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1.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268087, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536852

RESUMO

In this study, we report our experience in commissioning a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) for fast-raster scanning of carbon-ion beams. This TPS uses an analytical dose calculation algorithm, a pencil-beam model with a triple Gaussian form for the lateral-dose distribution, and a beam splitting algorithm to consider lateral heterogeneity in a medium. We adopted the mixed beam model as the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) model for calculating the RBE values of the scanned carbon-ion beam. To validate the modeled physical dose, we compared the calculations with measurements of various relevant quantities as functions of the field size, range and width of the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP), and depth-dose and lateral-dose profiles for a 6-mm SOBP in water. To model the biological dose, we compared the RBE calculated with the newly developed TPS to the RBE calculated with a previously validated TPS that is in clinical use and uses the same RBE model concept. We also performed patient-specific measurements to validate the dose model in clinical situations. The physical beam model reproduces the measured absolute dose at the center of the SOBP as a function of field size, range, and SOBP width and reproduces the dose profiles for a 6-mm SOBP in water. However, the profiles calculated for a heterogeneous phantom have some limitations in predicting the carbon-ion-beam dose, although the biological doses agreed well with the values calculated by the validated TPS. Using this dose model for fast-raster scanning, we successfully treated more than 900 patients from October 2018 to October 2020, with an acceptable agreement between the TPS-calculated and measured dose distributions. We conclude that the newly developed TPS can be used clinically with the understanding that it has limited accuracies for heterogeneous media.


Assuntos
Terapia com Prótons , Carbono , Humanos , Método de Monte Carlo , Imagens de Fantasmas , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Eficiência Biológica Relativa , Água
2.
Radiat Oncol ; 17(1): 87, 2022 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A new compact superconducting synchrocyclotron single-room proton solution delivers pulsed proton beams to each spot through several irradiation bursts calculated by an iterative layer delivery algorithm. Such a mechanism results in a new beam parameter, burst switching time (BST) in the total beam delivery time (BDT) which has never been studied before. In this study, we propose an experimental approach to build an accurate BDT and sequence prediction model for this new proton solution. METHODS: Test fields and clinical treatment plans were used to investigate each beam delivery parameter that impacted BDT. The machine delivery log files were retrospectively analyzed to quantitatively model energy layer switching time (ELST), spot switching time (SSWT), spot spill time (SSPT), and BST. A total of 102 clinical IMPT treatment fields' log files were processed to validate the accuracy of the BDT prediction model in comparison with the result from the current commercial system. Interplay effect is also investigated as a clinical application by comparing this new delivery system model with a conventional cyclotron accelerator model. RESULTS: The study finds that BST depends on the amount of data to be transmitted between two sequential radiation bursts, including a machine irradiation log file of the previous burst and a command file to instruct the proton system to deliver the next burst. The 102 clinical treatment fields showed that the accuracy of each component of the BDT matches well between machine log files and BDT prediction model. More specifically, the difference of ELST, SSWT, SSPT, and BST were (- 3.1 ± 5.7)%, (5.9 ± 3.9)%, (2.6 ± 8.7)%, and (- 2.3 ± 5.3)%, respectively. The average total BDT was about (2.1 ± 3.0)% difference compared to the treatment log files, which was significantly improved from the current commercial proton system prediction (58 ± 15)%. Compared to the conventional cyclotron system, the burst technique from synchrocyclotron effectively reduced the interplay effect in mobile tumor treatment. CONCLUSION: An accurate BDT and sequence prediction model was established for this new clinical compact superconducting synchrocyclotron single-room proton solution. Its application could help users of similar facilities better assess the interplay effect and estimate daily patient treatment throughput.


Assuntos
Terapia com Prótons , Ciclotrons , Humanos , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Prótons , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
ASAIO J ; 68(5): e84-e86, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503645

RESUMO

A 77 year old man previously implanted with a HeartMate II left ventricular assist device (LVAD) as destination therapy and an implantable cardioverter defibrillator presented with a left upper lobe squamous cell lung cancer. Oncology determined that proton beam therapy was indicated for treatment, and a multidisciplinary team of radiation physicists, radiation oncologists, and LVAD providers developed a protocol to proceed safely. He was successfully treated with combined proton beam radiation therapy and reduced dose chemotherapy. This case demonstrates feasibility and considerations of proton beam therapy for malignancy relevant to patients with implantable cardiac devices including LVADs.


