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1.
Cogn Sci ; 45(10): e13050, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643964

RESUMO

The input to phonological reasoning are alternations, that is, variations in the pronunciation of related words, such as in electri[k] - electri[s]-ity. But phonologists cannot agree what counts as a relevant alternation: the issue is highly contentious despite a research record of over 50 years. We believe that the experimental setup presented may contribute to this debate based on a kind of evidence that was not brought to bear to date. Our experiment was thus designed to distinguish between alternations where phonological computation plays no role, and those where it has contributed to language production. The design manipulates two factors that to date have not been considered in experimental studies of language production: linguistic complexity and alternation specificity. The former is understood as extra processing demands issued by two types of linguistic activity, morphosyntactic and phonological. Our results show that reaction time latencies are longer when participants are burdened with both morphosyntactic and phonological tasks than when they carry out just a morphosyntactic task, and they are still shorter in absence of both types of demands. These results allowed us to address alternation specificity, that is, the fact that different alternations (within a language or across languages) may be driven by different production routines (an idea that is consensual among linguists but underdeveloped in the psycholinguistic literature). Our study shows that four different alternations in French produce alternation-specific signatures in reaction time latencies. These findings may thus redound to the advantage of psycholinguistic studies by identifying two new factors, as well as produce results that speak to the linguistic quarrels.


Assuntos
Idioma , Fonética , Cognição , Humanos , Psicolinguística , Tempo de Reação
2.
Cogn Sci ; 45(9): e13039, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490911

RESUMO

Although a large literature demonstrates that object-extracted relative clauses (ORCs) are harder to process than subject-extracted relative clauses (SRCs), there is less agreement regarding where during processing this difficulty emerges, as well as how best to explain these effects. An eye-tracking study by Staub, Dillon, and Clifton (2017) demonstrated that readers experience more processing difficulty at the matrix verb for ORCs than for SRCs when the matrix verb immediately follows the relative clause (RC), but the difficulty is eliminated if a prepositional phrase (PP) intervenes. A careful examination of Staub et al.'s materials reveals that the types of PPs used in the experiment were a mixture of locative and temporal PPs. This is important in that locative PPs can modify either a noun phrase or a verb phrase (VP), whereas temporal PPs typically modify VPs, resulting in systematic differences in PP attachment across ORCs versus SRCs. In the current eye-tracking experiment, we systematically manipulated RC type and PP type in the same sentences used by Staub et al. The manipulation of PP type resulted in a crossover pattern at the matrix verb such that there was a trend for reading times to be longer for ORCs than SRCs when the PP was locative, but reading times were longer for SRCs than ORCs when the PP was temporal. These results provide important information regarding the locus of RC-processing effects and highlight the importance of carefully considering how intervening material might unintentionally alter the structure or the meaning of a sentence.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Psicolinguística , Causalidade , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Idioma
3.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 15(3): 405-412, Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339794

RESUMO

ABSTRACT. The differential diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is challenging due to overlapping clinical manifestations of the different variants of the disease. This is particularly true for the logopenic variant of PPA (lvPPA), in which such overlap was reported with regard to impairments in repetition abilities. In this study, four individuals with lvPPA underwent standard neuropsychological and language assessments. The influence of psycholinguistic variables on their performance of in word, nonword and sentence repetition tasks was also specifically explored. Some level of heterogeneity was found in cognitive functions and in language. The four participants showed impairment in sentence repetition in which their performance was negatively affected by semantic reversibility and syntactic complexity. This study supports the heterogeneity of lvPPA with respect to the cognitive and linguistic status of participants. It also shows that sentence repetition is influenced not only by length, but also by semantic reversibility and syntactic complexity, two psycholinguistic variables known to place additional demands on phonological working memory.


RESUMO. O diagnóstico diferencial da afasia progressiva primária (APP) é desafiador devido às sobreposições das manifestações clínicas das diferentes variantes da doença. Isso é particularmente verdadeiro para a variante logopênica do APP (APPlg), em que tal sobreposição foi relatada em relação à deficiências nas habilidades de repetição. No presente estudo, quatro indivíduos com APPlg foram submetidos à avaliações neuropsicológica e de linguagem. A influência de variáveis psicolinguísticas em seu desempenho de palavras, não-palavras e tarefas de repetição de frases também foi especificamente explorada. Certo nível de heterogeneidade foi encontrado nas funções cognitivas e na linguagem. Os quatro participantes apresentaram prejuízo na repetição de frases em que seu desempenho foi afetado negativamente pela reversibilidade semântica e complexidade sintática. O estudo apoia a heterogeneidade do APPlg no que diz respeito ao status cognitivo e linguístico dos participantes. Mostra também que a repetição de sentenças é influenciada não apenas pelo comprimento, mas também pela reversibilidade semântica e complexidade sintática, duas variáveis psicolinguísticas conhecidas por colocarem demandas adicionais na memória operacional fonológica.


