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1.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(9): 911-917, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569047

RESUMO

Background: Sandflies are active vectors of several diseases, including leishmaniasis, which Morocco hopes to eliminate by 2030. Despite efforts to limit their spread, they still remain a public health problem in the country, as the behaviour of individuals in relation to sandflies plays an important role in the sustainability of the epidemiological cycle. Aims: To explore and determine the knowledge and behaviours related to sandfly diseases. Methods: A quantitative method was adopted using a questionnaire assisted by a personal interview. Based on the epidemiological situation of leishmaniasis cases reported in recent years in Al-Hajeb province, we conducted a field survey among 281 persons in April and May 2019 residing in the communities where the cases of the disease are registered. Results: 61.6% of Moroccans know sandflies by the name "Chniwla"; 44.1% thought that sandflies do not transmit diseases; 41.3% thought they multiplied in contaminated water; 52.7% thought sandfly bites could not be avoided; and 6.4% recognized the role of individuals in the fight against vectors. Conclusions: The need to raise public awareness of the risks of sandflies, using the popular concepts obtained to simplify scientific terms and formulate targeted health education strategies that make the individual an active player in vector control.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose , Phlebotomus , Psychodidae , Animais , Humanos , Insetos Vetores , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/prevenção & controle , Marrocos/epidemiologia
2.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(3): e007121, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550212

RESUMO

American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a neglected zoonotic disease caused mainly by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, which is endemic throughout Brazil. Canine ACL cases were investigated in a rural area of Monte Mor, São Paulo, where a human ACL case had been confirmed. Dogs were evaluated through clinical and laboratory diagnosis including serology, cytological tissue preparations and PCR on skin lesions, lymph node and bone marrow samples. Entomological investigations on sandflies trapped in the surroundings of the study area were performed for 14 months. Nyssomyia neivai was the predominant phlebotomine species, comprising 94.65% of the captured specimens (832 out of 879). This species was the most abundant in all trapping sites, including human homes and dog shelters. Ny. whitmani, Migonemyia migonei, Pintomyia monticola, Evandromyia cortellezzii, Pi. fischeri and Expapilata firmatoi were also captured. Two of the three dogs examined were positive for anti-Leishmania IgG in ELISA using the antigen Fucose mannose ligand and skin samples were positive for L. (V.) braziliensis in PCR, but all the samples collected were negative for L. (L.) infantum. One of the dogs had a confirmed persistent infection for more than one year.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Leishmania braziliensis , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Psychodidae , Animais , Brasil , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Insetos Vetores , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/veterinária
3.
Parasitol Res ; 120(9): 3105-3111, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387751

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are diseases transmitted by infected female sand flies. Since the eradication of malaria in Turkey, CL is the main vector-borne disease in the country, with more than 2000 cases per year, making it a significant public health problem. The aims of this study were to carry out an entomological survey in Antalya Province, an endemic area for CL in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey, to identify sand fly fauna and to screen female specimens for the presence of Leishmania parasites (Leishmania infantum, L. tropica, L. major, and L. donovani) using molecular analysis. Sand flies were collected in 42 localities of seven districts in Antalya Province using CDC miniature light traps in two different periods, June 2012 and September 2013. The specimens were kept in 96% ethanol until the dissection was done. The head and genitalia of the specimens were cut for preparing individual slides for species identification. The rest of the body of female specimens was kept separately. The specimens were identified at the species level, and 27 pools were generated according to the locations and species for screening the presence of Leishmania. A commercial kit was used for DNA extractions. Real-time and conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1) were then performed. In total, 1306 specimens comprising nine species belonging to the Phlebotomus genus were collected in the study region, with Phlebotomus neglectus/syriacus (38.82%) the most abundant, followed by P. alexandri (21.67%) and P. tobbi (20.44%). In the 27 pools, Leishmania infantum DNA was detected in four pools containing P. neglectus/syriacus and one pool containing P. tobbi. In conclusion, the sand fly fauna in the Antalya Province is diverse. The probable vector sand fly species are P. neglectus/syriacus and P. tobbi with high dominance (59.26%), which indicates a high risk of CL transmission. The data presented here may help to shed more light on the transmission cycles of the Leishmania parasite in this CL endemic area.