Assuntos
Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Coração Auxiliar , Terapia com Prótons , Idoso , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Masculino
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e228970, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35471569

RESUMO

Importance: Black patients are less likely than White patients to receive guideline-concordant cancer care in the US. Proton beam therapy (PBT) is a potentially superior technology to photon radiotherapy for tumors with complex anatomy, tumors surrounded by sensitive tissues, and childhood cancers. Objective: To evaluate whether there are racial disparities in the receipt of PBT among Black and White individuals diagnosed with all PBT-eligible cancers in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study evaluated Black and White individuals diagnosed with PBT-eligible cancers between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2018, in the National Cancer Database, a nationwide hospital-based cancer registry that collects data on radiation treatment, even when it is received outside the reporting facility. American Society of Radiation Oncology model policies were used to classify patients into those for whom PBT is the recommended radiation therapy modality (group 1) and those for whom evidence of PBT efficacy is still under investigation (group 2). Propensity score matching was used to ensure comparability of Black and White patients' clinical characteristics and regional availability of PBT according to the National Academy of Medicine's definition of disparities. Data analysis was performed from October 4, 2021, to February 22, 2022. Exposure: Patients' self-identified race was ascertained from medical records. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was receipt of PBT, with disparities in this therapy's use evaluated with logistic regression analysis. Results: Of the 5 225 929 patients who were eligible to receive PBT and included in the study, 13.6% were Black, 86.4% were White, and 54.3% were female. The mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 63.2 (12.4) years. Black patients were less likely to be treated with PBT than their White counterparts (0.3% vs 0.5%; odds ratio [OR], 0.67; 95% CI, 0.64-0.71). Racial disparities were greater for group 1 cancers (0.4% vs 0.8%; OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.44-0.55) than group 2 cancers (0.3% vs 0.4%; OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.70-0.80). Racial disparities in PBT receipt among group 1 cancers increased over time (annual percent change = 0.09, P < .001) and were greatest in 2018, the most recent year of available data. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, Black patients were less likely to receive PBT than their White counterparts, and disparities were greatest for cancers for which PBT was the recommended radiation therapy modality. These findings suggest that efforts other than increasing the number of facilities that provide PBT will be needed to eliminate disparities.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Terapia com Prótons , Afro-Americanos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Estados Unidos
5.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 21: 15330338221091700, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35410544

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate a novel spine implant, carbon-fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK), for proton and photon treatment planning. Materials and Methods: We compared target coverage and sparing of organs-at-risk (OARs) for a spinal phantom with 4 different spine configurations: (a) normal (no implant); (b) Titanium; (c) CFR-PEEK; and (d) hybrid (CFR-PEEK with Titanium tulip head). The spinal phantom was imaged via computed tomography (CT) scan, and the iterative Metal Artifact Reduction (iMAR) CT set was used for planning. A representative spinal chordoma target and associated OARs were contoured. The prescription dose was 50 Gy to the initial target volume, followed by a 24 Gy boost, for which multi-field optimization (MFO) proton plans were developed with a 3 mm setup and 3.5% range uncertainties. For photon planning, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were developed for the initial and boost plans. OAR dose constraints were set according to our institutional guidelines. Results: For the 4 spine configurations, the proton plans achieved similar nominal target coverage and OARs sparing. While evaluating coverage and OAR dose under uncertainty scenario analysis for initial clinical target volume (CTV) 50 Gy 95% and 90% coverage, higher means and the narrower band of doses variations were achieved for the normal and CFR-PEEK plans. Similarly, uncertainty analysis of spinal cord Dmax showed tighter distribution for normal and CFR-PEEK plans. Overall plan quality showed no significant difference for photon planning when compared to normal spine versus other inserts. However, for proton planning, there is a larger difference for the normal spine insert scenario versus the Titanium insert scenario. For each insert scenario comparison between photon and proton plans, there was a larger difference for OARs: heart and spinal cord. Conclusion: The CFR-PEEK implant has similar clinical properties to a normal spine for proton planning, allowing us to pass protons through the material and achieve superior target coverage and OAR sparing under nominal and uncertainty conditions.


