aeroallergen in thunderstorm asthma attacks. IMPACT: Thunderstorm can induce asthma attacks in children with allergic rhinitis owing to mugwort and aggravate symptoms in children with confirmed diagnosis of asthma. Children with mugwort allergy are susceptible to thunderstorm asthma and a preponderance of boys was observed. Better identification of allergic children to mugwort, giving suitable protective measures during thunderstorm and standard therapy to existing allergic situation could be a benefit for children at risk of thunderstorm asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Processos Climáticos , Hospitalização , Pólen/imunologia , Adolescente , Alérgenos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Epidemias , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
6.
Enferm Clin (Engl Ed) ; 31: S94-S99, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425484

RESUMO

AIM: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected countries on all continents where containment and isolation measures have been systematically applied. This review aims to synthesize the available evidence on the management of home isolation due to COVID-19 infection. METHOD: A scoping review has been carried out using the Trip Database, PUBMED, CINAHL, COCHRANE and Scopus controlled language without any limits. From all the documents located, information was extracted on the date of publication, country of publication, type of study, assessment of the level of evidence and degree of recommendation, and results of interest to answer the research question. Critical reading of the selected documents has been carried out, but without using it as an exclusion criterion but rather informative. RESULTS: 163 records were located and 14 were selected. The recommendations have been grouped into 10 topics around all the daily management of home care. CONCLUSIONS: The scarcity of robust evidence on isolation from COVID-19 infection is objective. Most of the documents are reviews carried out after the consensus of experts at the international level.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Isolamento de Pacientes/métodos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Processos Climáticos , Tosse/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes , Higiene das Mãos , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Higiene , Lavanderia/métodos , Máscaras , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Distanciamento Físico , Quarentena/métodos , Apoio Social , Fatores de Tempo , Populações Vulneráveis
7.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-10-27.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52950

RESUMO

Los efectos del cambio climático en la salud humana son inequívocos y ya se perciben en todo el mundo. Fenómenos como las olas de calor y de frío, las inundaciones, las sequías, los huracanes, las tormentas y otros episodios extremos pueden afectar directa e indirectamente la salud y desencadenar o exacerbar determinadas afecciones —entre ellas, enfermedades transmitidas por vectores, agua y alimentos debido a cambios en el comportamiento y la distribución de los vectores y los patógenos o trastornos de salud mental provocados por el aumento de los disturbios y los desplazamientos forzados—, con la consiguiente presión sobre los servicios de salud y su infraestructura. Cambio climático para profesionales de la salud es un libro de bolsillo basado en datos empíricos que ofrece información esencial para que el personal médico y otros profesionales de salud distingan en su práctica diaria el impacto del cambio climático. Con esta guía de referencia rápida podrán reconocer con facilidad las enfermedades y efectos secundarios relacionados con el cambio climático, administrar los tratamientos adecuados y aconsejar a las poblaciones expuestas, presentar información actualizada sobre la relación entre los efectos secundarios de ciertos medicamentos y la agravación de las dolencias sensibles al clima, y determinar las consecuencias posibles para los servicios de salud. En este libro se abordan los principales fenómenos meteorológicos, así como las afecciones en las que pueden tener incidencia, agrupados por áreas clínicas específicas. La Organización Panamericana de la Salud aspira a que esta publicación contribuya a aumentar los conocimientos en la materia y la capacidad de los sistemas de salud para anticipar, prevenir y prepararse con vistas a brindar de forma constante servicios de salud de alta calidad en un mundo con un clima que cambia a gran velocidad.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Meio Ambiente e Saúde Pública , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Gastroenteropatias , Doenças da Pele e do Tecido Conjuntivo , Fatores de Risco , Processos Climáticos , Análise de Situação , Saúde Mental
8.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(12): 2634-2649, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857749