Assuntos
Leishmania infantum , Phlebotomus , Psychodidae , Animais , Feminino , Insetos Vetores , Turquia/epidemiologia
4.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 45(3): 227-229, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346882

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a protozoan parasitic disease transmitted to humans by infected female sand flies. Turkey has received more than three million immigrants from Syria because of the civil war and political instability. This study reported cases of two patients, who were from Syria and lived in Hatay, with cutaneous leishmaniasis and mucosal involvement. Two patients presented to the infectious diseases clinic with a complaint of facial lesions and were subsequently referred to the parasitology department laboratory. Smears were prepared from the lesions, stained with Giemsa and examined under a microscope. Moreover, aspirates taken from the patients' lesions were inoculated into the modified Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle medium. The diagnosis was made when amastigotes were detected in both smears. Proliferation of promastigotes was observed in one of the clinical specimens inoculated on the medium. By PZR-RFLP, Leishmania tropica were detected in the isolate. Both patients were treated with amphotericin B. One patient was treated again with a pentavalent antimony compound because of the recurrence of the lesion.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários , Leishmania tropica , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Psychodidae , Animais , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Corantes Azur/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Acta Trop ; 223: 106103, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416187

RESUMO

The species richness of Amazonian phlebotomines is considered to be one of the highest in the world. In the present study, we investigated the richness and diversity of phlebotomine fauna in Xapuri city, Acre state, Western Brazilian Amazonia, which is an area that is highly endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Sand fly collections were performed monthly from August 2013 to July 2015 (288 h total of sampling effort) in intradomiciliary, peridomiciliary, and forested environments of two localities. Collected females were dissected, microscopically examined for flagellates in their guts, and preserved in ethanol. A total of 21,197 specimens comprising 14 genera and 57 species were collected, and the majority of these were Nyssomyia, Psychodopygus, and Trichophoromyia genera. Three new records of phlebotomine species for Acre are presented here, including Brumptomyia brumpti, Psathyromyia pradobarrientosi, and for the first time in Brazil, Th. omagua. In Xapuri, the phlebotomine fauna of different ecotopes was varied in regard to abundance, diversity, and frequency, and they included proven and permissive vectors of Leishmania spp. The fauna discovered in the forested areas (57 species) was richer and more diverse than was that (33 species) identified in the peri­ and intra-domiciles. The identification of Leishmania subgenera that were present in sand fly guts according to SSU rRNA sequences revealed ten and three species harboring Leishmania of subgenera Viannia and Leishmania (most likely Leishmania amazonensis), respectively. The presence of Leishmania (Leishmania) in sand flies are reported here for the first time in Acre. The presence of L. (Viannia) spp. in Brumptomyia sp. and Lutzomyia sherlocki. and the occurrence of mixed infections with Leishmania of both subgenera in Ps. lainsoni have been reported for the first time in Brazil. Taken together, data from previous studies and from the present study highlight the remarkable complexity of phlebotomine fauna that is possibly due to the well-preserved Xapuri forested areas sustaining vital economic activities of plant extraction and ecological tourism. Our findings also provide new insights into the ongoing adaptation of Trichophoromyia and Psychodopygus species to human habitats.


Assuntos
Leishmania , Psychodidae , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Florestas , Humanos , Leishmania/genética , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Psychodidae/parasitologia
6.
Parasitol Res ; 120(9): 3091-3103, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405280

RESUMO

Green periurban residential areas in Mediterranean countries have flourished in the last decades and become foci for leishmaniasis. To remedy the absence of information on vector ecology in these environments, we examined phlebotomine sand fly distribution in 29 sites in Murcia City over a 3-year period, including the plots of 20 detached houses and nine non-urbanized sites nearby. We collected 5,066 specimens from five species using "sticky" interception and light attraction traps. The relative frequency of the main Leishmania infantum vector Phlebotomus perniciosus in these traps was 32% and 63%, respectively. Sand fly density was widely variable spatially and temporally and greatest in non-urbanized sites, particularly in caves and abandoned buildings close to domestic animal holdings. Phlebotomus perniciosus density in house plots was positively correlated with those in non-urbanized sites, greatest in larger properties with extensive vegetation and non-permanently lived, but not associated to dog presence or a history of canine leishmaniasis. Within house plots, sand fly density was highest in traps closest to walls. Furthermore, the study provides a guideline for insect density assessment and reporting and is envisioned as a building block towards the development of a pan-European database for robust investigation of environmental determinants of sand fly distribution.