Assuntos
Terapia com Prótons , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Benzofenonas , Fibra de Carbono , Humanos , Órgãos em Risco , Polietilenoglicóis , Polímeros , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Prótons , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Titânio
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7075, 2022 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35490180

RESUMO

Range verification of clinical protontherapy systems via positron-emission tomography (PET) is not a mature technology, suffering from two major issues: insufficient signal from low-energy protons in the Bragg peak area and biological washout of PET emitters. The use of contrast agents including 18O, 68Zn or 63Cu, isotopes with a high cross section for low-energy protons in nuclear reactions producing PET emitters, has been proposed to enhance the PET signal in the last millimeters of the proton path. However, it remains a challenge to achieve sufficient concentrations of these isotopes in the target volume. Here we investigate the possibilities of 18O-enriched water (18-W), a potential contrast agent that could be incorporated in large proportions in live tissues by replacing regular water. We hypothesize that 18-W could also mitigate the problem of biological washout, as PET (18F) isotopes created inside live cells would remain trapped in the form of fluoride anions (F-), allowing its signal to be detected even hours after irradiation. To test our hypothesis, we designed an experiment with two main goals: first, prove that 18-W can incorporate enough 18O into a living organism to produce a detectable signal from 18F after proton irradiation, and second, determine the amount of activity that remains trapped inside the cells. The experiment was performed on a chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane tumor model of head and neck cancer. Seven eggs with visible tumors were infused with 18-W and irradiated with 8-MeV protons (range in water: 0.74 mm), equivalent to clinical protons at the end of particle range. The activity produced after irradiation was detected and quantified in a small-animal PET-CT scanner, and further studied by placing ex-vivo tumours in a gamma radiation detector. In the acquired images, specific activity of 18F (originating from 18-W) could be detected in the tumour area of the alive chicken embryo up to 9 h after irradiation, which confirms that low-energy protons can indeed produce a detectable PET signal if a suitable contrast agent is employed. Moreover, dynamic PET studies in two of the eggs evidenced a minimal effect of biological washout, with 68% retained specific 18F activity at 8 h after irradiation. Furthermore, ex-vivo analysis of 4 irradiated tumours showed that up to 3% of oxygen atoms in the targets were replaced by 18O from infused 18-W, and evidenced an entrapment of 59% for specific activity of 18F after washing, supporting our hypothesis that F- ions remain trapped within the cells. An infusion of 18-W can incorporate 18O in animal tissues by replacing regular water inside cells, producing a PET signal when irradiated with low-energy protons that could be used for range verification in protontherapy. 18F produced inside cells remains entrapped and suffers from minimal biological washout, allowing for a sharper localization with longer PET acquisitions. Further studies must evaluate the feasibility of this technique in dosimetric conditions closer to clinical practice, in order to define potential protocols for its use in patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Terapia com Prótons , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Radioisótopos de Flúor , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Prótons , Água
7.
Phys Med Biol ; 67(10)2022 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35417903

RESUMO

Objective. Kilovoltage computed tomography (kVCT) is the cornerstone of radiotherapy treatment planning for delineating tissues and towards dose calculation. For the former, kVCT provides excellent contrast and signal-to-noise ratio. For the latter, kVCT may have greater uncertainty in determining relative electron density (ρe) and proton stopping power ratio (SPR). Conversely, megavoltage CT (MVCT) may result in superior dose calculation accuracy. The purpose of this work was to convert kVCT HU to MVCT HU using deep learning to obtain higher accuracyρeand SPR.Approach. Tissue-mimicking phantoms were created to compare kVCT- and MVCT-determinedρeand SPR to physical measurements. Using 100 head-and-neck datasets, an unpaired deep learning model was trained to learn the relationship between kVCTs and MVCTs, creating synthetic MVCTs (sMVCTs). Similarity metrics were calculated between kVCTs, sMVCTs, and MVCTs in 20 test datasets. An anthropomorphic head phantom containing bone-mimicking material with known composition was scanned to provide an independent determination ofρeand SPR accuracy by sMVCT.Main results. In tissue-mimicking bone,ρeerrors were 2.20% versus 0.19% and SPR errors were 4.38% versus 0.22%, for kVCT versus MVCT, respectively. Compared to MVCT,in vivomean difference (MD) values were 11 and 327 HU for kVCT and 2 and 3 HU for sMVCT in soft tissue and bone, respectively.ρeMD decreased from 1.3% to 0.35% in soft tissue and 2.9% to 0.13% in bone, for kVCT and sMVCT, respectively. SPR MD decreased from 1.8% to 0.24% in soft tissue and 6.8% to 0.16% in bone, for kVCT and sMVCT, respectively. Relative to physical measurements,ρeand SPR error in anthropomorphic bone decreased from 7.50% and 7.48% for kVCT to <1% for both MVCT and sMVCT.Significance. Deep learning can be used to map kVCT to sMVCT, suggesting higher accuracyρeand SPR is achievable with sMVCT versus kVCT.