RESUMO

Sedimentation in storm sewers strongly depends on velocity at limit of deposition. This study provides application of a novel stochastic-based model to predict the densimetric Froude number in sewer pipes. In this way, the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) is used to develop two parametric equations, called GLUE-based four-parameter and GLUE-based two-parameter (GBTP) models to enhance the prediction accuracy of the velocity at the limit of deposition. A number of performance indices are calculated in training and testing phases to compare the developed models with the conventional regression-based equations available in the literature. Based on the obtained performance indices and some graphical techniques, the research findings confirm that a significant enhancement in prediction performance is achieved through the proposed GBTP compared with the previously developed formulas in the literature. To make a quantified comparison between the established and literature models, an index, called improvement index (IM), is computed. This index is a resultant of all the selected indices, and this indicator demonstrates that GBTP is capable of providing the most performance improvement in both training (IMtrain = 9.2%) and testing (IMtrain = 11.3%) phases, comparing with a well-known formula in this context.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Esgotos , Processos Climáticos , Processos Estocásticos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228963, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097411

RESUMO

Despite several decades of research on more effectively communicating climate change to the general public, there is only limited knowledge about how older adults engage with an issue that will shape and define future generations. We focus on two key factors that may motivate younger and older adults to engage in climate change action, legacy concern and place attachment, and assess whether older adults differ in any appreciable way from the general population in this domain. We randomly exposed participants of different ages to either a Legacy, Place, or control writing induction task before they completed various self-report measures. Both induction conditions were associated with significantly greater pro-environmental behavioral intentions and donations for all age groups when compared to the control condition. Legacy motivation and biophilia were used as manipulation checks and found to partially mediate these effects. Findings suggest that legacy and place message framing may be useful in prompting adults of all ages to take action to help combat climate change.


Assuntos
Idoso/psicologia , Mudança Climática/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude , Processos Climáticos , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Política , Estados Unidos
10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5240, 2019 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748549

RESUMO

Limiting the magnitude of climate change via stringent greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation is necessary to prevent further biodiversity loss. However, some strategies to mitigate GHG emission involve greater land-based mitigation efforts, which may cause biodiversity loss from land-use changes. Here we estimate how climate and land-based mitigation efforts interact with global biodiversity by using an integrated assessment model framework to project potential habitat for five major taxonomic groups. We find that stringent GHG mitigation can generally bring a net benefit to global biodiversity even if land-based mitigation is adopted. This trend is strengthened in the latter half of this century. In contrast, some regions projected to experience much growth in land-based mitigation efforts (i.e., Europe and Oceania) are expected to suffer biodiversity loss. Our results support the enactment of stringent GHG mitigation policies in terms of biodiversity. To conserve local biodiversity, however, these policies must be carefully designed in conjunction with land-use regulations and societal transformation in order to minimize the conversion of natural habitats.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Anfíbios , Animais , Aves , Processos Climáticos , Mamíferos , Répteis , Traqueófitas
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615068

RESUMO

A chance constrained stochastic Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was developed for investigating the relations between PM2.5 pollution days and meteorological factors and human activities, incorporating with an empirical study for 13 cities in Jiangsu Province (China) to illustrate the model. This approach not only admits random input and output environment, but also allows the evaluation unit to exceed the front edge under the given probability constraint. Moreover, observing the change in outcome variables when a group of explanatory variables are deleted provides an additional strategic technique to measure the effect of the remaining explanatory variables. It is found that: (1) For 2013-2016, the influencing factors of PM2.5 pollution days included wind speed, no precipitation day, relative humidity, population density, construction area, transportation, coal consumption and green coverage rate. In 2016, the number of cities whose PM2.5 pollution days was affected by construction was decreased by three from 2015 but increased according to transportation and energy utilization. (2) The PM2.5 pollution days in southern and central Jiangsu Province were primarily affected by the combined effect of the meteorological factors and social progress, while the northern Jiangsu Province was largely impacted by the social progress. In 2013-2016, at different risk levels, 60% inland cities were of valid stochastic efficiency, while 33% coastal cities were of valid stochastic efficiency. (3) The chance constrained stochastic DEA, which incorporates the data distribution characteristics of meteorological factors and human activities, is valuable for exploring the essential features of data in investigating the influencing factors of PM2.5.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Processos Climáticos , Material Particulado/análise , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Densidade Demográfica , Estações do Ano , Vento
12.
Biochem J ; 476(19): 2705-2724, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654057

