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1.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578917

RESUMO

Influenza, a seasonal acute respiratory disease caused primarily by the influenza virus A or B, manifests with severe symptoms leading to considerable morbidity and mortality and is a major concern worldwide. Therefore, effective preventive measures against it are required. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the preventive effects of heat-killed Levilactobacillus brevis KB290 (KB290) in combination with ß-carotene (ßC) on influenza virus infections in healthy Japanese subjects aged between 20 and 59 y throughout the winter season. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial from 16 December 2019 to 8 March 2020, comparing KB290 + ßC beverage with placebo beverage. The primary endpoint was the incidence of influenza based on a doctor's certificate. The incidence of influenza was not significantly different between the two groups. However, the subgroup analysis showed a significant difference between the two groups (influenza incidence: the KB290 + ßC group 1.9%, and the placebo group 3.9%) in the subgroup of subjects aged ˂40 y, but not in the subgroup of subjects aged ≥40 y. The results of this trial suggest that the combination of KB290 and ßC might be a possible candidate supplement for protection against the seasonal influenza virus infection in humans aged <40 y, although further clinical studies are needed to confirm the concrete preventive effect of this combination on influenza.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Lactobacillus brevis , Provitaminas/farmacologia , beta Caroteno/farmacologia , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14998, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294860

RESUMO

Most of the maize (Zea mays L.) varieties in developing countries have low content of micronutrients including vitamin A. As a result, people who are largely dependent on cereal-based diets suffer from health challenges due to micronutrient deficiencies. Marker assisted recurrent selection (MARS), which increases the frequency of favorable alleles with advances in selection cycle, could be used to enhance the provitamin A (PVA) content of maize. This study was carried out to determine changes in levels of PVA carotenoids and genetic diversity in two maize synthetics that were subjected to two cycles of MARS. The two populations, known as HGA and HGB, and their advanced selection cycles (C1 and C2) were evaluated at Ibadan in Nigeria. Selection increased the concentrations of ß-carotene, PVA and total carotenoids across cycles in HGA, while in HGB only α-carotene increased with advances in selection cycle. ß-cryptoxanthine increased at C1 but decreased at C2 in HGB. The levels of ß-carotene, PVA, and total carotenoids increased by 40%, 30% and 36% respectively, in HGA after two cycles of selection. α-carotene and ß-cryptoxanthine content improved by 20% and 5%, respectively after two cycles of selection in HGB. MARS caused changes in genetic diversity over selection cycles. Number of effective alleles and observed heterozygosity decreased with selection cycles, while expected heterozygosity increased at C1 and decreased at C2 in HGA. In HGB, number of effective alleles, observed and expected heterozygosity increased at C1 and decreased at C2. In both populations, fixation index increased after two cycle of selections. The greatest part of the genetic variability resides within the population accounting for 86% of the total genetic variance. In general, MARS effectively improved PVA carotenoid content. However, genetic diversity in the two synthetics declined after two cycles of selection.


Assuntos
beta-Criptoxantina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Provitaminas/metabolismo , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Humanos , Nigéria , Valor Nutritivo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Seleção Genética , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo
3.
Food Chem ; 359: 129911, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951608

RESUMO

We showed that black soldier fly larvae reared on fruits and vegetables rich in provitamin A carotenoids can accumulate significant amounts of these vitamin A precursors. Using a simulated gastro-intestinal digestion model, we demonstrated that α- and ß-carotene from the larvae are as bioaccessible as from the fruits and vegetables they were reared on. We calculated that provitamin A carotenoid-rich larvae have the capacity to provide more vitamin A than fruits and vegetables rich in these molecules. Remarkably, the incorporation of usual quantities of these larvae in feed could cover the needs of several production animals for this vitamin. Thus, our findings suggest that rearing black soldier fly larvae on by-products or waste rich in provitamin A carotenoids could be a sustainable strategy to recycle a fraction of vitamin A back into the food chain and could represent a new approach to fight against vitamin A deficiency.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Dípteros , Frutas , Provitaminas/metabolismo , Verduras , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta , Frutas/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Verduras/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/metabolismo
4.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 11(9)2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963852

