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1.
Vínculo ; 18(2): 1-12, jul.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1341801

RESUMO

trata-se de uma pesquisa bibliográfica exploratória que teve o objetivo de verificar quais foram os assuntos que estão relacionados com o dinheiro nos últimos 30 anos (1987 a 2017), pelas bases de dados Psychoinfo, Webscience, Lilacs e Scielo. Para a coleta de dados nas bases de dados foram utilizadas as palavras chaves: Family, Money e financial education. Na análise, foi realizada uma leitura exploratória, na qual entrou-se em contato com a totalidade do artigo, lendo passagens esparsas do resumo e do texto. Após, foi realizada a leitura seletiva para aprofundar mais nas partes que interessavam, e pôr fim a leitura analítica, que consistiu em ordenar e sumarizar as informações contidas no artigo. Foram coletados um total de 706 artigos nas quatro bases de dados citadas. Nos resultados foram identificadas 86 publicações de artigos nas 4 bases de dados na última década, em contrapartida entre os anos de 1987 a 1997 foram identificados um total de 76 artigos e entre 1998 a 2007, 180 artigos. Conclui-se que, a temática sobre dinheiro tem sido importante nas investigações cientificas principalmente na última década.


This is an exploratory bibliographic research that aimed to verify which subjects were related to money in the last 30 years (1987 to 2017), using the Psychoinfo, Webscience, Lilacs and Scielo databases. For the collection of data in the databases the keywords were used: Family, Money and financial education. In the analysis, an exploratory reading was carried out, in which the entire article was contacted, reading sparse passages from the abstract and the text. Afterwards, the selective reading was carried out to go deeper into the parts that were of interest, and put an end to the analytical reading, which consisted of ordering and summarizing the information contained in the article. A total of 706 articles were collected in the four databases cited. In the results, 86 publications of articles were identified in the 4 databases in the last decade, in contrast between the years 1987 to 1997, a total of 76 articles were identified and between 1998 and 2007, 180 articles. It is concluded that, the theme about money has been important in scientific investigations mainly in the last decade.


Se trata de una investigación bibliográfica exploratoria que tuvo como objetivo verificar qué temas estaban relacionados con el dinero en los últimos 30 años (1987 a 2017), utilizando las bases de datos Psychoinfo, Webscience, Lilacs y Scielo. Para la recogida de datos en las bases de datos se utilizaron las palabras clave: Familia, Dinero y educación financiera. En el análisis se realizó una lectura exploratoria, en la que se contactó con todo el artículo, leyendo escasos pasajes del resumen y del texto. Posteriormente, se realizó la lectura selectiva para profundizar en las partes que eran de interés, y poner fin a la lectura analítica, que consistió en ordenar y resumir la información contenida en el artículo. Se recogieron un total de 706 artículos en las cuatro bases de datos citadas. En los resultados se identificaron 86 publicaciones de artículos en las 4 bases de datos en la última década, en contraste entre los años 1987 a 1997 se identificaron un total de 76 artículos y entre 1998 y 2007, 180 artículos. Se concluye que el tema del dinero ha sido importante en las investigaciones científicas principalmente en la última década.


Assuntos
Psicologia/economia , Família , Economia , Economia Comportamental , Administração Financeira
2.
Vínculo ; 18(2): 1-1, jul.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1341787
3.
Vínculo ; 18(3): 1-1, set.-dez. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1347940
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769644