Assuntos
Terapia com Prótons , Prótons , Elétrons , Aprendizado de Máquina , Imagens de Fantasmas , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e229025, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476066

RESUMO

Importance: Proton beam therapy (PBT) is a potentially superior technology to photon radiotherapy for tumors with complex anatomy, those surrounded by sensitive tissues, and childhood cancers. Objective: To assess patterns of use of PBT according to the present American Society of Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) clinical indications in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: Individuals newly diagnosed with cancer between 2004 and 2018 were selected from the National Cancer Database. Data analysis was performed from October 4, 2021, to February 22, 2022. ASTRO's Model Policies (2017) were used to classify patients into group 1, for which health insurance coverage for PBT treatment is recommended, and group 2, for which coverage is recommended only if additional requirements are met. Main Outcomes and Measures: Use of PBT. Results: Of the 5 919 368 patients eligible to receive PBT included in the study, 3 206 902 were female (54.2%), and mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 62.6 (12.3) years. Use of PBT in the US increased from 0.4% in 2004 to 1.2% in 2018 (annual percent change [APC], 8.12%; P < .001) due to increases in group 1 from 0.4% in 2010 to 2.2% in 2018 (APC, 21.97; P < .001) and increases in group 2 from 0.03% in 2014 to 0.1% in 2018 (APC, 30.57; P < .001). From 2010 to 2018, among patients in group 2, PBT targeted to the breast increased from 0.0% to 0.9% (APC, 51.95%), and PBT targeted to the lung increased from 0.1% to 0.7% (APC, 28.06%) (P < .001 for both). Use of PBT targeted to the prostate decreased from 1.4% in 2011 to 0.8% in 2014 (APC, -16.48%; P = .03) then increased to 1.3% in 2018 (APC, 12.45; P < .001). Most patients in group 1 treated with PBT had private insurance coverage in 2018 (1039 [55.4%]); Medicare was the most common insurance type among those in group 2 (1973 [52.5%]). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study show an increase in the use of PBT in the US between 2004 to 2018; prostate was the only cancer site for which PBT use decreased temporarily between 2011 and 2014, increasing again between 2014 and 2018. These findings may be especially relevant for Medicare radiation oncology coverage policies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Terapia com Prótons , Radioterapia (Especialidade) , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Masculino , Medicare , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Terapia com Prótons/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos
9.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 44(4): 117-134, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398857

RESUMO

Radiotherapy has evolved from 2-dimensional conventional radiotherapy (2D-RT) to 3-dimensional planned radiotherapy (3D-RT). Because 3D-RT improves conformity, an altered late health outcomes risk profile is anticipated. Here, we systematically reviewed the current literature on late toxicity after 3D-RT in children treated for cancer. PubMed was searched for studies describing late toxicity after 3D-RT for childhood cancer (below 21 y). Late toxicity was defined as somatic health outcomes occurring ≥90 days after treatment. We identified 13 eligible studies, describing most frequently head/neck area tumors. Included studies reported on crude frequencies of late toxicities including subsequent tumors and conditions of organ systems. Three studies offered a global assessment of the full spectrum of late toxicity; one study compared toxicities after 2D-RT and 3D-RT. Incidence rates were typically not provided. Heterogeneity in study characteristics, small study sizes and short follow-up times precluded multivariable modeling and pooling of data. In conclusion, among the first pediatric cohorts treated with 3D-RT, a broad variety of late toxicity is reported; precise estimates of incidence, and contributions of risk factors are unclear. Continued systematic evaluation of well-defined health outcomes in survivors treated with 3D-RT, including proton therapy, is needed to optimize evidence-based care for children with cancer and survivors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Terapia com Prótons , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Criança , Humanos , Terapia com Prótons/efeitos adversos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica
10.
Curr Oncol ; 29(4): 2364-2375, 2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35448165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chordoma are rare tumors of the axial skeleton. The treatment gold standard is surgery, followed by particle radiotherapy. Total resection is usually not achievable in skull base chordoma (SBC) and high recurrence rates are reported. Ectopic recurrence as a first sign of treatment failure is considered rare. Favorable sites of these ectopic recurrences remain unknown. METHODS: Five out of 16 SBC patients treated with proton therapy and surgical resection developed ectopic recurrence as a first sign of treatment failure were critically analyzed regarding prior surgery, radiotherapy, and recurrences at follow-up imaging. RESULTS: Eighteen recurrences were defined in five patients. A total of 31 surgeries were performed for primary tumors and recurrences. Seventeen out of eighteen (94%) ectopic recurrences could be related to prior surgical tracts, outside the therapeutic radiation dose. Follow-up imaging showed that tumor recurrence was difficult to distinguish from radiation necrosis and anatomical changes due to surgery. CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort, we found uncommon ectopic recurrences in the surgical tract. Our theory is that these recurrences are due to microscopic tumor spill during surgery. These cells did not receive a therapeutic radiation dose. Advances in surgical possibilities and adjusted radiotherapy target volumes might improve local control and survival.


