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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254011, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355886

RESUMO

Abstract Livestock is a fundamental part of the agriculture industry in Pakistan and contributes more than 11.53% to GDP. Among livestock species, the buffaloes are regarded as the black gold of Pakistan. Being the highest milk producers globally, Nili-Ravi buffaloes are the most famous ones. Buffaloes are affected by many endemic diseases, and "Hemorrhagic septicemia" (HS) is one of them. This study was designed to ascertain the effects of experimental exposure ofP. multocida B:2 (oral) and its immunogens, i.e., LPS (oral and intravenous) and OMP (oral and subcutaneous) on reproductive hormonal profiles in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Repeated serum samples were collected from the jugular vein of experimental animals for 21 days (0, 02, 04, 08, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 and 504 hours). Hormonal assays to determine the serum concentrations of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) were performed using (MyBioSource) commercial Elisa kits. The hormonal profile of all treatment groups of the buffalo heifers exhibited significant (P<0.05) variations as compared to the control group (G-1). These results indicate suppression in Nili-Ravi buffaloes' reproductive hormonal profile on exposure to P. multocida B:2 and its immunogens. This influence warrants that exposure to H.S may be a possible reason for delayed puberty and poor reproduction performance in Nili-Ravi buffaloes.


Resumo A pecuária é uma parte fundamental da indústria agrícola no Paquistão e contribui com 11,53% do PIB nacional. Entre as espécies de gado, os búfalos são considerados o ouro negro do Paquistão. Sendo os maiores produtores de leite em todo o mundo, os búfalos Nili-Ravi são os mais famosos. Os búfalos são afetados por muitas doenças endêmicas, entre as quais a "septicemia hemorrágica" (SH). Este estudo busca verificar os efeitos da exposição experimental de P. multocida B:2 (oral) e seus imunógenos, ou seja, LPS (oral e intravenoso) e OMP (oral e subcutâneo), nos perfis hormonais reprodutivos em búfalos Nili-Ravi. Amostras de soro repetidas foram coletadas da veia jugular de animais experimentais por 21 dias (0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 e 504 horas). Os ensaios hormonais para determinar as concentrações séricas do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofina (GnRH), hormônio foliculoestimulante (FSH), hormônio luteinizante (LH), estrogênio (E2) e progesterona (P4) foram realizados usando kits comerciais Elisa (MyBioSource). O perfil hormonal de todos os grupos de tratamento das novilhas bubalinas apresentou variações significativas (P < 0,05) em relação ao grupo controle (G-1). Esses resultados indicam supressão no perfil hormonal reprodutivo de búfalos Nili-Ravi na exposição a P. multocida B:2 e seus imunógenos. Essa influência garante que a exposição à SH possa ser uma possível razão para o atraso da puberdade e o baixo desempenho reprodutivo em búfalos Nili-Ravi.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Reprodução , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Búfalos , Progesterona , Bovinos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Pasteurella multocida
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2576: 299-305, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152197

RESUMO

The α,ß-hydrolase fold-containing protein 2 (ABHD2) is a serine hydrolase, responsible for the cleavage of endogenous 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). ABHD2 is activated by progesterone, thus, it is considered a nonnuclear receptor of this steroid hormone that terminates its biological effects. The products of ABHD2-catalyzed cleavage by the natural substrate 2-AG are glycerol and arachidonic acid; here, instead of 2-AG, the radioactive substrate 2-oleoyl-[3H]glycerol has been used as already done in various acylglycerol lipase activity assays. The amount of [3H]glycerol released allows to measure ABHD2 enzymatic activity.


Assuntos
Ácidos Araquidônicos , Glicerídeos , Ácido Araquidônico , Ácidos Araquidônicos/metabolismo , Endocanabinoides , Glicerídeos/metabolismo , Glicerol , Lipase/metabolismo , Progesterona , Serina
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 158844, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126716

RESUMO

Progesterone (P4) and norgestrel (NGT) are two steroid progestogens that can pose adverse effects on aquatic organisms at ng/L levels. Despite increasing concern on their occurrence and removal in wastewater, their fate in the wastewater treatment process has not been well documented. This study identified the transformation products (TPs) of P4 and NGT in anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A/A/O) process. Potential functional genes involved in biotransformation of P4 and NGT were explored. The elimination or formation behavior of P4, NGT and convinced TPs along various units of A/A/O process was revealed through the mass flow. Results showed that 12 and 13 TPs were identified in the P4 and NGT groups respectively, wherein 10 identical TPs and C-19 structures transformation pathways were observed in both groups. Six genes were found that may be involved in dehydrogenation and isomerization reactions in the pathways. Mass flow indicated that P4 and NGT were mainly eliminated in anaerobic and anoxic units, while convinced TPs mainly formed in anaerobic and anoxic units and were then eliminated in aerobic unit. Further, the ecological risks of the effluent should not be ignored as residual compounds including P4 or NGT and their TPs in the effluent still posed adverse effects on zebrafish transcript levels.