RESUMO

Plants growing in soil develop close associations with soil microorganisms, which inhabit the areas around, on, and inside their roots. These microbial communities and their associated genes - collectively termed the root microbiome - are diverse and have been shown to play an important role in conferring abiotic stress tolerance to their plant hosts. In light of growing concerns over the threat of water and nutrient stress facing terrestrial ecosystems, especially those used for agricultural production, increased emphasis has been placed on understanding how abiotic stress conditions influence the composition and functioning of the root microbiome and the ultimate consequences for plant health. However, the composition of the root microbiome under abiotic stress conditions will not only reflect shifts in the greater bulk soil microbial community from which plants recruit their root microbiome but also plant responses to abiotic stress, which include changes in root exudate profiles and morphology. Exploring the relative contributions of these direct and plant-mediated effects on the root microbiome has been the focus of many studies in recent years. Here, we review the impacts of abiotic stress affecting terrestrial ecosystems, specifically flooding, drought, and changes in nitrogen and phosphorus availability, on bulk soil microbial communities and plants that interact to ultimately shape the root microbiome. We conclude with a perspective outlining possible directions for future research needed to advance our understanding of the complex molecular and biochemical interactions between soil, plants, and microbes that ultimately determine the composition of the root microbiome under abiotic stress.


Assuntos
Microbiota/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Processos Climáticos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540280

RESUMO

The Huang-huai-hai River Basin is one of the most economically developed areas, but is also heavily impacted by drought and flood disasters. Research on the precipitation feature of the Huang-huai-hai River Basin is of great importance to the further discussion of the cause of flood disaster. Based on the selected meteorological stations of the study area from 1961-2016, the inverse distance weighting method was used to get daily precipitation grid data. Interannual variation of precipitation intensity and cover area of different precipitation classes was analyzed. The generalized extreme-value distribution method was used to analyze the spatial distribution of extreme precipitation. The results show that: (1) decrease of accumulated precipitation in light precipitation year and moderate precipitation year might be the reason why the precipitation in the whole basin decreased, but the coefficient of variation (CV) of different classes of precipitation and precipitation days does not change significantly; (2) since the cover area of precipitation > 50 mm and precipitation intensity both decreased, the extreme precipitation of the whole basin may be decreasing; (3) extreme precipitation mainly occurred in the loess plateau in the northeast of Huang-huai-hai River Basin, Dabieshan in the middle of Huang-huai-hai River Basin and other areas.


Assuntos
Processos Climáticos , China , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Rios
14.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210787, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30699171

RESUMO

This paper establishes the quantitative relationships between hail fall parameters and crop damages by examining the impacts of 49 hail hazard scenarios on cotton in the bud stage and boll stage. This study utilizes simulated cotton hail hazard to analyze the following data: hail size, hail fall density, and crop damages (i.e., defoliation rate, branch breaking rate, and the fruit falling rate). The results are as follows: 1) cotton vulnerability increased via an increase in crop damages as the hail hazard magnitude increased; 2) crop damages exhibit significant logistic relationships with hail diameter and hail fall density, and the fit was better at the bud stage than at the boll stage; 3) cotton is more vulnerable to hail hazard at the bud stage than at the boll stage, and the bud stage is a critical period for cotton hail disaster prevention and mitigation; and 4) damages to cotton plant at the bud stage and boll stage were less sensitive to hail size from hail fall density. Thus, we suggest that hail diameter can be used as the priority indicator to predict hail-induced crop damages. These results provide a sound basis for developing a comprehensive evaluation of hail damage in cotton, which is crucial for promoting sustainable cotton production. We recommend that the impacts of hail-induced crop damages on yield and fiber quality need to be addressed further in future studies.


