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1.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2023-01-12. (OPS/NMH/MH/22-0039).
em Francês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56999

RESUMO

La mise en œuvre du contrôle de la commercialisation de l'alcool relève au moins en partie du secteur de la santé, mais elle doit être mise en œuvre afin de réduire l'abordabilité de l'alcool, entraînant un retard dans l'initiation des jeunes à la consommation d'alcool, un retard dans leur escalade vers des occasions de consommation excessive d'alcool, et une réduction de l'attrait pour la consommation d'alcool chez les gros buveurs et ceux qui ont choisi de s'abstenir. Les mesures d'autorégulation existantes sont insuffisantes et n'ont entraîné aucune réduction de la consommation d'alcool. Il est important d'accroître la compréhension du public et des décideurs politiques de la nécessité du contrôle du marketing, de sa valeur, afin que les lois connexes puissent être soutenues, adoptées et appliquées dans tous les pays. L'interdiction ou la réglementation de la commercialisation de l'alcool est l'une des principales politiques en matière d'alcool disponibles pour réduire l'usage nocif de l'alcool. Cette fiche d'information décrit les nombreuses formes de marketing de l'alcool, comment elles affectent la consommation et la consommation excessive, comment elles peuvent être efficacement réglementées et appliquées, et pourquoi elles doivent être mises en œuvre.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Marketing , Propaganda , Regulamentação Governamental
2.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2023-01-12. (OPS/NMH/MH/22-0039).
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56998

RESUMO

La implementación del control de la comercialización del alcohol cae, al menos en parte, fuera del sector de la salud, pero debe implementarse para reducir la asequibilidad del alcohol, lo que lleva a un retraso en la iniciación de los jóvenes al consumo de alcohol, un retraso en su escalada a ocasiones de consumo excesivo de alcohol y una reducción en el atractivo de beber por parte de los bebedores empedernidos y aquellos que optaron por abstenerse. Las medidas de autorregulación existentes son insuficientes y no han conducido a ninguna reducción en el consumo de alcohol. Es importante aumentar la comprensión del público y de los encargados de formular políticas sobre la necesidad del control de la comercialización, su valor, para que las leyes relacionadas puedan apoyarse, adoptarse y aplicarse en todos los países. Prohibir o regular la comercialización del alcohol es una de las políticas clave sobre el alcohol disponibles para reducir el uso nocivo del alcohol. Esta hoja informativa describe las muchas formas de mercadeo del alcohol, cómo afectan el consumo y el consumo excesivo, cómo se pueden regular y hacer cumplir de manera efectiva y por qué es necesario implementarlas.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Marketing , Propaganda , Regulamentação Governamental
3.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2023-01-12. (OPAS/NMH/MH/22-0039).
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56997

RESUMO

A implementação do controle de marketing de álcool cai, pelo menos em parte, fora do setor de saúde. Sua implementação é importante, no entanto, para reduzir a acessibilidade do álcool, levando a um atraso na iniciação do consumo de álcool pelos jovens, atraso em sua escalada para ocasiões de consumo pesado e uma redução no apelo à bebida por bebedores pesados ​​e aqueles que optaram por se abster. As medidas de autorregulação existentes são insuficientes e não conduziram a qualquer redução do consumo de álcool. É importante aumentar a compreensão do público e dos formuladores de políticas sobre a necessidade de controle de marketing, seu valor, para que as leis relacionadas possam ser apoiadas, adotadas e aplicadas em todos os países. Proibir ou regulamentar o marketing de álcool é uma das principais políticas de álcool disponíveis para reduzir o uso nocivo de álcool. Esta ficha informativa descreve as várias formas de marketing de álcool, como elas afetam o consumo e o consumo pesado, como podem ser regulamentadas e aplicadas com eficácia e por que precisam ser implementadas.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Marketing , Regulamentação Governamental , Propaganda
4.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0274957, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350823