Assuntos
Norgestrel , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Progesterona/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Águas Residuárias/química , Biotransformação , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos
4.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 82: 106751, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35901610

RESUMO

This study investigated the effectiveness of different doses of estradiol benzoate (EB) to promote cervical relaxation and their effects on luteal function and outcomes of non-surgical embryo recovery (NSER) in sheep. Multiparous (MULT) and nulliparous (NULL) crossbred Lacaune X Santa Inês ewes were superovulated and naturally bred. Seven days after progesterone withdrawal, females were randomly assigned to one of three distinct cervical relaxation protocols, consisting of i.m. treatment with 37.5 µg d-cloprostenol and different doses of EB: 0.0 mg (0.0EB group; n = 3 NULL and 14 MULT); 0.5 mg (0.5EB group; n = 4 NULL and 12 MULT) or 1.0 mg (1.0EB group, n = 6 NULL and 11 MULT) 16 h before NSER. All ewes received 50 IU of oxytocin 20 min before NSER (D17). Blood samples were collected and ultrasound exams (B-mode and color Doppler) were performed at two timepoints: immediately before d-cloprostenol and EB treatments and prior to NSER. Estrous behavior, corpora lutea count and NSER success outcomes were not affected by EB treatments nor parity (P > 0.05). Embryo recovery rate was greater for ewes in the 0.5EB group and in the NULL ewes (P < 0.05). Ovarian biometrics differed between the two evaluation timepoints in all groups (P < 0.05). Plasma estradiol increased over time, reaching a significant greater level in 1.0EB ewes compared to controls on D17 (P < 0.05), whereas progesterone concentrations decreased over time in all groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, treatments did not affect NSER success but they did affect luteal function by altering P4 and E2 concentrations. Therefore, the NSER technique can be successfully performed in ewes with or without prior treatment with EB.


Assuntos
Corpo Lúteo , Progesterona , Gravidez , Ovinos , Feminino , Animais , Estradiol/farmacologia , Cloprostenol/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos Veterinários como Assunto
5.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 82: 106753, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027631

RESUMO

High circulating progesterone concentrations decrease the responses to stressful situations in farm ruminants. We hypothesized that administering a single dose of long-acting progesterone formulation reduces the stress response of anestrous ewes to weaning. The aim of this study was to compare the behavioral, cortisol, and blood protein responses to weaning of anestrous ewes treated or not, with a single dose of a long-acting progesterone formulation. A complementary aim was to characterize the bioavailability of progesterone after this treatment. Thirty-six multiparous single-lambing Corriedale ewes and their lambs were used in this study. The lambs were weaned at 6:30 h when they were 65 d old (d0), and were taken to another paddock without chemical, visual or auditory contact with their mothers, while the ewes remained in the same paddock. Immediately before weaning, while 19 ewes received oil based long-acting progesterone formulation, other 17 ewes remained as controls, receiving sunflower oil. Twelve ewes from each group were used for behavioral recordings, the other 5 untreated ewes and 7 treated ewes were used to characterize the cortisol response and the progesterone profile. Behaviors were recorded every 10th min for 3 h in the morning and 3 h in the afternoon on day minus 3, d0 and d2, and expressed as percentage of recordings each animal displayed each behavior on each day. Treated ewes were recorded more times standing up than ewes on the day of weaning (P < 0.05), but the reverse result was found 2 d after (P < 0.01). Treated ewes were recorded more times lying down than control ewes on d2 after weaning (P < 0.0001), when treated ewes were observed fewer times walking than control ewes (P = 0.0004), as also happened the day of weaning (P < 0.0001). On the day of weaning, treated ewes grazed and paced less than control ewes (P = 0.001 and P = 0.009). Treated ewes ruminated more than control ewes on the day of weaning (P = 0.02) and 2 d later (P = 0.0002). Control ewes also secreted more cortisol than progesterone-treated ewes (P = 0.03), with no effect of the treatment on the concentration of total proteins, albumin or globulins. While control ewes never had luteal progesterone concentrations (>0.5 ng/mL), treated ewes achieved luteal progesterone concentrations 2 h after its administration, and remained well above luteal levels until 15 h after administration. The administration of a single dose of long-acting progesterone formulation appears to be a viable choice in reducing the stress to weaning in ewes. Ewes treated with progesterone coped better with weaning, returning to their normal basal behavior earlier than untreated ones, and secreting lower cortisol levels.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Progesterona , Ovinos , Animais , Feminino , Desmame , Corpo Lúteo , Transporte Biológico
6.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 82: 106764, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162341