Assuntos
Processos Climáticos , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gelo/efeitos adversos , China , Simulação por Computador , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Logísticos , Modelos Biológicos , Desastres Naturais , Tamanho da Partícula
15.
Allergy ; 74(1): 122-130, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30243030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The world's most catastrophic and deadly thunderstorm asthma epidemic struck Melbourne, Australia, on November 21, 2016. OBJECTIVE: Among thunderstorm-affected patients presenting to emergency rooms (ERs), we investigated risk factors predicting severe attacks requiring admission to hospital. METHODS: Thunderstorm-affected patients were identified from ER records at the eight major Melbourne health services and interviewed by telephone. Risk factors for hospital admission were analyzed. RESULTS: We interviewed 1435/2248 (64%) of thunderstorm-affected patients, of whom 164 (11.4%) required hospital admission. Overall, rhinitis was present in 87%, and current asthma was present in 28%. Odds for hospital admission were higher with increasing age (odds ratio 1.010, 95% CI 1.002, 1.019) and among individuals with current asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.87, 95% CI 1.26, 2.78). Prior hospitalization for asthma in the previous 12 months further increased the odds for hospital admission (aOR 3.16, 95% CI 1.63, 6.12). Among patients of Asian ethnicity, the odds for hospital admission were lower than for non-Asian patients (aOR 0.59, 95% CI 0.38, 0.94), but higher if born in Australia (OR = 5.42, 95% CI 1.56, 18.83). CONCLUSIONS: In epidemic thunderstorm asthma patients who presented to the ER, higher odds for hospital admission among patients with known asthma were further amplified by recent asthma admission, highlighting the vulnerability conferred by suboptimal disease control. Odds for hospital admission were lower in Asian patients born overseas, but higher in Asian patients born locally, than in non-Asian patients; these observations suggest susceptibility to severe thunderstorm asthma may be enhanced by gene-environment interactions.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Processos Climáticos , Hospitalização , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Austrália/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
16.
Annu Rev Psychol ; 70: 449-474, 2019 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29975596

RESUMO

The projected behavioral impacts of global climate change emanate from environmental changes including temperature elevation, extreme weather events, and rising air pollution. Negative affect, interpersonal and intergroup conflict, and possibly psychological distress increase with rising temperature. Droughts, floods, and severe storms diminish quality of life, elevate stress, produce psychological distress, and may elevate interpersonal and intergroup conflict. Recreational opportunities are compromised by extreme weather, and children may suffer delayed cognitive development. Elevated pollutants concern citizens and may accentuate psychological distress. Outdoor recreational activity is curtailed by ambient pollutants. Limitations and issues in need of further investigation include the following: lack of data on direct experience with climate change rather than indirect assessments related to projected changes; poor spatial resolution in environmental exposures and behavioral assessments; few rigorous quasi-experimental studies; overreliance on self-reports of behavioral outcomes; little consideration of moderator effects; and scant investigation of underlying psychosocial processes to explain projected behavioral impacts.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Processos Climáticos , Poluição Ambiental , Desenvolvimento Humano , Relações Interpessoais , Saúde Mental , Desastres Naturais , Recreação , Humanos
17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(22): e010020, 2018 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571497

RESUMO

Background There is disagreement in the literature about the relationship between strokes and seasonal conditions. We sought to (1) describe seasonal patterns of stroke in the United States, and (2) determine the relationship between weather variables and stroke outcomes. Methods and Results We performed a cross-sectional study using Get With The Guidelines-Stroke data from 896 hospitals across the continental United States. We examined effects of season, climate region, and climate variables on stroke outcomes. We identified 457 638 patients admitted from 2011 to 2015 with ischemic stroke. There was a higher frequency of admissions in winter (116 862 in winter versus 113 689 in spring, 113 569 in summer, and 113 518 in fall; P<0.0001). Winter was associated with higher odds of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.08 relative to spring, confidence interval [ CI ] 1.04-1.13, P=0.0004) and lower odds of discharge home ( OR 0.92, CI 0.91-0.94, P<0.0001) or independent ambulation at discharge ( OR 0.96, CI 0.94-0.98, P=0.0006). These differences were attenuated after adjusting for climate region and case mix and became inconsistent after controlling for weather variables. Temperature and precipitation were independently associated with outcome after multivariable analysis, with increases in temperature and precipitation associated with lower odds of mortality ( OR 0.95, CI 0.93-0.97, P<0.0001 and OR 0.95, CI 0.90-1.00, P=0.035, respectively). Conclusions Admissions for ischemic stroke were more frequent in the winter. Warmer and wetter weather conditions were independently associated with better outcomes. Further studies should aim to identify sensitive populations and inform public health measures aimed at resource allocation, readiness, and adaptive strategies.