Assuntos
Cordoma , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Terapia com Prótons , Neoplasias da Base do Crânio , Cordoma/radioterapia , Cordoma/cirurgia , Humanos , Recidiva , Base do Crânio , Neoplasias da Base do Crânio/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Base do Crânio/cirurgia
11.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 18(1): 312-315, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35381810

RESUMO

Extradural primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is a rare aggressive disease mostly occurring in young adults. We present a locally recurrent case of dorsal PNET in the fifth decade of life after a prolonged disease-free interval of 10 years. The patient received radiation therapy in fairly large fields twice in his lifetime and was planned for third-time radiation to a few overlapping paraspinal areas over a period of three decades. Keeping in mind previous irradiations, possible target volume in proximity to organs at risk (OARs) patient was planned for consolidtive radiation using the most conformal technique available, which is proton beam therapy with image guided pencil beam scanning technique. Special dose constraints for the spinal cord and other OARs were set, and proton therapy plan was generated at our institute. When compared with parallelly generated intensity-modulated radiation therapy plan with the same dose prescription and dose constraints using helical tomotherapy, intensity-modulated proton therapy plan showed superior dosimetric benefit in terms of coverage and significant sparing of OARs.


Assuntos
Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos , Terapia com Prótons , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Reirradiação , Humanos , Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos/radioterapia , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Prótons , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Reirradiação/métodos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Radiat Oncol ; 17(1): 64, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365170

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the dosimetric feasibility of hypofractionated/dose escalated radiation therapy in patients with localized prostate carcinoma using simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated proton beam therapy (SIB-IMPT) in absence or presence of prostate-rectum spacer. METHODS: IMPT technique was implemented in 23 patients with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer treated at West German Proton Therapy Centre from March 2016 till June 2018, using SIB technique prescribing 60 GyRBE and 72 GyRBE in 30 fractions to PTV1 (prostate and seminal vesicle) and PTV2 boost (prostate and proximal seminal vesicle), respectively. In 15 patients, a transperineal injection of hydrogel was applied prior to radiotherapy to increase the distance between prostate and rectum. Planning and all treatments were performed with a 120 ml fluid-filled endorectal balloon customised daily for each patient. For each patient, 2 lateral IMPT beams were implemented taking a field-specific range uncertainty (RU) into account. Dose volume histograms (DVH) were analyzed for PTV2, PTV2 with range uncertainty margin (PTV2RU), rectum, bladder, right/left femoral heads, and penile bulb. For late rectal toxicities, the normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) were calculated using different biological models. A DVH- and NTCP-based dosimetric comparison was carried out between non-spacer and spacer groups. RESULTS: For the 23 patients, high-quality plans could be achieved for target volume and for other organs at risk (OARs). For PTV2, the V107% was 0% and the Dmax did not exceed 106.2% of the prescribed dose. The volume PTV2RU covered by 95% of the dose ranged from 96.16 to 99.95%. The conformality index for PTV2RU was 1.12 ± 0.057 and the homogeneity index (HI) was 1.04 ± 0.014. Rectum Dmax and rectal volume receiving 73-50 Gy could be further reduced for the spacer-group. Significant reductions in mean and median rectal NTCPs (stenosis/necrosis, late rectal bleeding ≥ 2, and late rectal toxicities ≥ 3) were predicted for the spacer group in comparison to the non-spacer group. CONCLUSION: Hypofractionated/dose escalated radiotherapy with SIB-IMPT is dosimetrically feasible. Further reduction of the rectal volumes receiving high and medium dose levels (73-50 Gy) and rectal NTCP could be achieved through injection of spacers between rectum and prostate.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Terapia com Prótons , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Hidrogéis , Masculino , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Reto/patologia
13.
Phys Med Biol ; 67(9)2022 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35354129