RESUMO

Sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal foals. Relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI), defined as an inadequate cortisol response to stress, has been associated with sepsis, prematurity, and poor outcome in newborn foals. In addition to cortisol, the adrenal gland synthesizes several biologically important steroids and steroid precursors, including aldosterone, androgens, and progestogens. However, concentration of these hormones during hospitalization and their association with the severity of disease and mortality in critically ill foals have not been completely evaluated. We hypothesized, that in addition to cortisol and aldosterone, concentration of steroid precursors (progestogens and androgens) will be altered in critically ill foals. We also proposed that septic foals will have higher concentrations of steroid precursors than healthy foals, and steroid concentrations will be persistently increased during hospitalization in non-surviving septic and premature foals. Foals <4 days of age were categorized as healthy, septic, sick non-septic, and premature based on physical exam, medical history, and laboratory data. Blood samples were collected on admission (0 h), 24 h, and 72 h after admission. Concentrations of steroids and ACTH were measured by immunoassays. The area under the curve over 72 h (AUC0-72h) of hospitalization was calculated for each hormone. Serum cortisol, aldosterone, progesterone, pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and 17 α-hydroxyprogesterone concentrations were higher in septic and premature foals compared to healthy foals at 0 h and throughout 72 h of hospitalization (P < 0.05). Plasma ACTH concentrations were higher in septic and premature foals on admission compared to healthy controls (P < 0.05). The progesterone (AUC0-72h) cut-off value above which non-survival could be reliably predicted in hospitalized foals was 1,085 ng/mL/h, with 82% sensitivity and 77% specificity. Critically ill neonatal foals had an appropriate response to stress characterized by increased concentrations of cortisol and steroid precursors on admission. A rapid decline in steroid concentration was observed in healthy foals. However, persistently elevated progestogen and androgen concentrations were associated with a lack of improvement in the course of disease and poor outcome.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Sepse , Cavalos , Animais , Hidrocortisona , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico , Estado Terminal , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Progesterona , Aldosterona , Progestinas , Esteroides , Sepse/veterinária , Hospitalização
7.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 82: 106766, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182815

RESUMO

The relation between circulating concentrations of progesterone and 17ß-estradiol prior to insemination play a key role in optimizing fertility in cattle. This study aimed to determine the impact of endogenous progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) concentrations on uterine bacterial community abundance and diversity in beef cattle. Angus-influenced heifers were subjected to an industry standard estrous synchronization protocol. Uterine flushes were collected on d -2 (endogenous P4) and d 0 (endogenous E2) and used for targeting the V4 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA bacterial gene. Plasma was collected on d -2 and 0 for quantification of P4 and E2 concentrations by radioimmunoassay, respectively. Heifers were allotted to one of the following groups: High P4 + High E2 (H-H; n = 11), High P4 + Low E2 (H-L; n = 9), Low P4 + High E2 (L-H; n = 9), Low P4 + Low E2 (L-L; n = 11). Results indicated that Shannon's diversity index tended to be greater for H-L heifers compared to L-H heifers on d 0 (P = 0.10). For H-L heifers from d -2 to d 0, the relative abundance of Actinobacteria decreased and Tenericutes increased (P < 0.01). Within phylum Actinobacteria, the relative abundance of Corynebacterium decreased from d -2 to d 0 in treatment groups H-H, H-L, and L-L (P < 0.05); however, did not differ by d for L-H heifers. Within phylum Tenericutes, the relative abundance of Ureaplasma increased from d -2 to d 0 for H-L heifers (P = 0.01). Additionally for H-L heifers, the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes tended to increase from day -2 to on d 0 (P = 0.07). For H-L heifers, uterine pH increased from day -2 to d 0 (P = 0.05). These results suggest that differing endogenous concentrations of P4 and E2 may be associated with shifts in uterine microbiota and pH, and this could ultimately impact fertility outcomes in beef cattle.


Assuntos
Sincronização do Estro , Progesterona , Bovinos , Feminino , Animais , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Estradiol , Estro , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária
8.
Theriogenology ; 195: 24-30, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36274393