RESUMO

Global efforts are underway to develop cassava with enhanced levels of provitamin A carotenoids to sustainably meet increasing demands for food and nutrition where the crop is a major staple. Herein, we tested the effectiveness of genomic selection (GS) for rapid improvement of cassava for total carotenoids content and associated traits. We evaluated 632 clones from Uganda's provitamin A cassava breeding pipeline and 648 West African introductions. At harvest, each clone was assessed for level of total carotenoids, dry matter content, and resistance to cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). All clones were genotyped with diversity array technology and imputed to a set of 23,431 single nucleotide polymorphic markers. We assessed predictive ability of four genomic prediction methods in scenarios of cross-validation, across population prediction, and inclusion of quantitative trait loci markers. Cross-validations produced the highest mean prediction ability for total carotenoids content (0.52) and the lowest for CBSD resistance (0.20), with G-BLUP outperforming other models tested. Across population, predictions showed low ability of Ugandan population to predict the performance of West African clones, with the highest predictive ability recorded for total carotenoids content (0.34) and the lowest for CBSD resistance (0.12) using G-BLUP. By incorporating chromosome 1 markers associated with carotenoids content as independent kernel in the G-BLUP model of a cross-validation scenario, prediction ability slightly improved from 0.52 to 0.58. These results reinforce ongoing efforts aimed at integrating GS into cassava breeding and demonstrate the utility of this tool for rapid genetic improvement.


Assuntos
Manihot , Carotenoides , Genômica , Manihot/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Provitaminas
5.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809241

RESUMO

Vitamin A is a family of derivatives synthesized from carotenoids acquired from the diet and can be converted in animals to bioactive forms essential for life. Vitamin A1 (all-trans-retinol/ATROL) and provitamin A1 (all-trans-ß,ß-carotene/ATBC) are precursors of all-trans-retinoic acid acting as a ligand for the retinoic acid receptors. The contribution of ATROL and ATBC to formation of 9-cis-13,14-dihydroretinoic acid (9CDHRA), the only endogenous retinoid acting as retinoid X receptor (RXR) ligand, remains unknown. To address this point novel and already known retinoids and carotenoids were stereoselectively synthesized and administered in vitro to oligodendrocyte cell culture and supplemented in vivo (orally) to mice with a following high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS)/UV-Vis based metabolic profiling. In this study, we show that ATROL and ATBC are at best only weak and non-selective precursors of 9CDHRA. Instead, we identify 9-cis-13,14-dihydroretinol (9CDHROL) and 9-cis-13,14-dihydro-ß,ß-carotene (9CDHBC) as novel direct nutritional precursors of 9CDHRA, which are present endogenously in humans and the human food chain matrix. Furthermore, 9CDHROL displayed RXR-dependent promnemonic activity in working memory test similar to that reported for 9CDHRA. We also propose that the endogenous carotenoid 9-cis-ß,ß-carotene (9CBC) can act as weak, indirect precursor of 9CDHRA via hydrogenation to 9CDHBC and further metabolism to 9CDHROL and/or 9CDHRA. In summary, since classical vitamin A1 is not an efficient 9CDHRA precursor, we conclude that this group of molecules constitutes a new class of vitamin or a new independent member of the vitamin A family, named "Vitamin A5/X".