RESUMO

Efficient transfer of concepts and mechanistic insights from the cognitive to the health sciences and back requires a clear, objective description of the problem that this transfer ought to solve. Unfortunately, however, the actual descriptions are commonly penetrated with, and sometimes even motivated by, cultural norms and preferences, a problem that has colored scientific theorizing about behavioral control-the key concept for many psychological health interventions. We argue that ideologies have clouded our scientific thinking about mental health in two ways: by considering the societal utility of individuals and their behavior a key criterion for distinguishing between healthy and unhealthy people, and by dividing what actually seem to be continuous functions relating psychological and neurocognitive underpinnings to human behavior into binary, discrete categories that are then taken to define clinical phenomena. We suggest letting both traditions go and establish a health psychology that restrains from imposing societal values onto individuals, and then taking the fit between behavior and values to conceptualize unhealthiness. Instead, we promote a health psychology that reconstructs behavior that is considered to be problematic from well-understood mechanistic underpinnings of human behavior.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento , Humanos , Psicologia
6.
Am Psychol ; 76(5): 812-814, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780222

RESUMO

This award recognizes a distinguished career and enduring contribution to the practice of psychology. Samuel Knapp's long, distinguished career has resulted in demonstrable effects and significant contributions to best practices in professionalism, ethics education, positive ethics, and legislative advocacy as Director of Professional Affairs for the Pennsylvania Psychological Association and as an ethics educator extraordinaire. Dr. Knapp's work has modified the way psychologists think about professional ethics through education, from avoiding disciplinary consequences to promoting overarching ethical principles to achieve the highest standards of ethical behavior. His focus on respectful collaboration among psychologists promotes honesty through nonjudgmental conversations. His Ethics Educators Workshop and other continuing education programs have brought together psychology practitioners and faculty to focus deeply on ethics and resulted in the development of the APA Ethics Educators Award. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Comunicação , Ética Profissional , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Princípios Morais , Pennsylvania , Psicologia
7.
Am Psychol ; 76(5): 825-826, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780226

RESUMO

This award recognizes a distinguished career and enduring contribution to the teaching of psychology. Elizabeth Yost Hammer is recognized for her significant career as a psychologist with a proven track record as an exceptional teacher of psychology. Dr. Hammer is a passionate, student-centered teacher, as well as a distinguished expert in pedagogy and teaching of psychology. Her leadership roles in Psi-Chi and the Society for the Teaching of Psychology were an inspiration to many, and she is a highly regarded speaker and contributor. Throughout all her work as a leader, mentor, teacher, faculty member, and peer, she remains student-centered, inclusive, and appreciative of the diversity of talents and perspectives across the field. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Emoções , Docentes , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Psicologia , Sociedades Científicas , Estudantes
8.
Am Psychol ; 76(5): 815-817, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780223

RESUMO

This award recognizes a distinguished career and enduring contribution to psychology in the public interest. Vonnie C. McLoyd has made outstanding contributions in the public interest as a scholar, mentor, and leader in professional affairs. Her scholarship advanced understanding of the processes through which poverty harms children and provided evidence of the protective effects of social support on parents and children experiencing poverty and neighborhood violence. Her work helped transform the study of African American children to one focused on normative development, contextual influences, and sources of within-group variation. She increased ethnic diversity in psychology through her extensive mentorship and activities undertaken as a leader in the Society for Research on Adolescence, the Society for Research in Child Development, and the Association for Psychological Science. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Pobreza , Psicologia , Apoio Social , Estados Unidos , Violência
9.
Am Psychol ; 76(5): 818-821, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780224

RESUMO

This award recognizes a distinguished career and enduring contribution to applications of psychology. Frederick Morrison, PhD, is recognized for pioneering research linking psychology and education. He was one of the first psychologists to utilize the information-processing approach to study childhood reading disorders, demonstrating that dyslexic children do not suffer primarily from a visual-perceptual deficit but from a language-based phonological coding problem. He discovered and exploited a natural experiment, termed school cutoff, to study the causal impact of early schooling on children's language, cognitive, social, and academic skills. His findings confirmed the critical role of instructional practices on children's growth but also that the most effective instruction varied with the skill level of the child. Based on these insights, with colleague Carol Connor, Morrison developed and implemented an intervention to individualize student instruction, confirming that children benefit from different types of instruction. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Sociedades Científicas , Criança , Escolaridade , Família , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas
13.
Elife ; 102021 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612811