Assuntos
Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose , Phlebotomus , Psychodidae , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Insetos Vetores , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Masculino , Espanha
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 622, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease, which mainly affects poor communities. It is one of the major vector-borne disease and endemic in Pakistan. METHODS: A case-control study to evaluate potential risk factors of human-CL was conducted in Khewra region, District Jhelum, Pakistan from January-April 2014. Case data about 90 cases registered during October 2012 to November 2013 was retrieved from Municipal Hospital. Controls were matched (1,1 ratio) on the date of registration with cases from same hospital. Both cases and controls were invited to participate and data was collected in a face-to-face interview. A prospective study of canine leishmaniasis (canine-CL) was also conducted at Civil Veterinary Hospital in the same area. Suspected dogs with skin ulceration signs were included in the study and blood samples were collected. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine association between various parameters and outcome of interest. RESULTS: The ages of cases ranged from 1 to 76 years (median = 15 years) and proved to be protective factor i.e. increase in each year in age reduced the likelihood of being infected with human-CL [Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.4, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.25-0.76]. People sleeping outsides in an open area were more likely to become a case (OR = 8.7, 95% CI = 2.90-26.37) than a control. Poor sanitary condition inside the house (OR = 3.3, 95% CI 1.03-10.56) and presence of other animals in house (livestock, poultry) (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.07-12.12) also identified as risk factors of high significance. The proportion of positive dogs with canine-CL was 21.05% and was significantly associated with human-CL cases in the same area (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that adopting self-protections measures against sand-fly, and maintaining good hygiene may lower the risk of human-CL. One-Health Strategy is suggested to control leishmaniasis in human and dog population.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Leishmaniose Cutânea/veterinária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Negligenciadas/veterinária , Saúde Única , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Psychodidae , Fatores de Risco , Saneamento
8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(1): 144-155, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232908

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease associated with poverty and is endemic in 56 countries worldwide. Brazil, Venezuela, and Colombia are the most affected countries in South America. In Colombia, the National Public Health Surveillance System (SIVIGILA) consolidates epidemiological information and monitors all VL cases nationwide. However, to date, no studies have investigated the occurrence of VL in Colombia using metadata analysis. We studied the demographic data, the spatial and temporal distribution of VL cases, and the association with vector distribution of Leishmania species in Colombia from 2007 to 2018. We found 306 VL cases reported to SIVIGILA for this period, with a coverage of 25.5 cases/year, and a mortality of 2.28% (seven deaths). The highest number of confirmed cases (N = 52) occurred in 2007; the lowest (N = 9) occurred in 2012. The cases were reported mainly in children (< 7 years) affiliated with the subsidized health regimen. Regarding the geographic distribution, the cases were reported by 42 municipalities distributed in 10 departments. The occurrence of VL cases toward the northeast of Colombia, and the distribution of vectors, such as Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lu. evansi, may be changing the panorama of VL in the country. We conclude that VL, mainly in recent years, shows a temporal and spatial variability associated with the occurrence of cases in new settings. Our findings increase our understanding and knowledge of this disease, and suggest the need to monitor and prioritize areas with changes in geographic expansion to improve prevention and control actions in the country.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania/classificação , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psychodidae/classificação , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise Espacial , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Acta Trop ; 222: 106031, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224718

RESUMO

Lutzomyia longipalpis sensu lato is a complex of phlebotomine sand fly species, which are widespread in the Neotropics. They have a great medico-veterinary importance due their role as vectors of Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis. Morphological variations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. males were reported in the late 1960s in Brazil. Male populations can present either one pair of spots on third abdominal tergites or two pairs on third and fourth ones, namely 1S and 2S phenotypes, respectively. Since then, there has been much interest on the taxonomic status of Lu. longipalpis s.l. Thereafter, several lines of evidence have been congruent in suggesting the existence of an uncertain number of cryptic species within Lu. longipalpis s.l. in Brazil. Herein, a 525 bp-fragment of the period gene was used for assessing the genetic structure and phylogenetic relationship of Lu. longipalpis s.l. populations in Brazil. We performed two set of analyses, first we originally sequenced three populations (Passira, Santarém and Teresina) of Lu. longipalpis s.l. and compared them. Thereafter, we performed a global analysis including in our dataset other three pairs of sympatric populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. from three Brazilian localities available in GenBank. Fixed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) sharing, maximum likelihood inference, genetic structure and haplotype analyses revealed the presence of two genetic groups, one composed of Teresina population, and the other encompassing Passira and Santarém populations. The global analysis reflected the first of its kind, and two prominent groups were observed: the clade I comprising Teresina 1S, Bodocó 1S, Caririaçu 1S and Sobral 1S; and the clade II encompassing Passira 2S, Santarém 1S, Bodocó 2S, Caririaçu 2S and Sobral 2S. Genetic differentiation data suggested a limited gene flow between populations of the clade I versus clade II. Our results disclosed the presence of two prominent genetic groups, which could reasonably represent populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. whose males produce the same courtship song.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Psychodidae , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Brasil , Masculino , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Psychodidae/genética
10.
Acta Trop ; 222: 106064, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302769