Assuntos
Receptores X de Retinoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tretinoína/análogos & derivados , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oligodendroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Provitaminas/análise , Provitaminas/síntese química , Provitaminas/farmacologia , Tretinoína/farmacologia , Vitamina A/análogos & derivados , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Vitaminas/análise , Vitaminas/síntese química
6.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807073

RESUMO

Macro and micronutrient deficiencies pose serious health challenges globally, with the largest impact in developing regions such as subSaharan Africa (SSA), Latin America and South Asia. Maize is a good source of calories but contains low concentrations of essential nutrients. Major limiting nutrients in maize-based diets are essential amino acids such as lysine and tryptophan, and micronutrients such as vitamin A, zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe). Responding to these challenges, separate maize biofortification programs have been designed worldwide, resulting in several cultivars with high levels of provitamin A, lysine, tryptophan, Zn and Fe being commercialized. This strategy of developing single-nutrient biofortified cultivars does not address the nutrient deficiency challenges in SSA in an integrated manner. Hence, development of maize with multinutritional attributes can be a sustainable and cost-effective strategy for addressing the problem of nutrient deficiencies in SSA. This review provides a synopsis of the health challenges associated with Zn, provitamin A and tryptophan deficiencies and link these to vulnerable societies; a synthesis of past and present intervention measures for addressing nutrient deficiencies in SSA; and a discussion on the possibility of developing maize with multinutritional quality attributes, but also with adaptation to stress conditions in SSA.


Assuntos
Biofortificação/métodos , Zea mays/química , África , Aminoácidos , Dieta , Alimentos Fortificados , Edição de Genes , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Micronutrientes , Valor Nutritivo , Proteínas de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Provitaminas , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina A , Deficiência de Vitamina A , Zea mays/genética , Zinco/metabolismo
7.
J Food Sci ; 86(5): 2118-2130, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884622

RESUMO

ß-Carotene displays antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and prevents the development of cancer. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a kind of inflammatory bowel disease that is accompanied by a certain risk of colon cancer. However, the role of ß-carotene in the modulation of gut microbiota and UC improvement is unclear. In this research, the properties of ß-carotene on anti-inflammatory and the composition of gut microbiota were evaluated in a rat model of UC induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The results revealed that ß-carotene significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the severity of colitis in rats, as assessed using body weight (6.00 ± 1.73%), colon length (22.23 ± 0.53%), and disease activity index, and improved the structure of the colon damaged. Moreover, colonic levels of proinflammatory cytokines were significantly lower following ß-carotene supplementation. ß-Carotene intervention also lowered the expression levels of phosphorylated p65 (0.60 ± 0.02), p38 (0.57 ± 0.00), Erk (0.63 ± 0.04), and JNK (0.70 ± 0.00). The result of the relative abundance of gut microbiota showed that DSS administration significantly changed the microbial structure at the phylum and genus levels of rats. Furthermore, ß-carotene treatment significantly increased the abundance of Faecalibacterium, the levels of which negatively correlated with the levels of inflammatory cytokines. Faecalibacterium may be a potential target in the alleviation of DSS-induced UC. ß-Carotene can alleviate DSS-induced UC through the regulation of gut microbiota. This study provides a reference for the rational use of ß-carotene in the treatment of UC. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: ß-Carotene can relieve ulcerative colitis and regulate the gut microbiota; the nutritional intervention of ß-carotene enhancing animal health.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , beta Caroteno/farmacologia , Animais , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/microbiologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Provitaminas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
8.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0245497, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539427