RESUMO

Objective.For dose calculations in ion beam therapy, it is vital to accurately determine the relative stopping power (RSP) distribution within the treatment volume. A suitable imaging modality to achieve the required RSP accuracy is proton computed tomography (pCT), which usually uses a tracking system and a separate residual energy (or range) detector to directly measure the RSP distribution. This work investigates the potential of a novel pCT system based on a single detector technology, namely low gain avalanche detectors (LGADs). LGADs are fast 4D-tracking detectors, which can be used to simultaneously measure the particle position and time with precise timing and spatial resolution. In contrast to standard pCT systems, the residual energy is determined via a time-of-flight (TOF) measurement between different 4D-tracking stations.Approach.To show the potential of using 4D-tracking for proton imaging, we studied and optimized the design parameters for a realistic TOF-pCT system using Monte Carlo simulations. We calculated the RSP accuracy and RSP resolution inside the inserts of the CTP404 phantom and compared the results to a simulation of an ideal pCT system.Main results.After introducing a dedicated calibration procedure for the TOF calorimeter, RSP accuracies less than 0.6% could be achieved. We also identified the design parameters with the strongest impact on the RSP resolution and proposed a strategy to further improve the image quality.Significance.This comprehensive study of the most important design aspects for a novel TOF-pCT system could help guide future hardware developments and, once implemented, improve the quality of treatment planning in ion beam therapy.


Assuntos
Terapia com Prótons , Prótons , Progressão da Doença , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Método de Monte Carlo , Imagens de Fantasmas , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
14.
J Radiat Res ; 63(3): 385-392, 2022 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35349714

RESUMO

The Monte Carlo (MC) method is a powerful tool for modeling nuclear radiation interaction with matter. A variety of MC software packages has been developed, especially for applications in radiation therapy. Most widely used MC packages require users to write their own input scripts for their systems, which can be a time consuming and error prone process and requires extensive user experience. In the present work, we have developed a graphical user interface (GUI) bundled with a custom-made 3D OpenGL visualizer for PHITS MC package. The current version focuses on modeling proton induced positron emitting radioisotopes, which in turn can be used for verification of proton ranges in proton therapy. The developed GUI program does not require extensive user experience. The present open-source program is distributed under GPLv3 license that allows users to freely download, modify, recompile and redistribute the program.


Assuntos
Terapia com Prótons , Elétrons , Método de Monte Carlo , Prótons , Radioisótopos , Software
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4648, 2022 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35301371

RESUMO

Treatment of ocular tumors on dedicated scattering-based proton therapy systems is standard afforded due to sharp lateral and distal penumbras. However, most newer proton therapy centers provide pencil beam scanning treatments. In this paper, we present a pencil beam scanning (PBS)-based ocular treatment solution. The design, commissioning, and validation of an applicator mount for a conventional PBS snout to allow for ocular treatments are given. In contrast to scattering techniques, PBS-based ocular therapy allows for inverse planning, providing planners with additional flexibility to shape the radiation field, potentially sparing healthy tissues. PBS enables the use of commercial Monte Carlo algorithms resulting in accurate dose calculations in the presence of heterogeneities and fiducials. The validation consisted of small field dosimetry measurements of point doses, depth doses, and lateral profiles relevant to ocular therapy. A comparison of beam properties achieved through the applicator against published literature is presented. We successfully showed the feasibility of PBS-based ocular treatments.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Oculares , Terapia com Prótons , Algoritmos , Neoplasias Oculares/radioterapia , Humanos , Método de Monte Carlo , Imagens de Fantasmas , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Prótons , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos
16.
Phys Med Biol ; 67(9)2022 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35316795

RESUMO

Objective. We proposed two anatomical models for head and neck patients to predict anatomical changes during the course of radiotherapy.Approach. Deformable image registration was used to build two anatomical models: (1) the average model (AM) simulated systematic progressive changes across the patient cohort; (2) the refined individual model (RIM) used a patient's CT images acquired during treatment to update the prediction for each individual patient. Planning CTs and weekly CTs were used from 20 nasopharynx patients. This dataset included 15 training patients and 5 test patients. For each test patient, a spot scanning proton plan was created. Models were evaluated using CT number differences, contours, proton spot location deviations and dose distributions.Main results. If no model was used, the CT number difference between the planning CT and the repeat CT at week 6 of treatment was on average 128.9 Hounsfield Units (HU) over the test population. This can be reduced to 115.5 HU using the AM, and to 110.5 HU using the RIM3(RIM, updated at week (3). When the predicted contours from the models were used, the average mean surface distance of parotid glands can be reduced from 1.98 (no model) to 1.16 mm (AM) and 1.19 mm (RIM3) at week 6. Using the proton spot range, the average anatomical uncertainty over the test population reduced from 4.47 ± 1.23 (no model) to 2.41 ± 1.12 mm (AM), and 1.89 ± 0.96 mm (RIM3). Based on the gamma analysis, the average gamma index over the test patients was improved from 93.87 ± 2.48 % (no model) to 96.16 ± 1.84% (RIM3) at week 6.Significance. The AM and the RIM both demonstrated the ability to predict anatomical changes during the treatment. The RIM can gradually refine the prediction of anatomical changes based on the AM. The proton beam spots provided an accurate and effective way for uncertainty evaluation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Terapia com Prótons , Algoritmos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Prótons , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos
17.
Med Phys ; 49(5): 3347-3360, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35246842