RESUMO

Dehumanization is frequently cited as a precursor to mass violence, but quantitative support for this notion is scarce. The present work provides such support by examining the dehumanization of Jews in Nazi propaganda. Our linguistic analysis suggests that Jews were progressively denied the capacity for fundamentally human mental experiences leading up to the Holocaust. Given that the recognition of another's mental experience promotes moral concern, these results are consistent with the theory that dehumanization facilitates violence by disengaging moral concern. However, after the onset of the Holocaust, our results suggest that Jews were attributed a greater capacity for agentic mental states. We speculate this may reflect a process of demonization in which Nazi propagandists portrayed the Jews as highly capable of planning and intentionality while nonetheless possessing a subhuman moral character. These suggestive results paint a nuanced portrait of the temporal dynamics of dehumanization during the Holocaust and provide impetus for further empirical scrutiny of dehumanization in ecologically valid contexts.


Assuntos
Holocausto , Socialismo Nacional , Humanos , Idioma , Violência , Judeus , Desumanização , Propaganda
5.
Am J Public Health ; 112(9): 1318-1325, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35797503

RESUMO

We analyze key historical anti-sexually transmitted infection (STI) theatrical performances in the Soviet Union and the United States that were staged to disseminate knowledge and awareness of STIs among the population. The phenomenon of theatrical hygiene propaganda emerged in the USSR after the October Uprising of 1917. The so-called sanitary plays, mock trials, revues, and Living Newspapers addressed important public health issues, one of which was STIs. The Soviet experience provided inspiration for the Federal Theater Project in the United States, which produced socially relevant performances during the Great Depression. The Living Newspaper Spirochete, staged in Chicago, Illinois, in 1938 at the beginning of the "war against syphilis," became one of the most often staged Living Newspapers in the United States. We compare discourses of the theatrical propaganda against STIs in the Soviet Union and the United States. We aim to explain the driving forces and motives behind the anti-STI movement in both countries and describe structural and performative differences in the anti-STI theatrical productions. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(9):1318-1325. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306933).


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Sífilis , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Higiene , Propaganda , Saúde Pública , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
7.
Hist Sci ; 60(3): 430-435, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35586883

RESUMO

This Afterword to the special section on Science Popularization in Francoist Spain draws general conclusions from its case studies. Most overarchingly, the different contributions show that popularization existed under this dictatorial regime, and hence does not require a Habermasian liberal-democratic public sphere. Four more specific lessons are also drawn, each shedding new light on either science popularization or dictatorial regimes. (1) Popularization has not only been a way to promote science, it has also been used to prop up dictatorial regimes by associating them with things scientific. (2) Totalitarian regimes are much less monolithic than they appear to be at the surface; they often harbor internal weaknesses and conflicts. (3) The study of science popularization in dictatorships can help open our eyes for comparable forms of propaganda in democracies. (4) Totalitarianism is best understood not as a universal phenomenon, but in its specific historical situatedness. Studying science popularization under Franco brings out the specific traits of this regime: the legacy of the Civil War, Spanish regionalism, and the international dependencies of the Francoist state.


Assuntos
Democracia , Sistemas Políticos , Propaganda , Espanha
8.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 29(1): 195-214, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442286

RESUMO

As of the nineteenth century, the number of world fairs and hygiene exhibitions grew significantly. This phenomenon was linked to the experience of modernity and the emergence of bacteriology, when different cities were sanitized with the aim of combating urban diseases and epidemics. For the purpose of sanitary education and hygiene propaganda, many objects and pictures were displayed in hygiene exhibitions and museums, such as the International Hygiene Exhibition of 1911 and the German Hygiene Museum, both in Dresden. The goal of this article is to analyze a chapter of the international history of health through images that portray the connections between the German Hygiene Museum and Latin American countries between 1911 and 1933.


Assuntos
Bacteriologia , Museus , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Higiene/história , América Latina , Museus/história , Propaganda
9.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264562, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275917

RESUMO

With the development of the takeaway industry, the demand for disposable cutlery is increasing, posing a heavy burden on the environment. Helping reusable tableware increase market share is important because it helps preserve the natural environment while making commercial gains. Given the additional cost to consumers of using reusable tableware in many settings, this article examines the impact of incorporating environmental propaganda into packaging design on consumer behaviour. The results show that the new packaging with high environmental propaganda satisfaction improves consumers' brand loyalty, purchase intention and continuance intention. The packaging of low environmental propaganda satisfaction may have negative effects and should be used with caution.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Embalagem de Produtos , Embalagem de Medicamentos , Marketing , Propaganda
10.
Ulster Med J ; 90(3): 133-134, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815588

Assuntos
Propaganda , Humanos
11.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9203

RESUMO

Botom com desenho de Ziraldo, em 1990.