RESUMO

Malnutrition has emerged as one of the major health problems worldwide. Traditional yellow maize has low provitamin-A (proA) content and its genetic base in proA biofortification breeding program of subtropics is extremely narrow. To diversify the proA rich germplasm, 10 elite low proA inbreds were crossed with a proA rich donor (HP702-22) having mutant crtRB1 gene. The F2 populations derived from these crosses were genotyped using InDel marker specific to crtRB1. Severe marker segregation distortion was observed. Seventeen crtRB1 inbreds developed through marker-assisted pedigree breeding and seven inbreds generated using marker-assisted backcross breeding were characterized using 77 SSRs. Wide variation in gene diversity (0.08 to 0.79) and dissimilarity coefficient (0.28 to 0.84) was observed. The inbreds were grouped into three major clusters depicting the existing genetic diversity. The crtRB1-based inbreds possessed high ß-carotene (BC: 8.72µg/g), ß-cryptoxanthin (BCX: 4.58µg/g) and proA (11.01µg/g), while it was 2.35µg/g, 1.24µg/g and 2.97µg/g in checks, respectively. Based on their genetic relationships, 15 newly developed crtRB1-based inbreds were crossed with five testers (having crtRB1 gene) using line × tester mating design. 75 experimental hybrids with crtRB1 gene were evaluated over three locations. These experimental hybrids possessed higher BC (8.02µg/g), BCX (4.69µg/g), proA (10.37µg/g) compared to traditional hybrids used as check (BC: 2.36 µg/g, BCX: 1.53µg/g, proA: 3.13µg/g). Environment and genotypes × environment interaction had minor effects on proA content. Both additive and dominance gene action were significant for proA. The mean proportion of proA to total carotenoids (TC) was 44% among crtRB1-based hybrids, while 11% in traditional hybrids. BC was found to be positively correlated with BCX (r = 0.68) and proA (r = 0.98). However, no correlation was observed between proA and grain yield. Several hybrids with >10.0 t/ha grain yield with proA content >10.0 µg/g were identified. This is the first comprehensive study on development of diverse proA rich maize hybrids through marker-assisted pedigree breeding approach. The findings provides sustainable and cost-effective solution to alleviate vitamin-A deficiency.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/genética , Endogamia/métodos , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Provitaminas/análise , Vitamina A/análise , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/genética , Alelos , Carotenoides/análise , Genes de Plantas , Genótipo , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Deficiência de Vitamina A/dietoterapia , beta Caroteno/análise
9.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 296(1): 141-153, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068135

RESUMO

Provitamin-A (proA) is essentially required for vision in humans but its deficiency affects children and pregnant women especially in the developing world. Biofortified maize rich in proA provides new opportunity for sustainable and cost-effective solution to alleviate malnutrition, however, significant loss of carotenoids during storage reduces its efficacy. Here, we studied the role of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 (ccd1) gene on degradation of carotenoids in maize. A set of 24 maize inbreds was analyzed for retention of proA during storage. At harvest, crtRB1-based maize inbreds possessed significantly high proA (ß-carotene: 12.30 µg/g, ß-cryptoxanthin: 4.36 µg/g) than the traditional inbreds (ß-carotene: 1.74 µg/g, ß-cryptoxanthin: 1.28 µg/g). However, crtRB1-based inbreds experienced significant degradation of proA carotenoids (ß-carotene: 20%, ß-cryptoxanthin: 32% retention) following 5 months. Among the crtRB1-based genotypes, V335PV had the lowest retention of proA (ß-carotene: 1.63 µg/g, ß-cryptoxanthin: 0.82 µg/g), while HKI161PV had the highest retention of proA (ß-carotene: 4.17 µg/g, ß-cryptoxanthin: 2.32 µg/g). Periodical analysis revealed that ~ 60-70% of proA degraded during the first three months. Expression analysis revealed that high expression of ccd1 led to low retention of proA carotenoids in V335PV, whereas proA retention in HKI161PV was higher due to lower expression. Highest expression of ccd1 was observed during first 3 months of storage. Copy number of ccd1 gene varied among yellow maize (1-6 copies) and white maize (7-35 copies) while wild relatives contained 1-4 copies of ccd1 gene per genome. However, copy number of ccd1 gene did not exhibit any correlation with proA carotenoids. We concluded that lower expression of ccd1 gene increased the retention of proA during storage in maize. Favourable allele of ccd1 can be introgressed into elite maize inbreds for higher retention of proA during storage.