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Online dose verification based on proton-induced positron emitters requires high accuracy in the assignment of elemental composition (e.g., C and O). We developed a machine learning framework for deriving oxygen and carbon concentration based on dual-energy CT (DECT). METHODS: Digital phantoms at the head site were constructed based on single-energy CT (SECT) and stoichiometric calibration. DECT images (80 and 140 kVp) were synthesized using two methods: (1) theoretical CT numbers with Gaussian noise (method 1) and (2) forward/backward image reconstruction with poly-energetic energy spectrum and Poisson noise modeled (method 2). Two architectures of convolutional neural networks, UNet and ResNet, were investigated to map from DECT images to C/O weights. Four cases (UNet-1: Method 1+UNet, ResNet-1: Method 1+ResNet, UNet-2: Method 2+UNet, and ResNet-2: Method 2 +ResNet) were tested for different tissue types and different noise levels. Monte-Carlo simulation was employed to identify the impact of fluctuation in oxygen and carbon concentration on activity/dose distribution. RESULTS: When no noise is present, all four cases are able to obtain <2% mean absolute errors and <4% root mean square error (RMSE). For the worst image quality (e.g., lowest image SNR), the RMSE for O among all tissue types is 3.02% (UNet-1), 4.46% (ResNet-1), 4.38% (UNet-2), and 6.31% (ResNet-2), respectively. For UNet-1 and ResNet-1, the model performed slightly better in terms of RMSE for skeletal tissue than soft tissues. Such a trend is not observed for UNet-2 and ResNet-2. With regard to the comparison between UNet and ResNet, different accuracy and noise immunity are observed. The activity profiles exhibit 3%-5% difference in terms of mean relative error between the ground truth and machine learning outcome. CONCLUSION: We explored the feasibility of a machine learning framework to derive elemental concentration of oxygen and carbon based on DECT images. Two machine learning models, UNet and ResNet, are able to utilize spatial correlation and obtain accurate carbon and oxygen concentration. This study lays a foundation for us to apply the proposed approach to clinical DECT images.


Assuntos
Terapia com Prótons , Carbono , Aprendizado de Máquina , Oxigênio , Imagens de Fantasmas , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
18.
Med Phys ; 49(5): 2904-2913, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276753

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dental fixtures are commonplace in an aging, radiation treatment population. The current, local standard of practice in particle therapy is to employ treatment geometries to avoid delivery through implanted dental fixtures. The present study aims to observe the physical effect of delivering therapeutic proton beams through common dental fixture materials as prelude to an eventual goal of assessing the feasibility of using treatment geometries not specified for avoidance of oral implants. A sampling of common dental materials was selected based on prosthodontic consult and was evaluated in terms of relative stopping power and three-dimensional (3D) dose perturbation. METHODS: Amalgams, porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) crowns consisting of zirconia and non-noble base metals, and lithium disilicate implants were chosen for analysis. Theoretical stopping power (S) and mass stopping power (S/ρ) were calculated using the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) application, basing stoichiometric compositions of each fixture on published materials data. S and S/ρ were calculated for a range of historically available compositions of amalgams from 1900 until the current era. The perturbance of S and S/ρ as a function of clinically relevant ranges of amalgam compositions for the modern era was analyzed. Water equivalent thickness (WET) and relative stopping power (Srel ) of each material was measured for a clinical spot-scanning proton beam with monoenergies of 159.9 and 228.8 MeV with a multi-layer ionization chamber (MLIC). Subsequently, 3D dose perturbation was assessed by delivering proton beams through a custom phantom designed to simulate both en-face and on-edge treatment geometries through the selected materials. A treatment plan mimicking the experimental delivery was constructed in the institutional treatment planning system and calculated using TOPAS-based Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). Experimental results were used to validate the MCS. Finally, treatment planning system (TPS) outputs were compared to MCS to determine the accuracy of the dose calculation model. RESULTS: Historical compositions of amalgams ranged in S from 44.8 to 42.9 MeV/cm, with the greatest deviation being observed for the 1900-1959 era. Deviation as a function of amalgam composition from the modern era was most sensitive to proportion of Hg, accounting for deviations up to -4.2% at the greatest clinically relevant concentration. S/ρ was not found to vary greatly between each porcelain and metal alloy material for PFM type crowns. Relative stopping powers ranged between 1.3 and 5.4 for all studied materials, suggesting substantial changes in proton range with respect to water. Film measurements of pristine spots confirm dose perturbance and shortening of proton range, with an upstream shift of each Bragg peak being observed directly behind the installed fixture. At high energies, cold spots were found in all cases directly behind each material feature with a medial fill-in of dose occurring distally. Qualitative agreement of spot perturbance was confirmed between film measurements and MCS. Finally, when comparing integrated depth doses (IDD) by summing over all axial directions, good agreement is observed between TPS and MCS. CONCLUSIONS: All dental materials studied substantially perturbed the dosimetry of pristine proton spots both in terms of WET/Srel as well as the spatial distribution of dose. Proton range was quantifiably shortened, and each dental material affected a cold spot directly behind the object with medial dose back-filling was observed distally. MCS and Eclipse dose calculations exhibited good agreement with measurements, suggesting that treatment planning without employing avoidance strategies may be possible with further investigation.