Assuntos
Processos Climáticos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Chuva , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Temperatura , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 190(10): 585, 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209621

RESUMO

In most grassland ecosystems, the effects of mean temperature increase on plant communities have been investigated; however, the effects of climate fluctuations on local plant community metrics are much less well understood. We conducted a nine-year survey in alpine meadow and alpine steppe to investigate the effects of inter-annual temperature and precipitation variation on plant community composition, species richness, and species diversity on the central Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. We unexpectedly found that annual variability of growing season temperature, and not precipitation, is a driver of plant composition and species diversity in both habitats. Generally, increasing temperature had a negative effect on species diversity in meadow (r2 = 0.94) and steppe (r2 = 0.95). In the meadow habitat, the proportion of grass decreased with increasing temperature and ultimately had positive impacts on the proportion of sedges. In steppe habitat, legumes increased and forbs decreased with the increase of growing season temperature; both legumes and forbs negatively affected proportion of grass and resulted in grass remaining stable under temperature change. Our results provide evidence that responses of functional group composition and species richness to temporal change of temperature are very different from those responses to mean temperature increase on the central Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. In our results, temperature is a main regulator for annual variation of functional group composition and species richness, while soil water content is a dominant regulator for community responses in other experimental warming studies.


Assuntos
Altitude , Clima , Processos Climáticos , Pradaria , Plantas , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , China , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chuva , Estações do Ano , Solo , Tibet , Água
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1087: 345-353, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30259379

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel class of noncoding RNAs that have been extensively explored in the past few years. The advent of new high-throughput sequencing technologies coupled with bioinformatics tools revealed the presence of these molecules in the transcriptome of a wide range of organisms. In animals, circRNAs can modulate gene expression and act as sponges of miRNAs to inhibit their activity. It has been demonstrated that they have the potential to be diagnostic biomarkers as their expression is closely associated to human diseases, such as Alzheimer and cancer. However, in plants their function remains elusive. Recently, the role of the circRNAs in plant stress responses has been studied. During the infection of Pseudomonas syringae in kiwifruit plants, 584 circRNAs were differentially expressed in leaf samples, and a group of them could be further associated with the stage of infection. Under phosphate deficiency conditions, 27 rice circRNAs were reported to be differentially expressed. In tomato, 163 circRNAs demonstrated chilling-responsive expression, with 102 containing miRNA-binding sites and are predicted to act as miRNA sponges. Additionally, Arabidopsis seedlings presented 1583 heat-specific circRNAs, and it was also reported that heat stress could increase the quantity, length, and alternative circularization events of circRNAs. Finally, wheat seedlings under dehydration stress had 62 circRNAs differentially expressed, with 6 being predicted as miRNA sponges. Although the role of plant circRNAs during the biotic and abiotic stresses is still poorly characterised, these molecules have the potential to expand the number of targets and tools in the biotechnology field.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , RNA/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Processamento Alternativo , Processos Climáticos , Éxons/genética , Íntrons/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , RNA Circular , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 190(10): 565, 2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178153

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine environmental parameters driving Vibrio populations in the estuarine zone of the Bengal delta. Spatio-temporal data were collected at river estuary, mangrove, beach, pond, and canal sites. Effects of salinity, tidal amplitude, and a cyclone and tsunami were included in the study. Vibrio population shifts were found to be correlated with tide-driven salinity and suspended particulate matter (SPM). Increased abundance of Vibrio spp. in surface water was observed after a cyclone, attributed to re-suspension of benthic particulate organic carbon (POC), and increased availability of chitin and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Approximately a two log10 increase in the (p < 0.05) number of Vibrio spp. was observed in < 20 µm particulates, compared with microphytoplankton (20-60 µm) and zooplankton > 60 µm fractions. Benthic and suspended sediment comprised a major reservoir of Vibrio spp. Results of microcosm experiments showed enhanced growth of vibrios was related to concentration of organic matter in SPM. It is concluded that SPM, POC, chitin, and salinity significantly influence abundance and distribution of vibrios in the Bengal delta estuarine zone.


Assuntos
Clima , Processos Climáticos , Estuários , Rios/química , Vibrio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água/química , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Ásia , Carbono , Quitina , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Material Particulado , Plâncton , Dinâmica Populacional , Salinidade , Cloreto de Sódio , Tsunamis , Zooplâncton
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