Assuntos
beta-Criptoxantina/química , Dioxigenases/genética , Genoma de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Zea mays/genética , beta Caroteno/química , Alelos , beta-Criptoxantina/metabolismo , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Dosagem de Genes , Expressão Gênica , Hidrólise , Endogamia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Provitaminas/química , Provitaminas/metabolismo , Vitamina A/química , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/metabolismo
11.
Food Chem ; 338: 128004, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950868

RESUMO

The aim was to enhance provitamin A carotenoid (proVA CAR) concentrations and bioaccessibility in carrots by manipulating post-harvest factors. To that end, we assessed the effects of Ultraviolet-C light, pulsed light, storage temperature, and storage duration. We also measured CAR bioaccessibility by using an in vitro model. Pulsed light, but not Ultraviolet-C, treatment increased proVA CAR concentrations in the cortex tissue (p < 0.05). Longer storage times and higher temperatures also increased concentrations (p < 0.05). The maximal increase induced by pulsed light was obtained after treatment with 20 kJ/m2 and 3-days of storage at 20 °C. However, the positive effect induced by pulsed light decreased considerably over the next seven days. ProVA CAR in carrots with the highest concentrations also proved to be more bioaccessible (p < 0.05). Thus, proVA CAR concentrations in stored carrots can be increased significantly through storage times and temperatures. Pulsed light can also significantly increase proVA CAR concentrations, but only temporarily.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Daucus carota/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Provitaminas/análise , Disponibilidade Biológica , Carotenoides/química , Digestão , Luz , Provitaminas/química , Provitaminas/farmacocinética , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitamina A/química
12.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 19(6): 3618-3658, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337067

RESUMO

Food-to-food fortification (FtFF) is an emerging food-based strategy that can complement current strategies in the ongoing fight against micronutrient deficiencies, but it has not been defined or characterized. This review has proposed a working definition of FtFF. Comparison with other main food-based strategies clearly differentiates FtFF as an emerging strategy with the potential to address multiple micronutrient deficiencies simultaneously, with little dietary change required by consumers. A review of literature revealed that despite the limited number of studies (in vitro and in vivo), the diversity of food-based fortificants investigated and some contradictory data, there are promising fortificants, which have the potential to improve the amount of bioavailable iron, zinc, and provitamin A from starchy staple foods. These fortificants are typically fruits and vegetables, with high mineral as well as ascorbic acid and ß-carotene contents. However, as the observed improvements in micronutrient bioavailability and status are relatively small, measuring the positive outcomes is more likely to be impactful only if the FtFF products are consumed as regular staples. Considering best practices in implementation of FtFF, raw material authentication and ingredient documentation are critical, especially as the contents of target micronutrients and bioavailability modulators as well as the microbiological quality of the plant-based fortificants can vary substantially. Also, as there are only few developed supply chains for plant-based fortificants, procurement of consistent materials may be problematic. This, however, provides the opportunity for value chain development, which can contribute towards the economic growth of communities, or hybrid approaches that leverage traditional premixes to standardize product micronutrient content.


Assuntos
Disponibilidade Biológica , Alimentos Fortificados , Micronutrientes/química , Ferro , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Micronutrientes/provisão & distribuição , Provitaminas , Amido , Vitamina A , Zinco
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(24)2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317048

RESUMO

Lumisterol (L3) is a stereoisomer of 7-dehydrocholesterol and is produced through the photochemical transformation of 7-dehydrocholesteol induced by high doses of UVB. L3 is enzymatically hydroxylated by CYP11A1, producing 20(OH)L3, 22(OH)L3, 20,22(OH)2L3, and 24(OH)L3. Hydroxylumisterols function as reverse agonists of the retinoic acid-related orphan receptors α and γ (RORα/γ) and can interact with the non-genomic binding site of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). These intracellular receptors are mediators of photoprotection and anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we show that L3-hydroxyderivatives significantly increase the expression of VDR at the mRNA and protein levels in keratinocytes, both non-irradiated and after UVB irradiation. L3-hydroxyderivatives also altered mRNA and protein levels for RORα/γ in non-irradiated cells, while the expression was significantly decreased in UVB-irradiated cells. In UVB-irradiated keratinocytes, L3-hydroxyderivatives inhibited nuclear translocation of NFκB p65 by enhancing levels of IκBα in the cytosol. This anti-inflammatory activity mediated by L3-hydroxyderivatives through suppression of NFκB signaling resulted in the inhibition of the expression of UVB-induced inflammatory cytokines, including IL-17, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. The L3-hydroxyderivatives promoted differentiation of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes as determined from upregulation of the expression at the mRNA of involucrin (IVL), filaggrine (FLG), and keratin 14 (KRT14), downregulation of transglutaminase 1 (TGM1), keratins including KRT1, and KRT10, and stimulation of ILV expression at the protein level. We conclude that CYP11A1-derived hydroxylumisterols are promising photoprotective agents capable of suppressing UVB-induced inflammatory responses and restoring epidermal function through targeting the VDR and RORs.