Assuntos
Terapia com Prótons , Prótons , Porcelana Dentária , Método de Monte Carlo , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Água
19.
Med Phys ; 49(5): 3497-3506, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35305269

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy of the RayStation Monte Carlo dose engine (RayStation MC) in modeling small-field block apertures in proton pencil beam scanning. Furthermore, we evaluate the suitability of MCsquare as a second check for RayStation MC. METHODS: We have enhanced MCsquare to model block apertures. To test the accuracy of both RayStation MC and the newly enhanced MCsquare, we compare the dose predictions of each to in-water dose measurements obtained using diode detectors and radiochromic film. Nine brass apertures with openings of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm and either 2 cm or 4 cm thickness were used in the irradiation of a water phantom. Two measurement setups were used, one with a range shifter and 119.7 MeV proton beam energy and the other with no range shifter and 147 MeV proton beam energy. To further test the validity of RayStation MC and MCsquare in modeling block apertures and to evaluate MCsquare as a second check tool, 10 small-field (average target volume 8.3 cm3 ) patient treatment plans were calculated by each dose engine followed by a statistical comparison. RESULTS: Comparing to the absolute dose measurements in water, RayStation MC differed by 1.2% ± 1.0% while MCsquare differed by -1.8% ± 3.7% in the plateau region of a pristine Bragg peak. Compared to the in-water film measurements, RayStation MC and MCsquare both performed well with an average 2D-3D gamma passing rate of 99.4% and 99.7% (3%/3 mm), respectively. A t-test comparing the agreement with the film measurements between RayStation MC and MCsquare suggested that the relative spatial dose distributions calculated by MCsquare and RayStation MC were statistically indistinguishable. Directly comparing the dose calculations between MCsquare and RayStation MC over 10 patients resulted in an average 3D-3D gamma passing rates of 98.5% (3%/3 mm) and 94.1% (2%/2 mm), respectively. CONCLUSION: The validity of RayStation MC algorithm for use with patient-specific apertures has been expanded to include small apertures. MCsquare has been enhanced to model apertures and was found to be an adequate second check of RayStation MC in this scenario.


Assuntos
Terapia com Prótons , Algoritmos , Humanos , Método de Monte Carlo , Imagens de Fantasmas , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Prótons , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Água
20.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 93(2): 023304, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35232128

RESUMO

Radio frequency cavities are among the most challenging and costly components of an accelerator facility. They are usually manufactured in individual parts, which are then joined by complex processes, e.g., several brazing steps. 3D printing has become an alternative to these conventional manufacturing methods due to higher cost efficiency, freedom in design, and recent achievement of high print quality for pure copper. A fully functional 3 GHz drift tube linac (DTL) prototype was 3D printed in one piece, made from pure copper by selective laser melting (SLM). To achieve a higher surface quality, the DTL geometry was optimized for the SLM process. The DTL design is related to the design of the DTL part of the side-coupled DTL modules used in linac-based proton therapy facilities. The quality factor (8750) and the shunt impedance per unit length (102mΩm) of the printed prototype are already comparable to traditionally manufactured DTL structures and can be further enhanced by surface treatments.


Assuntos
Cobre , Terapia com Prótons , Lasers , Aceleradores de Partículas , Impressão Tridimensional
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