RESUMO

This study compared the reproductive performance of embryo recipients treated with a timed embryo transfer (TET) protocol using human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG). On a random day of the estrous cycle (Day -10) indicus-taurus recipients (n = 341; 194 nulliparous and 147 multiparous cows) with a body condition score between 3.0 and 4.0, were submitted to the TET protocol consisting of an intramuscular (i.m.) injection of 2.0 mg estradiol benzoate (EB) and the insertion of intravaginal progesterone (P4) device that remained until Day -2.5. On the same day (-2.5), the recipients received i.m. 150 mg D-cloprostenol and 1 mg estradiol cypionate and were randomly divided into two groups: the eCG group (n = 179), in which females received i.m. 300 IU eCG and the hCG group (n = 162), in which females received 150 IU hCG. Then, estrus intensity and the diameter of the dominant follicle (DF) were monitored on D0 and the quality of the corpus luteum (CL) (B mode and color Doppler) was assessed on D7 to select recipients eligible for receiving the transfer of an embryo produced in vitro. Pregnancy diagnosis was assessed 23 days after the transfer. Continuous data were analyzed by ANOVA using a mixed-effects model and Tukey's test. The rates were analyzed using a logistic regression model. The diameter of the DF on day 0 of the TET protocol was influenced by the interaction between gonadotropic treatment and category (P = 0.01), and nulliparous recipients treated with hCG had the smallest diameter. Treatment with hCG and eCG resulted in a high rate of estrus expression; however, the proportion of females with a high-intensity of estrus was higher in the hCG group (79.84 vs. 68.61%, respectively; P = 0.03). The utilization rate (recipients with CL) showed a tendency (P = 0.06) to be influenced by the interaction between gonadotropic treatment and category, wherein nulliparous recipients treated with hCG exhibited a lower utilization rate than the other groups. The diameter, perimeter, and area of the CL were similar (P > 0.1) in all groups. However, the hCG group resulted in CL with a better Doppler evaluation score (P = 0.04), central blood flow (P = 0.03), and tendency towards greater peripheral blood flow (P = 0.08). The rates of conception (32.00% hCG vs. 35.10% eCG; P = 0.46) and pregnancy (24.69% hCG vs. 29.61% eCG; P = 0.20) were similar between the hCG and eCG groups. However, an interaction between the gonadotropic treatment and category revealed lower conception (P = 0.01) and pregnancy rates (P = 0.001) in nulliparous recipients treated with hCG. Treatment with hCG resulted in a greater intensity of estrus expression and CL with a higher Doppler score, which determined rates of utilization, conception, and pregnancy similar to conventional protocols using eCG. However, nulliparous recipients treated with hCG exhibited a lower overall reproductive rate.


Assuntos
Gonadotropina Coriônica , Transferência Embrionária , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Bovinos , Cavalos , Animais , Gonadotropina Coriônica/farmacologia , Transferência Embrionária/veterinária , Gonadotropinas Equinas/farmacologia , Progesterona , Corpo Lúteo , Estradiol/farmacologia , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Veterinários como Assunto
9.
Theriogenology ; 195: 62-68, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283228

RESUMO

In order to assess the effect of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administered on Day 5 or 7 of a fixed-time artificial insemination protocol (FTAI) in anestrous suckled beef cows, two experiments were performed to determine the following endpoints: Experiment 1 (n = 22), preovulatory follicle (POF) diameter, ovulation time, corpus luteum (CL) area, estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) concentrations; and Experiment 2 (n = 676), a field trial to evaluate conception rate using the same experimental design. In both experiments, a synchronization protocol using estradiol benzoate (EB) (Day 0), intravaginal progestin device (IVD) (Days 0 through 7), prostaglandin (PGF) (Day 7), eCG (Day 5 or 7), and GnRH (Day 9). Treatment consisted of administering 400 IU of eCG on Day 5 (T5) or Day 7 (T7 or control) concomitant with treatment with PGF2α. In experiment 1, all cows of T5 ovulated by 16 h after GnRH administration. The POF tended (P = 0.06; P = 0.07) to be larger at 1 and 2 d before ovulation in T5. The day before ovulation, E2 tended to be lower (P = 0.06) in T5 compared with T7. The CL area and the P4 concentrations were greater (P = 0.04) on day 9 in T5 compared with T7. In experiment 2, the conception rate was greater (P = 0.04) in T5 (72.2%) compared with T7 (61.0%) group. Therefore, administration of eCG on Day 5 of the designed protocol hastened ovulation of a greater follicle, which produced a larger CL and greater concentrations of progesterone by Day 9 after ovulation, resulting in 11.2% increase in cows pregnant.


Assuntos
Sincronização do Estro , Progesterona , Gravidez , Feminino , Bovinos , Cavalos , Animais , Progesterona/farmacologia , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Gonadotropinas Equinas/farmacologia , Corpo Lúteo , Ovulação , Estradiol/farmacologia , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Gonadotropina Coriônica/farmacologia
10.
Theriogenology ; 195: 55-61, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283227