Assuntos
Ergosterol/farmacologia , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Provitaminas/farmacologia , Tolerância a Radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Células Cultivadas , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/metabolismo , Ergosterol/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/efeitos da radiação , Queratinas/genética , Queratinas/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Transglutaminases/genética , Transglutaminases/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
14.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 23(11): 1473-1480, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In the rainy season farmers don't interest to cultivate shallot because in addition to providing a high dosage of fertilizer they are also sensitive to pathogenic attacks so they are afraid of crop failure and cause low shallot production. This study aimed to knew effect of agronomic component and quality of shallot under different concentrations of biofertilizer and Ammonium Sulphate (AS) fertilizer dose in the rainy season. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in Cangkring, Srandakan, Bantul, Special Region of Yogyakarta Indonesia from August to October 2019. The study was arranged in RCBD factorial with three replications. The first factor was a various dose of ammonium sulphate (100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1). The second factor was various concentrations of biofertilizer (2, 3 and 4%), and control. The observed variables were the analysis of growth yield and quality component of shallot plant. The analyzed using analysis of variance at 5% of significance then continued by DMRT at 5% of significance. RESULTS: There was the interaction between the application of AS dosage and biofertilizer concentration on all of variable observations. There was a significant difference between treatment with control on all of the observation variables. CONCLUSION: The combination of AS fertilizer 200 kg ha-1 dose and 3% biofertilizer concentration increased agronomic efficiency, growth, bulbs yields, and quality of bulbs include provitamin A, oleoresin compounds.


Assuntos
Sulfato de Amônio , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fertilizantes/microbiologia , Valor Nutritivo , Chuva , Estações do Ano , Cebolinha Branca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia do Solo , Aspergillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Azospirillum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Indonésia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Provitaminas/metabolismo , Cebolinha Branca/metabolismo , Cebolinha Branca/microbiologia , Trichoderma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitamina A/metabolismo
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(43): 12048-12057, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073979

RESUMO

Carotenoids are a large class of structures that are important in human health and include both provitamin A and nonprovitamin A compounds. Vitamin A deficiency is a global health problem that can be alleviated by enriching provitamin A carotenoids in a range of food crops. Suitable plants for biofortification are those with high levels of the provitamin A biosynthetic precursor, lycopene, which is enzymatically converted by lycopene ß-cyclase (LCYB) to ß-carotene, a provitamin A carotenoid. Crops, such as citrus, naturally accumulate high levels of provitamin A and other health-promoting carotenoids. Such plants may have useful genes to expand the synthetic biology toolbox for producing a range of phenotypes, including both high provitamin A crops and crops with unique compositions of health-promoting carotenoids. To examine enzyme variants having different activity levels, we introduced two citrus LCYB alleles into tomato, a plant with fruit rich in lycopene. Overexpression in tomato of the stronger allele of the citrus chromoplast-specific lycopene ß-cyclase (CsLCYb2a) produced "golden" transgenic tomato fruits with 9.3-fold increased levels of ß-carotene at up to 1.5 mg/g dry weight. The use of the weaker allele, CsLCYb2b, also led to enhanced levels of ß-carotene but in the context of a more heterogeneous composition of carotenoids. From a synthetic biology standpoint, these allelic differences have value for producing cultivars with unique carotenoid profiles. Overexpression of the citrus LCYB genes was accompanied by increased expression of other genes encoding carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes and increased size and number of chromoplasts needed to sequester the elevated levels of carotenoids in the transgenic tomato fruits. The overexpression of the citrus LCYB genes also led to a pleiotropic effect on profiles of phytohormones and primary metabolites. Our findings show that enzyme variants are essential synthetic biology parts needed to create a wider range of metabolic engineering products. In this case, strong and weak variants of LCYB proved useful in creating dietary sources to alleviate vitamin A deficiency or, alternatively, to create crops with a heterogeneous composition including provitamin A and healthful, nonprovitamin A carotenoids.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Citrus/enzimologia , Liases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Provitaminas/metabolismo , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Biocatálise , Biofortificação , Citrus/genética , Liases Intramoleculares/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Engenharia Metabólica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Biologia Sintética
16.
Plant Genome ; 13(1): e20013, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016639