Assuntos
Política , Publicidade , Propaganda
12.
Recent Results Cancer Res ; 218: 1-14, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019158

RESUMO

The history of cancer during the twentieth century demonstrates that various factors have contributed to the perception of cancer as the 'Emperor of All Maladies', although this has never been true from an epidemiological perspective. Depending on the geographical area, infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria or cardiovascular disease still head the list of the most common illnesses. Within the group of chronic-degenerative diseases, however, cancer has outdistanced the widespread classic infectious diseases as a result of the epidemiologic transition around 1900, at least in the more developed countries. Under the Nazi dictatorship from 1933 to 1945, the perception of cancer in Germany was particularly promoted for propaganda purposes. In the atomic era, cancer began to attract strong public interest as a worthwhile object of research in radiation therapies using large-scale facilities (electron accelerators, 'electron guns'). A further upsurge of interest in cancer was then registered in the context of the debate about the pathogenic role of environmental factors. The remarkable thing is that this increased perception of cancer has not yet been significantly associated with any overarching success in cancer treatment, but it has been associated with ideologies, hopes and advances in technology.


Assuntos
Socialismo Nacional , Neoplasias , Alemanha , Humanos , Propaganda
13.
Microbes Infect ; 23(8): 104838, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945879

RESUMO

The present contribution analyses sanitary theatrical performances as a means of anti-tuberculosis propaganda in the early Soviet Union. Starting in the 1920s, sanitary theatrical performances were demonstrated in open-air theatres and clubhouses for workers and farmers. Since 1925, the newly founded Moscow Theatre for Sanitary Culture centrally managed the theatrical hygiene propaganda. It became a role model for other theatres of hygienic enlightenment and numerous sanitary amateur stages. Their anti-tuberculosis repertoire ranged from the so-called "mock trials" where a person or even Koch's bacillus must stand trial for the spreading of tuberculosis, to "living newspapers" which used entertainment elements such as music or acrobatics to provide a mass audience with the hygiene knowledge. The contribution describes in which images, figures and actions knowledge about tuberculosis was presented on stage, which genre traditions and communicative instruments were used and which changing political implications those performances were based on. To achieve this goal, the archive sources, selected texts of theatrical performances, reports and reviews in daily press have been evaluated.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose , Humanos , Higiene , Propaganda , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , U.R.S.S.
14.
Compr Child Adolesc Nurs ; 44(2): 79-85, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929279

RESUMO

Emeritus Professor Alan Glasper from the University of Southampton discusses strategies to enhance Covid-19 and other vaccine uptake among some families and groups in society who are adversely influenced by so called anti-vaxxers.


Assuntos
Movimento contra Vacinação/psicologia , Movimento contra Vacinação/tendências , Saúde da Família/normas , Propaganda , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Saúde da Família/tendências , Humanos
15.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591653

RESUMO

The key requirements to vaccine are its safety and efficiency. Nowadays, when issue of vaccination is extremely acute, certain citizens began voluntarily to refuse important procedure, not becoming thoughtful that they endanger both themselves and other people. The purpose of the study is to specify the arguments and methods of circulation of anti-vaccination propaganda and to find out scientific counterarguments. Actually, there is sufficient data concerning lack of confidence to vaccination and vaccine prevention of infectious diseases. The systematic qualitative review of publications on issues of interest was carried out. It is established that lack of confidence to vaccination is maintained artificially and can be characterized as an information virus. The information throw-ins of fake-news about danger of vaccine and harm of vaccination undermine population trust to health care and vaccine prevention. The problem continues to be actual and controversial. So, every individual is independently to determine one's attitude to vaccination and to take charge of one's own health. Also, a number of facts is presented refuting convictions of anti-vaccinators.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Vacinas , Humanos , Propaganda , Vacinação , Vacinas/efeitos adversos
16.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(1): 15-18, 2021 01.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512353