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using different doses of injectable progesterone (P4i) in a new ovulation synchronization protocol in place of progesterone (P4)-releasing intravaginal devices in Bos indicus cows. For this, three experiments were carried out. To determine the P4-release curve (Experiment 1), 55 Bos indicus cows were distributed into 5 experimental groups for the administration of different doses of P4i at D0 (P4i60, n = 11; P4i105, n = 11; P4i150, n = 11; P4i195, n = 11 and P4i240, n = 11) and submitted to the ovulation synchronization protocol (D0: P4i + EB; D8: PGF2α + EC + eCG). Daily blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture from D0 to D12 for analysis of the serum P4 profile. To evaluate ovarian follicular dynamics and the timing of ovulation (Experiment 2), three studies were conducted with different doses of P4i at the beginning of the ovulation synchronization protocol (Study a: 150 mg and 105 mg P4i; Study b: 75 mg P4i; Study c: 60 mg P4i). At the end of the ovulation synchronization protocol, after ovulation inducing administration, ultrasound examinations were performed every 24 h until 96 h or until ovulation was detected (Studies a, b and c). To evaluate the pregnancy rate (Experiment 3), 132 Bos indicus cows were subjected to an ovulation synchronization protocol using either a 75 mg progesterone injection (Group P4i75) or an intravaginal P4 device (control group) on D0. Pregnancy was determined by ultrasound 30 days after the end of the ovulation synchronization protocol. All statistical analyses were performed by SAS®. In the P4-release curve, the peak occurred on D1 and on D3 all concentrations remained below 1 ng/mL until the end of the study (D12) in all groups. The ovulation rates were similar between the 75 mg dose group and the Control group (P = 0.24 - Experiment 2 - study b), result not observed with other doses of P4i (study a and c). The pregnancy rate (Experiment 3) was greater [P4i Group 27% and Control Group 72.7% (P = 0.0001)] in cows receiving the intravaginal P4 device. In conclusion, the use of long-acting P4i (75 mg) to replace the intravaginal P4 device negatively affects the conception rate of Bos indicus cows submitted to ovulation synchronization protocol.


Assuntos
Sincronização do Estro , Progesterona , Gravidez , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Taxa de Gravidez , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Estradiol/farmacologia , Ovulação , Administração Intravaginal
11.
Theriogenology ; 195: 69-76, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36308951

RESUMO

In this study, we measured the serum concentration of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), C-reactive protein (CRP), progesterone (P4), and the complete blood count (CBC) in pregnant and non-pregnant bitches. The aim was to investigate the suitability of these parameters for monitoring canine pregnancy. Blood samples were collected from all bitches introduced for timed mating on the day of first mating (>5 ng/ml). The first blood sample after mating was obtained on day 12 post-copulation. The dogs whose pregnancy was confirmed on days 25 and 35, were allotted to the pregnancy positive group (G+) and those that were not pregnant were grouped as pregnancy negative (G). Ultrasonography (US) was performed on days 25, 35, 45 and 55 in pregnant (N = 13) and non-pregnant (N = 7) animals; The sonographic examinations in non-pregnant bitches were continued up to day 63, and in pregnant bitches they were also carried out one day after parturition (D+1). Blood samples were taken in parallel with these periods. Furthermore, the pregnant bitches were classified as G1A (1-2 puppies), G1B (3-4 puppies), and G1C (5-11 puppies) based on the number of puppies, and G1X (10 kg), G1Y (10-20 kg), and G1Z (>20 kg) based on their body weight. No significant difference was found between G+ and G-with regard to AMH, except on day 45, when AMH was higher in G+ (P < 0.01). On the other hand, the CRP values in the G+ exceeded those in the G-group on day 25 (38.26 vs. 15.66 mg/L, P < 0.05), on day 35 (32.54 vs. 15.97 mg/L, P < 0.05) and on day one after parturition (36.24 vs. 10.10 mg/L, P < 0.01). When puppy number was considered, it was discovered that CRP values significantly increased with puppy number on days 12 and 45 (G1A vs. G1B day 12: 4.13 vs 15.84 mg/L, P < 0.05; day 45: 12.40 vs. 25.76 mg/L, P < 0.001), and on day 35 (G1B vs. G1C: 24.18 vs. 38.87 mg/L, P < 0.01). With regards to AMH, this was only detectable on day 12 (G1A vs. G1B: 0.56 vs. 1.13 ng/mL, P < 0.05). When the body weight of the pregnant bitches was considered, bitches <10 kg had significantly higher AMH values than bitches bitch >20 kg on days 12 and 25 (day 12: 1.20 vs. 0.21 ng/mL, P < 0.01; day 25: 0.91 vs. 0.21 ng/mL, P < 0.05). This was not found in the case of CRP. The white blood cells (WBC) and the granulocytes (GRAN) were found to be higher in the G+ group (P < 0.01) on day 55, while the hematocrit (HCT) was significantly lower on day 45 (P < 0.05) and day 55 (P < 0.01). The increased GRAN was still detectable one day after parturition (P < 0.05). In conclusion, measurement of the AMH and CRP concentrations may contribute to determination of gestation stage and monitoring of the course of pregnancy; values are related to maternal body weight and number of puppies; however, AMH did not change over the course of a normal pregnancy. Sonography, the increase in CRP and complete blood count values may be beneficial for monitoring canine pregnancy. More studies are necessary to prove these findings.