RESUMO

Leishmaniases are neglected tropical diseases caused by Leishmania spp. parasites transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies. In Argentina, the most endemic area of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) has been Orán department, Province of Salta, where Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis prevails and Nyssomyia neivai is considered as its vector, although there is no accurate and sufficient information in this regard. The aim of this work was to search for natural infection by Leishmania spp. in sand flies from peri-urban and rural sites with ATL background in Orán department. For this, sand flies were caught at five sites; female sand flies captured with Shannon trap were dissected to microscopically examine their gut contents, while females captured with CDC traps were molecularly analyzed by duplex PCR with two primer pairs to simultaneously amplify kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) and mammalian actin. A total of 1921 females were captured, with Ny. neivai being the most abundant species (89%), followed by Migonemyia migonei (6%) and cortelezzii complex (3%). No natural infection was found in any of them neither by dissection nor by PCR, although the detection limit of kDNA PCR was up to 25 promastigotes. The absence of infected females in peri-urban sites suggest that the transmission did not take place in those environments during the study period. Future searches for natural infection should focus on rural settings to deepen knowledge and elucidate the role of the circulating sand fly species as all have been linked to ATL transmission at other sites.


Assuntos
Leishmania , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Psychodidae , Animais , Argentina , Feminino , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Psychodidae/parasitologia
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 797: 148960, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303257

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania spp. mainly affecting individuals of low socioeconomic status. In tropical regions the transmission risk to humans depends not only on environmental factors, such as vegetation cover and climate, but also on the socioeconomic characteristics of human populations. However, the relative contribution of these factors to disease risk and incidence is not well understood. Yet this information is critical for the development of epidemiological surveillance schemes and control practices. Leishmaniasis cases have increased in São Paulo state, Brazil over recent years but the underlying risk factors for transmission remain understudied. Here, we use generalized linear mixed models to quantify the association between occurrence and incidence (number of cases) of cutaneous (CL) and visceral (VL) leishmaniasis from 1998 to 2015, and landscape (native vegetation cover), climate (seasonal and interannual variation in precipitation and temperature) and socioeconomic factors (population, number of cattle heads, Human Development Index - HDI, Gini inequality index and income per capita) across the 645 municipalities of São Paulo state, Brazil. For CL, probability of occurrence was greater in municipalities with high native vegetation cover and economic inequality and in years with greater average winter precipitation. For VL, probability of occurrence was greater in years with high minimum spring precipitation and maximum annual temperatures, and in municipalities with larger HDI values and a greater number of cattle heads. The number of VL cases increased during years with high mean fall precipitation and, for both CL and VL the number of cases was greater in years of high annual mean temperature. Understanding how these risk factors influence spatial and temporal variation in the risk and incidence of leishmaniasis can contribute to the development of effective public health policies and interventions.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Psychodidae , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Insetos Vetores , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Zootaxa ; 4974(2): 391395, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186851

RESUMO

Two new species of Bruchomyiinae Macquart from Brazil are described and illustrated. Laurenceomyia peixotoi Santos, Brazil Pinto sp. nov. to Amazon Forest and Boreofairchildia alexanderi Santos, Brazil Pinto sp. nov. to Atlantic Forest.