RESUMO

It was a very dark year for EBM. One of the side effects of the Covid-19 pandemic is a severe compression of the evidences. Here are some worrying events. May 2020: the saga of hydroxychloroquine. October 2020: the nitazoxanide case. November 2020: Trump Administration Interferes on Expert Opinion. December 2020: the results of the trials on the first two vaccines were announced in press releases, leaving many scientific uncertainties. Peter Piot, head of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine noted that none of the CoViD-19 vaccines have offered much data to date. «It is frustrating that all of these announcements are delivered via press release, and not give us a chance to review the actual data. We desperately need total transparency on evidence and data¼, says Piot. Better now to relaunch the spread of EBM. In the issue, we have included the best EBM-based readings from the Club for Evidence-Based in Gastroenterology & Hepatology (ebgh.it).


Assuntos
Acesso à Informação , COVID-19 , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/tendências , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Brasil , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Revelação , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Itália , Nitrocompostos , Política , Propaganda , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos
18.
Gac Sanit ; 35(3): 289-292, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898986

RESUMO

The official NO-DO newsreels were screened in Spain on a weekly basis from 1943 to 1981. These official news and documentary programmes were compulsory in cinemas from the moment they were first produced until the end of the Francoist dictatorship (1975). NO-DO held an information monopoly and was used as the regime's propaganda tool to indoctrinate the population, building stories tailored to the regime's interests and masking social realities. In this study, we examined newsreels on medical subjects relating to diseases preventable by vaccination. A majority of reports centred on poliomyelitis, and two differentiated periods could be defined, coinciding with the development of Franco regime's foreign policy. Further, from the gender perspective, we analyse the female stereotypes in the battle against vaccine preventable diseases Therefore, the news coverage of polio is of special relevance. In conclusion, this topic offers a good opportunity to reflect on the political role of popular science and science communication in a specific historical context.


Assuntos
Poliomielite , Feminino , Humanos , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Sistemas Políticos , Propaganda , Política Pública , Vacinação
19.
J Interpers Violence ; 36(3-4): NP1391-1411NP, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29295026

RESUMO

In this study, and with a view to extending upon existing findings on the effects of general violent media on violent cognitions, we experimentally measured the relationship between exposure to extremist propaganda and violent cognitions. Our results countered our hypotheses and the wider findings of violent media and aggression that exposure to violent stimuli increases violent thoughts and that this effect is moderated by trait aggression. Specifically, this study found that participants with low and medium trait aggression became more pro-social after being exposed to extremist propaganda. We discuss these results with reference to theories of terror management and mortality salience, as well as the implications of these results for wider theories of the role of online extremist material in the wider "radicalization" process.


Assuntos
Agressão , Propaganda , Ira , Cognição , Humanos
20.
J Med Ethics ; 47(9): 643-644, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328220

RESUMO

Dr Caitríona L Cox's recent article expounds the far-reaching implications of the 'Healthcare Hero' metaphor. She presents a detailed overview of heroism in the context of clinical care, revealing that healthcare workers, when portrayed as heroes, face challenges in reconciling unreasonable expectations of personal sacrifice without reciprocity or ample structural support from institutions and the general public. We use narrative medicine, a field primarily concerned with honouring the intersubjective narratives shared between patients and providers, in our attempt to deepen the discussion about the ways Healthcare Heroes engenders military metaphor, antiscience discourse, and xenophobia in the USA. We argue that the militarised metaphor of Healthcare Heroes not only robs doctors and nurses of the ability to voice concerns for themselves and their patients, but effectively sacrifices them in a utilitarian bargain whereby human life is considered the expendable sacrifice necessary to 'open the U.S. economy'. Militaristic metaphors in medicine can be dangerous to both doctors and patients, thus, teaching and advocating for the critical skills to analyse and alter this language prevents undue harm to providers and patients, as well as our national and global communities.


Assuntos
Metáfora , Pandemias , Traição , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Propaganda , Estados Unidos
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