Assuntos
Hormônio Antimülleriano , Progesterona , Feminino , Cães , Animais , Gravidez , Proteína C-Reativa , Parto , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/veterinária , Peso Corporal
12.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 330: 114151, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341970

RESUMO

To better understand reproductive physiology of humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae that reside in Hawai'i and Alaska, enzyme immunoassays were validated for both progesterone and testosterone in free-ranging and stranded animals (n = 185 biopsies). Concentrations were analyzed between different depths of large segments of blubber taken from skin to muscle layers of stranded female (n = 2, 1 pregnant, 1 non-pregnant) and male (n = 1) whales. Additionally, progesterone metabolites were identified between pregnant (n = 1) and non-pregnant (n = 3) females using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Progesterone concentrations were compared between juvenile (i.e., sexually immature), lactating, and pregnant females, and male whales, and pregnancy rates of sexually mature females were calculated. Based on replicate samples from ship struck animals collected at 7 depth locations, blubber containing the highest concentration of progesterone was located 1 cm below the skin for females, and the highest concentration of testosterone was in the skin layer of one male whale. HPLC of blubber samples of pregnant and non-pregnant females contain different immunoreactive progesterone metabolites, with the non-pregnant female eluate comprised of a more polar, and possibly conjugated, form of progesterone than the pregnant female. In females, concentrations of progesterone were highest in the blubber of pregnant (n = 28, 28.6 ± 6.9 ng/g), followed by lactating (n = 16, 0.9 ± 0.1 ng/g), and female juvenile (n = 5, 1.0 ± 0.2 ng/g) whales. Progesterone concentrations in male (n = 24, 0.6 ng/g ± 0.1 ng/g) tissues were the lowest all groups, and not different from lactating or juvenile females. Estimated summer season pregnancy rate among sexually mature females from the Hawai'i stock of humpback whales was 0.562 (95 % confidence interval 0.528-0.605). For lactating females, the year-round pregnancy rate was 0.243 (0.09-0.59), and varies depending on the threshold of progesterone assumed for pregnancy in the range between 3.1 and 28.5 ng/g. Our results demonstrate the synergistic value added when combining immunoreactive assays, HPLC, and long-term sighting histories to further knowledge of humpback whale reproductive physiology.


Assuntos
Jubarte , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Gravidez , Progesterona , Taxa de Gravidez , Lactação , Testosterona
13.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 330: 114142, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36243057

RESUMO

This study demonstrates the utility of the analysis of fecal hormone metabolites as a reproductive management tool for captive short-beaked echidnas. Over three breeding seasons daily fecal samples were collected from female echidnas (n = 8) that were monitored continuously by video surveillance to confirm key reproductive events. Fecal progesterone metabolite concentrations were elevated above baseline values (448.0 ± 156.3 ng/g) during pregnancy and the luteal phase. However, compared to plasma progesterone the rise in fecal progesterone metabolite concentrations after copulation was delayed (3.3 ± 0.4 versus 8.3 ± 0.6 days, respectively), such that pregnancy was more reliably detected in its latter half when using fecal samples. Mating and oviposition were observed for 14 of the 19 pregnancies resulting in an estimated gestation of 16.7 ± 0.2 days (range 16.0-18.1 d). The estrogen enzyme-immunoassays tested (n = 3) in this study were not suitable for the fecal samples of the echidna. Fecal progesterone metabolites are an effective tool for confirming the timing and occurrence of estrous cycles in captive echidna colonies and can assist zookeepers in identifying possible causes of sub-optimal reproductive success without the unnecessary stress of repeated capture and anaesthesia for blood collection.


Assuntos
Monotremados , Tachyglossidae , Gravidez , Animais , Feminino , Progesterona/metabolismo , Reprodução , Fezes , Estrogênios/metabolismo
14.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 225: 106181, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36150639

RESUMO

Progesterone (P4) is a well-known steroid hormone that plays a key role in oocyte growth and the maintenance of pregnancy in mammals, including cattle. Heat stress (HS) has an adverse effect on P4 synthesis through an imbalance in the cellular redox status. We have recently revealed that a standardized extract of Asparagus officinalis stem (EAS) increases P4 through non-HS induction of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and a synergistic increase of HSP70 by enhancing the intracellular redox balance, which was adversely affected by HS in bovine granulosa cells (GCs). Bovine GCs collected from bovine ovarian follicles were cultured at 38.5 °C and 41 °C for 12 h with or without 5 mg/mL EAS. After treatment, cells and culture suppernatant were collected for the analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to detect in P4 levels. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to detect expression of steroidogenesis related genes. Fluorescence staining was used to detect mitochondrial activity and lipid droplet. P4 level was increased by EAS treatment in association with increase in steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3ß-HSD), mitochondrial membrane activity and lipid droplet both under non-HS and HS conditions. Notably, synergistic effect of EAS with HS co-treatment was observed to show a greater increase in P4 synthesis when comparison with EAS treatment under non-HS condition. Furthermore, inhibition of HSP70 significantly reduced EAS-induced P4 synthesis, mitochondrial activity and synthesis of lipid droplets. These results suggest that P4 synthesis by EAS is mediated by the steroidogenesis pathway via HSP70-regulated activation of STAR and 3ß-HSD, together with improved mitochondrial activity and lipid metabolism in bovine GCs. Moreover, effect of EAS has a synergistic effect of with HSP70-regulated steroidogenesis pathway.