Assuntos
Psychodidae/classificação , Animais , Brasil , Florestas
13.
Zootaxa ; 4989(1): 1-438, 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186777

RESUMO

This catalog lists all 1226 nominal species introduced by Rondani within Diptera (1174 available and 52 unavailable), providing for each available name data on the type locality, type material, current taxonomic status and with remarks on both the collectors and the specialists who have studied this material. The following new synonymies are proposed: Panops aeneus Philippi, 1865 [Acroceridae] under Lasia aenea Rondani, 1863, n. syn.; Panops nigripes Philippi, 1865 [Acroceridae] under Lasia cuprea Rondani, 1863, n. syn.; Tabanus brasiliensis Rondani, 1850 [Tabanidae] under Dichelacera fasciata Walker, 1850, n. syn.; Petagnia subpetiolata Rondani, 1859 [Tachinidae] under Petagnia occlusa Rondani, 1856, n. syn.; Tephritis siderata Rondani, 1868 [Tephritidae] under Hexacinia radiosa (Rondani, 1868), n. syn. Mallophora macquartii Rondani 1851 [Asilidae] is considered as a senior (but invalid) synonym of Mallophora scopipeda Rondani, 1863, n. syn. Paragus mundus Wollaston, 1858 [Syrphidae] is proposed as the valid name for Paragus coadunatus sensu Goeldlin de Tiefenau (1976); Paragus coadunatus Rondani, 1847 [Syrphidae] is reinstated as a junior synonym of Paragus haemorrhous Meigen 1822. Lectotypes are designated herein for the following nominal species: Domomyza anthracipes Rondani, 1875, Domomyza frontella Rondani, 1875 [both in Agromyzidae]; Chorthophila impudica Rondani, 1866 [Anthomyiidae]; Sephanilla sertulata Rondani, 1875 [Aulacigastridae]; Peratochetus lutescens Rondani, 1856 [Clusiidae]; Myopa punctum Rondani, 1857 [Conopidae]; Culex pulcritarsis Rondani, 1872 [Culicidae]; Ephydra ciligena Rondani, 1868 [Ephydridae]; Lonchea scutellaris Rondani, 1875 [Lonchaeidae]; Geomyza pictipennis Rondani, 1875 [Opomyzidae]; Megaglossa vegetationis Rondani, 1869 [Platystomatidae]; Eumerus tuberculatus Rondani, 1857, Merodon varius Rondani, 1845, Paragus mundus Wollaston, 1858, Pipizella neuphritica Rondani, 1868 [all in Syrphidae]; Exorista noctuicida Rondani, 1859, Phoricheta lacrimans Rondani, 1861 [both in Tachinidae]; Tephritis decipiens Rondani, 1871, Tephritis matutina Rondani, 1871, Urophora lejura Rondani, 1870, Urophora venabulata Rondani, 1870, Urophora veruata Rondani, 1870 [all in Tephritidae]. The following nominal species have lectotypes designated according to Article 74.5 of the I.C.Z.N. Code: Chortophila divergens Rondani, 1866, Chortophila incognita Rondani, 1866 [both in Anthomyiidae]; Habropogon doriae Rondani, 1873, Promacus taeniopus Rondani, 1873 [both in Asilidae]; Chelidomyia melbae Rondani, 1879, Myophthiria lygaeoides Rondani, 1878, Ornithomya gestroi Rondani, 1878, Ornithomya hatamensis Rondani, 1878 [all in Hippoboscidae]; Megaglossa corticarum Rondani, 1869 [Platystomatidae]; Elgiva lateritia Rondani, 1868, Tetanocera nigricosta Rondani, 1868, Tetanocera punctifrons Rondani, 1868 [all in Sciomyzidae]; Tabanus justorius Rondani, 1875 [Tabanidae]. The following lectotypes are designated by inference according to Article 74.6 of I.C.Z.N.: Diopsis aethiopica Rondani, 1873, Diopsis latimana Rondani, 1875, Teleopsis breviscopium Rondani, 1875, Teleopsis longiscopium Rondani, 1875 [all in Diopsidae]; Cyclopodia albertisii Rondani, 1878, Myophthiria