RESUMO

Within neuroscience, psychology, and neuroimaging, the most frequently used statistical approach is null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) of the population mean. An alternative approach is to perform NHST within individual participants and then infer, from the proportion of participants showing an effect, the prevalence of that effect in the population. We propose a novel Bayesian method to estimate such population prevalence that offers several advantages over population mean NHST. This method provides a population-level inference that is currently missing from study designs with small participant numbers, such as in traditional psychophysics and in precision imaging. Bayesian prevalence delivers a quantitative population estimate with associated uncertainty instead of reducing an experiment to a binary inference. Bayesian prevalence is widely applicable to a broad range of studies in neuroscience, psychology, and neuroimaging. Its emphasis on detecting effects within individual participants can also help address replicability issues in these fields.


Assuntos
Bioestatística , Neurociências/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Teorema de Bayes , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
16.
Sch Psychol ; 36(5): 377-387, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591588

RESUMO

School psychologists play a critical role in school-based Autism (AU) evaluations. Evidence-based AU evaluations should be multimodal, include multiple informants, and assess functioning across several domains. In the current era of COVID-19, school-based AU evaluations have become increasingly complex with school psychologists having to significantly adapt face-to-face evaluation procedures and/or conduct evaluations via teleassessment approaches. This poses profound challenges for some families, many of whom are from vulnerable groups. In the current article, we outline school psychologists' traditional role in school-based AU evaluations and review best practice guidelines. We then discuss the impact of COVID-19 on these processes and provide a framework for school psychologists to use when conducting school-based AU evaluations during this unprecedented time. We also provide resources school psychologists may find useful as they conduct school-based AU evaluations during the COVID-19 pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , COVID-19 , Psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental Escolar , Instituições Acadêmicas , Telemedicina , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Criança , Educação Especial , Humanos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicologia/instrumentação , Psicologia/métodos , Psicologia/normas , Serviços de Saúde Mental Escolar/normas , Telemedicina/métodos , Telemedicina/normas
17.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256919, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473784

RESUMO

Structured protocols offer a transparent and systematic way to elicit and combine/aggregate, probabilistic predictions from multiple experts. These judgements can be aggregated behaviourally or mathematically to derive a final group prediction. Mathematical rules (e.g., weighted linear combinations of judgments) provide an objective approach to aggregation. The quality of this aggregation can be defined in terms of accuracy, calibration and informativeness. These measures can be used to compare different aggregation approaches and help decide on which aggregation produces the "best" final prediction. When experts' performance can be scored on similar questions ahead of time, these scores can be translated into performance-based weights, and a performance-based weighted aggregation can then be used. When this is not possible though, several other aggregation methods, informed by measurable proxies for good performance, can be formulated and compared. Here, we develop a suite of aggregation methods, informed by previous experience and the available literature. We differentially weight our experts' estimates by measures of reasoning, engagement, openness to changing their mind, informativeness, prior knowledge, and extremity, asymmetry or granularity of estimates. Next, we investigate the relative performance of these aggregation methods using three datasets. The main goal of this research is to explore how measures of knowledge and behaviour of individuals can be leveraged to produce a better performing combined group judgment. Although the accuracy, calibration, and informativeness of the majority of methods are very similar, a couple of the aggregation methods consistently distinguish themselves as among the best or worst. Moreover, the majority of methods outperform the usual benchmarks provided by the simple average or the median of estimates.


Assuntos
Agregação de Dados , Prova Pericial , Processos Grupais , Julgamento , Modelos Estatísticos , Conscientização , Teorema de Bayes , Previsões/métodos , Humanos , Psicologia/métodos , Opinião Pública , Pesquisadores/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia
18.
Integr Psychol Behav Sci ; 55(4): 719-727, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515941

RESUMO

This article asks what kind of science psychology should be and what new readings of Vygotsky can contribute to answering this question. Methodology and method are key to constituting psychology as a science. Hence, the focus is on three major methodologic-methodic approaches to what Vygotsky referred to in his Notebooks towards the end of his life as his and his colleagues' "acmeist psychology" - the objective-analytical, the method of double stimulation and the semic method. Each will be discussed in its own right, followed by a discussion of the interrelatedness of the three in order to provide stimulation for future possibilities. These possibilities - it will be argued - lie in decisively re-orienting psychology as a science that brings single cases and complex semiotic analyses to the fore and thereby also rethinks psychology's relation towards the arts, especially literature.