Assuntos
Asparagus , Progesterona , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Progesterona/metabolismo , Asparagus/metabolismo , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Mamíferos/metabolismo
15.
Theriogenology ; 195: 1-6, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265407

RESUMO

Scopolamine is a parasympatholytic drug that can modulate uterine contractile activity. Based on the hypothesis that deficiency in uterine contractility is a cause of Repeat Breeder (RB) syndrome in cows, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of scopolamine administration in RB cows, on the day of heat, in increasing conception rates. Forty RB cows were randomly divided into treated group [T; 20 cows treated with scopolamine butylbromide 40 mg/100 kg of body weight (BW) by the intramuscular (IM) route after clinical confirmation of heat (T0)] and the control group [C; 20 cows treated with 2 mL/100 kg of BW of saline solution, IM, at T0]. Twelve hours later (T1), all of the cows were artificially inseminated (AI). Blood plasma-progesterone (P4), hydroxyproline, and prostaglandin F2α metabolite (PGFM), concentrations were assessed at T0 and T1. Additionally, the uterine tone was evaluated by transrectal palpation. Conception rates were recorded. Drug administration increased the conception rates in group T to 80% unlike group C (25%) (P < 0.0001). Higher PGFM concentration levels were registered in the treated group than in the control group. The higher PGF2α secretion in pregnant cows of the T group may have reduced the P4 levels, making conception possible. Scopolamine administration at the time of heat can improve uterine contractility. This makes it more suitable for promoting conception in RB cows, where hormonal alterations and contractile and biochemical deficits are responsible for the syndrome.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Escopolamina , Gravidez , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Dinoprosta , Progesterona , Fertilização , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária
16.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 147: 105958, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332274

RESUMO

Particular phases of the menstrual cycle may exacerbate affective symptoms for females with a diagnosed mental health disorder. However, there are mixed findings regarding whether affective symptoms change across the menstrual cycle in females without a clinical diagnosis. The window of vulnerability model proposes that natural increases in ovarian hormones in the mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle lead to systematic changes in brain networks associated with affective processing. Consequently, the model posits that females may experience stress more intensely and remember negative events more readily in the mid-luteal phase, increasing their risk for higher affective symptoms. Using a 35-day longitudinal study design, we tested the window of vulnerability model in a non-clinical sample. We tracked naturally cycling females' daily stress and three types of affective symptoms: anxious apprehension, anxious arousal, and anhedonic depression. Using multilevel modeling, we simultaneously modeled within- and between-person associations among stress and menstrual phase for each affective symptom. We found increased anhedonic depression in the mid-luteal phase but not anxious apprehension or anxious arousal. Moreover, we detected a positive association between within- and between-person stress and anxious apprehension and anhedonic depression, but not anxious arousal. These associations were not stronger in the mid-luteal phase. Overall, we provide weak evidence for a window of vulnerability for affective symptoms in the mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Our findings suggest that stress is a better predictor of fluctuations in affective symptoms than the menstrual cycle. Moreover, our findings highlight the importance of measuring multiple negative affective symptoms because they may be differentially related to stress and the menstrual cycle.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Fase Luteal , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Progesterona , Ciclo Menstrual/psicologia , Estradiol
17.
Anim Sci J ; 93(1): e13782, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36345759

RESUMO

ß-Carotene is an essential nutrient in cattle reproduction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ß-carotene supplementation on ovarian activities throughout the estrous cycle in nonpregnant Japanese Black cows. The estrous cycles of eight nonpregnant Japanese Black cows were synchronized using a double synch protocol, and the cows were divided into two groups. The cows in the ß-carotene (BC) group received supplementation with 1000 mg/day ß-carotene for 46 days including the synchronization period. The cows in the control (C) group did not receive ß-carotene supplementation. The results showed that ß-carotene supplementation at 1000 mg/day was sufficient to maintain a high plasma ß-carotene concentration and increase the plasma retinol concentration and that ß-carotene supplementation had no significant effects on the dominant follicle diameter, total number of estrus behaviors, or length of the estrous cycle. In contrast, the areas under the P4 concentration curves in the BC group were higher than those obtained for the C group. In conclusion, a high plasma ß-carotene concentration in Japanese Black cows promotes P4 production in the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and total P4 production throughout the estrous cycle without changing the length of the estrous cycle.