RESUMO

Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most prevalent nutritional deficiencies worldwide. Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench)] is a major cereal crop consumed by millions of people in regions with high vitamin A deficiency. We quantified carotenoid concentrations in a diverse sorghum panel using high-performance liquid chromatography and conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of grain carotenoids to identify genes underlying carotenoid variation. There was moderate variation for ß-carotene (00.8 µg g-1 ), lutein (0.3-9.4 µg g-1 ), and zeaxanthin (0.2-9.1 µg g-1 ), but ß-cryptoxanthin and α-carotene were nearly undetectable. Genotype had the largest effect size, at 81% for zeaxanthin, 62% for ß-carotene, and 53% for lutein. Using multiple models, GWAS identified several significant associations between carotenoids and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), some of which colocalized with known carotenoid genes that have not been previously implicated in carotenoid variation. Several of the candidate genes identified have also been identified in maize (Zea mays L.) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) carotenoid GWAS studies. Notably, an SNP inside the putative ortholog of maize zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP) had the most significant association with zeaxanthin and with the ratio between lutein and zeaxanthin, suggesting that ZEP is a major gene controlling sorghum carotenoid variation. Overall findings suggest there is oligogenic inheritance for sorghum carotenoids and suitable variation for marker-assisted selection. The high carotenoid germplasm and significant associations identified in this study can be used in biofortification efforts to improve the nutritional quality of sorghum.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Biofortificação , Carotenoides , Grão Comestível , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Provitaminas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sorghum/genética
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5203, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060603

RESUMO

Ending all forms of hunger by 2030, as set forward in the UN-Sustainable Development Goal 2 (UN-SDG2), is a daunting but essential task, given the limited timeline ahead and the negative global health and socio-economic impact of hunger. Malnutrition or hidden hunger due to micronutrient deficiencies affects about one third of the world population and severely jeopardizes economic development. Staple crop biofortification through gene stacking, using a rational combination of conventional breeding and metabolic engineering strategies, should enable a leap forward within the coming decade. A number of specific actions and policy interventions are proposed to reach this goal.