reduvioides Rondani, 1875 [both in Hippoboscidae]; Myiodella brachialis Rondani, 1873, Senopterina zonalis Rondani, 1875 [all in Platystomatidae]; Stevenia florentina Rondani, 1861 [Rhinophoridae]; Miltogramma punctatella Rondani, 1868 [Sarcophagidae]; Sargus leoninus Rondani, 1875 [Stratiomyidae]; Chrysops alter Rondani, 1875, Chrysops unizonatus Rondani, 1875, Tabanus dives Rondani, 1875, Tabanus fulvissimus Rondani, 1875, Tabanus ignobilis Rondani, 1875 [all in Tabanidae]; Themara hirtipes Rondani, 1875 [Tephritidae]. The following names are new combinations: Diopsis latimana Rondani, 1875 [Diopsidae] is transferred to Teleopsis and kept as a junior synonym of Teleopsis dalmanni (Wiedemann, 1830), comb. nov.; Diopsis lativola Rondani, 1875 [Diopsidae] is transferred to Teleopsis and kept as a junior synonym of Teleopsis dalmanni (Wiedemann, 1830), comb. nov. The following names, previously deemed unavailable, are determined here to be available: Petagnia occlusa Rondani, 1856 [Tachinidae]; Tephritis siderata Rondani, 1868 [Tephritidae]. The following names, previous deemed available, are determined here to be unavailable: Porricondyla albitarsis Rondani, 1840 [Cecidomyiidae], Lucilia cyanicolor Rondani, 1850 [Calliphoridae]; Cephenemya stimulatrix Rondani, 1857 [Oestridae]; Cheilosia nigricornis Rondani, 1844, Cheilosia testacicornis Rondani, 1857, Pelecocera ruficornis Rondani, 1865 [all in Syrphidae]; Cylindrogaster sanguinea Rondani, 1861, Deximorpha cristata Rondani, 1862, Myostoma microcera Rondani, 1856 [all in Tachinidae]; Tripeta exacheta Rondani, 1870 [Tephritidae]. We consider Merodon italicus Rondani 1845 as an unnecessary substitute name for Merodon natans Fabricius, 1794 and confirm it as a junior synonym of Merodon natans Fabricius, 1794. Acting as First Revisers, the following are herein selected as correct original spellings: Trichophthalma philippii Rondani, 1863 [Nemestrinidae]; Sphiximorpha garibaldii Rondani, 1860 [Syrphidae]; Agelanius philippii Rondani, 1863 [Tabanidae]; Exorista achanthina Rondani, 1859, Platychyra brevicauda Rondani, 1865 [Tachinidae]. Species not previously treated in any recent Diptera catalog include the following: Chorthophila limbatella Rondani, 1877, Hylephila melitensis Rondani 1877 [both in Anthomyiidae]; Mya jonicroma Rondani, 1851, Mya versicolor Rondani, 1850, Somomya anulipes Rondani, 1863, Somomyia xanthomera Rondani, 1875 [all in Calliphoridae]; Madiza fabae Rondani, 1876 [Chloropidae]; Psilopus ducalis Rondani, 1850 [Dolichopodidae]; Gymnopa opaca Rondani, 1869 [Ephydridae]; Oedalea bracata Rondani, 1856 [Hybotidae]; Sapromyza albifrons Rondani, 1868, Sapromyza rectinervis Rondani, 1868 [both in Lauxaniidae]; Boletina parmensis Rondani, 1856, Bolithobia lateralis Rondani, 1856, Bolithomyza spinulina Rondani, 1856, Mycetomyza sciarina Rondani, 1856, Pachipalpus calceatus Rondani, 1856 [all in Mycetophilidae]; Lyoneura lugubris Rondani, 1856 [Psychodidae]; Volucella trizonata Rondani, 1875 [Syrphidae]; Echinomya apicalis Rondani, 1848, Echinomya ignobilis Rondani, 1863, Gonia ornata var. repudiata Rondani, 1859, Hyalomyia unicolor Rondani, 1868, Platychyra valida Rondani, 1865, Pyragrura uncinatus Rondani, 1861 [all in Tachinidae]. One species, Bertea subaptera Rondani, 1856, is returned to Diptera from Hymenoptera after examination of the type material.