Assuntos
Progesterona , beta Caroteno , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , beta Caroteno/farmacologia , Ciclo Estral , Folículo Ovariano , Estro , Sincronização do Estro/métodos
18.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 102(44): 3537-3542, 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418253

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)day serum progesterone (P) level on the live birth rate (LBR) of fresh embryo transfer with GnRH antagonist protocols. Methods: Patients who underwent the first IVF/ICSI in the Reproductive Center of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2018 to December 2020 were included for analysis. The patients with normal ovarian response with GnRH antagonist protocols were included (n=765). The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to select the optimal cut-off value of serum P on HCG day (0.83 µg/L), and the included cycles were divided into two groups: P<0.83 µg/L (n=444) and P≥0.83 µg/L (n=321). The primary outcome measure was LBR. Secondary outcome measures included clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) and early miscarriage rate. The difference of the above indexes between the two groups was compared. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the effect of serum P level on LBR in fresh embryo transfer cycles. Results: The maternal ages in P<0.83 µg/L group and P≥0.83 µg/L group were (32.40±5.49) years and (32.53±5.51) yeas, respectively. The paternal ages were (33.35±6.34) years and (33.43±6.38) years, respectively of which, the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The CPR in the P<0.83 µg/L group was 45.9% (n=204), which was significantly higher than that in the P≥0.83 µg/L group (37.1%) (n=119) (P=0.014). There was no significant difference in the early miscarriage rate between the two groups [14.2% (n=29) vs 14.3% (n=17), P=0.986]. The LBR in the P<0.83 µg/L group was significantly higher than that in the P≥0.83 µg/L group [36.3% (n=161) vs 28.0% (n=90), P=0.017]. By multivariate logistic regression model analysis, the maternal age, type of embryo transferred, number of embryos transferred, endometrial thickness on HCG day and serum P level on HCG day were independent risk factors of LBR. The adjust OR(95%CI) were 0.91(0.88-0.94), 2.36(1.04-5.35), 1.84(1.14-2.95), 1.16(1.07-1.25)and 0.63(0.44-0.89), all P<0.05. Conclusion: When the GnRH antagonist protocol is applied in the normal ovarian response population, as the serum P on the HCG trigger day≥0.83 µg/L, the CPR and LBR of fresh embryo transfer are decreased.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Progesterona , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Gonadotropina Coriônica , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina
19.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 1037177, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36407312

RESUMO

Steroid hormone receptors (SHRs) belong to a large family of ligand-activated nuclear receptors that share certain characteristics and possess others that make them unique. It was thought for many years that the specificity of hormone response lay in the ligand. Although this may be true for pure agonists, the natural ligands as progesterone, corticosterone and cortisol present a broader effect by simultaneous activation of several SHRs. Moreover, SHRs share structural and functional characteristics that range from similarities between ligand-binding pockets to recognition of specific DNA sequences. These properties are clearly evident in progesterone (PR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR); however, the biological responses triggered by each receptor in the presence of its ligand are different, and in some cases, even opposite. Thus, what confers the specificity of response to a given receptor is a long-standing topic of discussion that has not yet been unveiled. The levels of expression of each receptor, the differential interaction with coregulators, the chromatin accessibility as well as the DNA sequence of the target regions in the genome, are reliable sources of variability in hormone action that could explain the results obtained so far. Yet, to add further complexity to this scenario, it has been described that receptors can form heterocomplexes which can either compromise or potentiate the respective hormone-activated pathways with its possible impact on the pathological condition. In the present review, we summarized the state of the art of the functional cross-talk between PR and GR in breast cancer cells and we also discussed new paradigms of specificity in hormone action.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Receptores de Progesterona , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Ligantes , Progesterona/farmacologia , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 414, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progesterone plays a crucial role in the maintenance of pregnancy from conception to about 100-120 days of gestation when placenta becomes the main source of gestagens. The aim of the study was to test progesterone concentration 14 days after ovulation in pregnant mares and relate it to peak estral endometrial edema and the presence of intrauterine fluid (IUF) after artificial insemination (AI), the number of treatments against IUF, and the time from AI to the day when the uterus was found free of fluid. RESULTS: Mares were divided into two groups: group A (n = 13; age 10.8 ± 4.5 years) in which a normal embryonic vesicle with a diameter ≥ 14 mm and a corpus luteum with a diameter ≥ 15 mm were found 14 days after ovulation, and group B (n = 22; age 9.4 ± 4 .0 years) in which 14 days after ovulation, a small (< 15 mm) corpus luteum and/or a small embryonic vesicle was observed (diameter < 14 mm). Mares from group A had a significantly higher progesterone concentrations at 14 days after ovulation compared with group B mares. The presence of IUF, the number of treatments against IUF, and the time from AI to the day when uterus was found free of fluid did not affect progesterone concentration measured 14 days after ovulation. In group B, a significant correlation was found between progesterone concentration measured 14 days after ovulation and endometrial edema evaluated during estrus. CONCLUSIONS: In some cases poor development of endometrial edema during estrus can be associated with lower progesterone production 14 days after ovulation. Nevertheless, scientific explanation for this finding cannot be given based on our study.


Assuntos
Estro , Progesterona , Gravidez , Cavalos , Feminino , Animais , Ovulação , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Edema/veterinária
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