Assuntos
Biofortificação/métodos , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Cruzamento , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Países em Desenvolvimento , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Alimentos Fortificados , Saúde Global , Humanos , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Micronutrientes , Minerais , Oryza , Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Formulação de Políticas , Provitaminas , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Nações Unidas , Vitaminas
18.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 412, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ugandan children are fed homemade complementary foods (CFs) which are usually deficient in vitamin A, iron and zinc. Novel homemade CFs rich in vitamin A, iron and zinc need to be developed, and assessed for their acceptability among target children. OBJECTIVE: Homemade provitamin A carotenoids (PVACs), iron and zinc-rich complementary food (CF), common bean pumpkin blend (BPB) formulated from pumpkin (Sweet cream) and common bean (Obwelu) and PVAC-rich pumpkin blend (PB) from Sweet cream were prepared by expert peer mothers. This study compared child acceptability of BPB and PB (control). METHODS: The crossover acceptability study randomly assigned Ugandan children 6 to 24 months old to either receive 100 g of BPB (n = 35) or 100 g of PB (n = 35) on day one. After a washout period of one day, children crossed over to receive either BPB (n = 35) or PB (n = 35). The amount of CF consumed, duration of consumption, and micronutrient intake were assessed. The CF was acceptable if children consumed ≥50 g (50%) of served food (100 g). A paired t-test was used to determine the mean differences within participants between BPB and PB. The level of statistical significant difference was set at a probability value of 5% (p = 0.05). RESULTS: The mean consumption of BPB and PB was 53.9 g and 54.4 g, respectively. The mean duration for consumption of BPB and PB was 20.6 and 20.3 min, respectively. There was no significant difference in the amounts consumed, and duration of consumption in BPB and PB (p > 0.05). The mean intake of vitamin A was significantly higher (p < 0.00001) in PB (152.5 µgRAE) compared to BPB (100.9 µgRAE). The mean iron intake was significantly higher in BPB (1.1 mg) (p < 0.00001) compared to PB (0.3 mg). Furthermore, zinc intake was significantly higher (p < 0.00001) in BPB (0.58 mg) compared to PB (0.13 mg). CONCLUSION: A homemade complementary food, BPB, made from locally available common bean and pumpkin is rich in PVACs, iron and zinc and is acceptable to children in the age range of complementary feeding in Uganda. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan African Clinical Trials Registry www.pactr.org as PACTR202002576768667 . Retrospectively registered. Date of registration: 29/January/2020.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Phaseolus , Carotenoides , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro , Micronutrientes , Provitaminas , Uganda , Zinco
20.
BMC Genet ; 21(1): 78, 2020 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information on population structure and genetic diversity of germplasm in a breeding programme is useful because it enhances judicious utilisation of genetic resources to achieve breeding objectives. Seventy early maturing provitamin A (PVA) quality protein maize (QPM) inbreds developed by the IITA- maize improvement programme were genotyped using 8171 DArTseq markers. Furthermore, 96 hybrids derived from 24 selected inbreds plus four checks were evaluated under low-N and optimal environments in Nigeria during 2016 and 2017. Genotypic and phenotypic data of inbreds and hybrids respectively, were analysed to (i) assess the level of genetic dissimilarities and population structure of the inbreds, and (ii) investigate the grain yield performance of derived hybrids under low-N, optimal and across environments. RESULTS: Genetic diversity among the seventy inbreds was high varying from 0.042 to 0.500 with an average of 0.357. Sixty-six inbred lines with probabilities ≥0.70 were assigned to a single group. The population structure analysis, the UPGMA phylogeny, and the principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) of the DArTseq markers revealed a clear separation of five groups and each followed pedigree records. Clustered inbreds displayed common characteristics including high PVA levels, and drought and low-N tolerance. The top performing hybrid, TZEIORQ 40 × TZEIORQ 26 out-yielded the best hybrid control, TZEIOR 127 × TZEIOR 57 by 8, 3, and 9% under low-N, optimal, and across environments, respectively. High repeatability estimates were detected for grain yield under each and across environments. Similarly, high breeding efficiency of 71, 70 and 72% were computed under low-N, optimal, and across environments, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The UPGMA clustering, the structure analysis, and the PCoA consistently revealed five groups which largely followed pedigree information indicating the existence of genetically distinct groups in the inbred lines. High repeatability and breeding efficiency values estimated for grain yield of hybrids under low-N, optimal and across environments demonstrated that high productive hybrids could be developed using inbreds from the opposing clusters identified by the DArTseq markers. The 15 top performing hybrids identified, particularly TZEIORQ 40 × TZEIORQ 26 and TZEIORQ 29 × TZEIORQ 43 should be further evaluated for release and commercialization in SSA.


Assuntos
Hibridização Genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Provitaminas/análise , Vitamina A/análise , Zea mays/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genótipo , Nigéria , Nitrogênio , Melhoramento Vegetal , Zea mays/química
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