Assuntos
Dípteros/classificação , Animais , Culicidae , Nematóceros , Psychodidae , Sarcofagídeos , Tephritidae
14.
Zootaxa ; 4985(4): 582594, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186783

RESUMO

Psychodid specimens were sorted from samples collected during fieldwork in areas in and around the Caucasus Mountains in 2019. Thornburghiella montana sp. nov. (from Georgia) and Pericoma inopinata sp. nov. (from Azerbaijan and Georgia) are described. Differential diagnoses are given and diagnostic characters illustrated.


Assuntos
Psychodidae/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Azerbaijão , Georgia
15.
Vet Parasitol ; 296: 109492, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144379

RESUMO

Zoonotic leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum is a vector-borne disease endemic in southern Europe and dogs are the main reservoir for this infection. Seasonal variations in antibody titers in this species in areas where phlebotomine vectors have seasonal patterns of activity are important for epidemiological, preventive and clinical studies related with canine leishmaniosis. It has been suggested that cats, rabbits and ferrets may act as peridomestic reservoirs and not only as accidental hosts. The aim of this study was to determine if seropositive ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) to Leishmania could be affected by seasonal variations of anti-Leishmania antibodies. A group of seropositive clinically healthy ferrets (n = 21) were included in this study. A significant reduction in anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies was detected during non-transmission period (December 2020-February 2021) in comparison to transmission period (April-October 2020). This study describes for the first time a seasonal variation in the anti-Leishmania antibodies detected in domestic ferrets following natural exposure during sand fly transmission period and the following non-sand fly transmission period in a Mediterranean area considered as an area where L. infantum is endemic.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Furões , Leishmaniose Visceral , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Furões/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Região do Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Psychodidae , Estações do Ano , Espanha/epidemiologia
16.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(6): e1009666, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143858

RESUMO

Leishmania parasites possess a unique and complex cytoskeletal structure termed flagellum attachment zone (FAZ) connecting the base of the flagellum to one side of the flagellar pocket (FP), an invagination of the cell body membrane and the sole site for endocytosis and exocytosis. This structure is involved in FP architecture and cell morphogenesis, but its precise role and molecular composition remain enigmatic. Here, we characterized Leishmania FAZ7, the only known FAZ protein containing a kinesin motor domain, and part of a clade of trypanosomatid-specific kinesins with unknown functions. The two paralogs of FAZ7, FAZ7A and FAZ7B, display different localizations and functions. FAZ7A localizes at the basal body, while FAZ7B localizes at the distal part of the FP, where the FAZ structure is present in Leishmania. While null mutants of FAZ7A displayed normal growth rates, the deletion of FAZ7B impaired cell growth in both promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania. The kinesin activity is crucial for its function. Deletion of FAZ7B resulted in altered cell division, cell morphogenesis (including flagellum length), and FP structure and function. Furthermore, knocking out FAZ7B induced a mis-localization of two of the FAZ proteins, and disrupted the molecular organization of the FP collar, affecting the localization of its components. Loss of the kinesin FAZ7B has important consequences in the insect vector and mammalian host by reducing proliferation in the sand fly and pathogenicity in mice. Our findings reveal the pivotal role of the only FAZ kinesin as part of the factors important for a successful life cycle of Leishmania.


Assuntos
Flagelos/metabolismo , Cinesina/metabolismo , Leishmania mexicana/patogenicidade , Leishmaniose/metabolismo , Virulência/fisiologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Leishmania mexicana/fisiologia , Camundongos , Morfogênese , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Psychodidae
17.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 139: 111671, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957562

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis, a neglected parasitic disease caused by a unicellular protozoan of the genus Leishmania, is transmitted through the bite of a female sandfly. The disease remains a major public health problem and is linked to tropical and subtropical regions, with an endemic picture in several regions, including East Africa, the Mediterranean basin and South America. The different causative species display a diversity of clinical presentations; therefore, the immunological data on leishmaniasis are both scarce and controversial for the different forms and infecting species of the parasite. The present review highlights the main immune parameters associated with leishmaniasis that might contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenicity of the parasite and the clinical outcomes of the disease. Our aim was to provide a concise overview of the immunobiology of the disease and the factors that influence it, as this knowledge may be helpful in developing novel chemotherapeutic and vaccine strategies.


Assuntos
Leishmania/imunologia , Leishmaniose/imunologia , Leishmaniose/terapia , Animais , Humanos , Imunidade , Imunoterapia , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Psychodidae
18.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 633146, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33968798