Assuntos
Psicologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos
19.
Law Hum Behav ; 45(3): 197-214, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351203

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Custody is a legal state that requires police to Mirandize suspects and, in some jurisdictions, to record their interrogation. The present study compared the custody perceptions of police, judges, social psychologists, and laypeople. HYPOTHESES: We predicted that (a) high-custody vignettes would elicit less perceived freedom than low-custody vignettes; (b) police and judges would see these situations as less custodial relative to social psychologists and laypeople; (c) these differences would arise mostly in ambiguous vignettes; and (d) participants in general would perceive suspects as objectively having more freedom to leave than they subjectively feel they have. METHOD: Police officers (n = 223), trial judges (n = 219), social psychologists (n = 228), and laypeople (n = 205) read a vignette of a police-suspect encounter that presented high-, ambiguous, or low-levels of custody and indicated their perceptions of the suspect's freedom to leave. RESULTS: Participants perceived the most freedom in the low-custody vignettes, followed by ambiguous and high-custody vignettes, and all groups differed significantly from each other (ηp2 = .39). Police and judges overestimated how free they thought the suspect would feel compared to social psychologists and laypeople, who did not differ from each other (ηp2 = .085). Participants in general saw the suspect as objectively freer than they thought he felt, and themselves as feeling freer than they believed the suspect did (ηp2 = .35). Police defined a "reasonable person" as someone who is mentally stable, whereas judges were more likely to cite a person of average intelligence. CONCLUSION: Despite the assumption that custody can be defined by the effects of objective circumstances on the reasonable person, results revealed substantial variation of perceptions between police and judges on the one hand, and social psychologists and laypeople on the other. As a result, legal safeguards triggered by custodial interrogation may be inconsistently applied to real suspects. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Liberdade , Julgamento , Aplicação da Lei/métodos , Percepção , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicologia/métodos , Gravação em Vídeo
20.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 575-581, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410735

RESUMO

In 1992, the United States government expanded a 1978 decision to observe Asian Pacific American Heritage Week to a month-long recognition of the contributions of Asian Americans to the country's history and ongoing cultural milieu. Since 2000, the Asian population in the United States has grown by 72%-the fastest rate of any racial/ethnic group in the country. Today, the Census reports that Asians comprise 22 million United States residents. Despite this unprecedented growth, Asian Americans remain largely invisible in the national dialogue and in scientific research. This special issue features theoretical, empirical, and policy articles that highlight Asian Americans in psychology. Asian Americans remain marginalized and invisible in scientific endeavors for several reasons. For example, consolidating many ethnic groups under an "Asian American" pan-ethnic umbrella masks meaningful cultural, linguistic, ethnic, migration, gender, sexual/gender identity/expression, and socioeconomic differences. These intersectional identities result in experiences that are multiply marginalized, contributing to invisibility. The model minority stereotype highlights high-achieving and successful individuals, rendering the segment of the Asian American population that is struggling irrelevant and unworthy of attention. This special issue directly interrogates sources of invisibility to synthesize theory, research, and policy focused on Asian Americans. The articles in this special issue focus on the intersectional spaces that Asian Americans occupy, unpacking the diversity behind the "Asian American" pan-ethnic label, experiences of identity and discrimination across a range of Asian American groups, and areas of theory/research/policy where Asian American experiences have been overlooked. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Psicologia/tendências , Marginalização Social , Estereotipagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meio Social , Estados Unidos
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