RESUMO

In the Leishmania lifecycle, the motile promastigote form is transmitted from the sand fly vector to a mammalian host during a blood meal. Inside vertebrate host macrophages, the parasites can differentiate into the amastigote form and multiply, causing leishmaniasis, one of the most significant neglected tropical diseases. Leishmania parasites face different conditions throughout their development inside sand flies. Once in the mammalian host, the parasites have to overcome the microbicide repertoire of the cells of the immune system to successfully establish the infection. In this context, the expression of protein phosphatases is of particular interest. Several members of the serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase (STP), protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP), and histidine acid phosphatase (HAcP) families have been described in different Leishmania species. Although their physiological roles have not been fully elucidated, many studies suggest they have an involvement with parasite biology and pathogeny. Phosphatases play a role in adaptation to nutrient starvation during parasite passage through the sand fly midgut. They are also important to parasite virulence, mainly due to the modulation of host cytokine production and impairment of the microbiocidal potential of macrophages. Furthermore, recent whole-genome expression analyses have shown that different phosphatases are upregulated in metacyclic promastigotes, the infective form of the mammalian host. Leishmania phosphatases are also upregulated in drug-resistant strains, probably due to the increase in drug efflux related to the activation of ABC transporters. Throughout this review, we will describe the physiological roles that have been attributed to Leishmania endogenous phosphatases, including their involvement in the adaptation, survival, and proliferation of the parasites inside their hosts.


Assuntos
Leishmania , Parasitos , Psychodidae , Animais , Biologia , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases
19.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 653670, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33996631

RESUMO

Neglected Tropical Diseases include a broad range of pathogens, hosts, and vectors, which represent evolving complex systems. Leishmaniasis, caused by different Leishmania species and transmitted to humans by sandflies, are among such diseases. Leishmania and other Trypanosomatidae display some peculiar features, which make them a complex system to study. Leishmaniasis chemotherapy is limited due to high toxicity of available drugs, long-term treatment protocols, and occurrence of drug resistant parasite strains. Systems biology studies the interactions and behavior of complex biological processes and may improve knowledge of Leishmania drug resistance. System-level studies to understand Leishmania biology have been challenging mainly because of its unusual molecular features. Networks integrating the biochemical and biological pathways involved in drug resistance have been reported in literature. Antioxidant defense enzymes have been identified as potential drug targets against leishmaniasis. These and other biomarkers might be studied from the perspective of systems biology and systems parasitology opening new frontiers for drug development and treatment of leishmaniasis and other diseases. Our main goals include: 1) Summarize current advances in Leishmania research focused on chemotherapy and drug resistance. 2) Share our viewpoint on the application of systems biology to Leishmania studies. 3) Provide insights and directions for future investigation.


Assuntos
Leishmania , Leishmaniose , Psychodidae , Animais , Resistência a Medicamentos , Humanos , Biologia de Sistemas
20.
Acta Trop ; 220: 105953, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979638

RESUMO

Several light trap devices have been invented and developed to assess the abundance of sand flies. Traps available in the market have different designs and attractant combinations to catch sand fly vectors. We evaluated the efficacy of four commercial light traps and determined the effect of trap placement and carbon dioxide (CO2) on sand fly collection in northern Thailand. Trap evaluations were conducted at two natural caves located in Chiang Rai province, Thailand. In the first part of the study, the efficacies of four trap types including the Centers for Disease Control miniature light trap (CDC LT), Encephalitis Vector Survey trap (EVS), CDC Updraft Blacklight trap (CDC UB), and Laika trap (LK) were evaluated and compared using a Latin square experimental design. The second half of the study evaluated the influence of trap placement and CO2 on sand fly collection. Additionally, CDC LT were placed inside, outside, and at the entrance of caves to compare the number of sand flies collected. For the trap efficacy experiment, a total of 11,876 phlebotomine sand flies were collected over 32 trap-nights. Results demonstrated that CDC LT, CDC UB, and LK collected significantly more sand flies than EVS (P > 0.05). However, there were no significant differences between the numbers of sand flies collected by CDC LT, CDC UB, and LK. A total of 6,698 sand flies were collected from the trap placement and CO2 experiment over 72 trap-nights. Results showed that CO2 did not influence the numbers of sand flies captured (P < 0.05), whereas trap placement at the entrance of the caves resulted in collection of significantly more sand flies than traps placed inside and outside of the caves. We found the CDC LT, CDC UB, and LK without CO2 captured the greatest amount of sand flies. This was particularly observed when traps were placed at the entrance of a cave, perhaps because of the greater passage of stimuli caused by wind flow at the entrance of the cave. The light traps in this study can be used effectively to collect sand fly vectors in northern Thailand.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Phlebotomus , Psychodidae , Animais , Cavernas , Vetores de Doenças , Controle de Insetos/instrumentação , Tailândia
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