Assuntos
Humanos , Afasia Primária Progressiva , Transtorno Específico de Linguagem , Psicolinguística , Diagnóstico Diferencial
4.
Investig. psicol. (La Paz, En línea) ; (supl.): 9-28, sept. 2021. tab.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343610

RESUMO

La psicolingüística es una rama de la psicología, estudia cómo la especie humana consigue expresar mediante el lenguaje mensajes inconscientes que tienen significados específicos y cómo se traducen en pensamientos concretos; asimismo la forma en que las personas hablan y escriben permite conocer su mundo psicológico. Para ello, la investigación aborda la poesía de Carlos Medinaceli Quintana con el objetivo de comprobar mediante una prueba piloto la efectividad de las herramientas psicolingüísticas, para descubrir la psicología de una persona a través de las palabras que emplea al escribir, lo cual servirá como instrumento de diagnóstico en conductas específicas en distintas áreas profesionales. La metodología propuesta consta de tres procesos: 1 La frecuencia léxica permite identificar el tipo y repetición de palabras utilizadas 2 El Buscador Lingüístico y Contador de Palabras en inglés LIWC, 2001 permite determinar esas palabras repetitivas según la categoría de procesos psicológicos y 3 El efecto priming permite interpretar y analizar el significado de las palabras que proporcionaron la frecuencia léxica y el LIWC.


Psycholinguistics is a branch of psychology, it studies how the human species manages to express through language unconscious messages that have specific meanings and how they are translated into concrete thoughts; also the way in which people speak and write allows us to know their psychological world. For this, the research addresses the poetry of Carlos Medinaceli Quintana with the aim of verifying through a pilot test the effectiveness of psycholinguistic tools, to discover the psychology of a person through the words he uses when writing, which will serve as an instrument of diagnosis in specific behaviors in different professional areas. The proposed methodology consists of three processes: 1 The lexical frequency allows identifying the type and repetition of words used 2 The linguistic search engine and word counter in english LIWC, 2001 allows determining those repetitive words according to psychological processes and 3 The priming effect allows to interpret and analyze the meaning of the words that provided the lexical frequency and the LIWC.


A psicolinguística é um ramo da psicologia, que estuda como a espécie humana consegue expressar através da linguagem inconsciente mensagens que possuem significados específicos e como se traduzem em pensamentos concretos; também a maneira como as pessoas falam e escrevem nos permite conhecer seu mundo psicológico. Para isso, a pesquisa aborda a poesia de Carlos Medinaceli Quintana como objetivo de verificar por meio de um teste piloto a eficácia dasferramentas psicolingüísticas, para descobrir a psicologia de uma pessoa por meio das palavras que usa ao escrever, as quais servirão de instrumento de diagnóstico em comportamentos específicos em diferentes áreas profissionais. A metodologiaproposta consiste em três processos: 1 A frequência lexical permite identificar o tipo e repetição de palavras utilizadas 2 O Motor de Busca Linguística e Contador de palavras em inglês LIWC, 2001 permite determinar essas palavras repetitivas de acordo com a categoria de processos psicológicos e 3 O efeito priming permite interpretar e analisar o significado das palavras que forneceram a frequência lexical e o LIWC.


Assuntos
Psicolinguística , Idioma , Pesquisa
5.
Oncol Nurs Forum ; 48(5): 474-480, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411087

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test the feasibility of using psycholinguistic speech analysis as a proxy for cognitive function in men undergoing treatment for prostate cancer. SAMPLE & SETTING: Audio-recorded speech samples were collected from 13 men enrolled in a parent study at the University of Kansas Cancer Center in Kansas City. METHODS & VARIABLES: Audio-recorded speech samples, collected from clinical interviews and in response to a prompt question during the parent study at two time points, were evaluated to determine feasibility relationships between neurocognitive and psycholinguistic measures. RESULTS: Correlations between neurocognitive and psycholinguistic measures were identified for prompted speech, but the strength of relationships varied between time points. No relationships were identified in clinical interview speech samples. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: Feasibility was demonstrated for recording, transcribing, and analyzing speech from clinical interviews, and results suggest relationships between neurocognitive and psycholinguistic measures in prompted speech. If validated, psycholinguistic assessments may be used to assess cognitive function in cancer survivors. Advances in natural language processing may provide opportunities for automated speech analyses for cancer treatment-related cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Neoplasias , Cognição , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Psicolinguística
6.
Cogn Sci ; 45(8): e13020, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379334

RESUMO

This paper develops a novel psycholinguistic parser and tests it against experimental and corpus reading data. The parser builds on the recent research into memory structures, which argues that memory retrieval is content-addressable and cue-based. It is shown that the theory of cue-based memory systems can be combined with transition-based parsing to produce a parser that, when combined with the cognitive architecture ACT-R, can model reading and predict online behavioral measures (reading times and regressions). The parser's modeling capacities are tested against self-paced reading experimental data (Grodner & Gibson, 2005), eye-tracking experimental data (Staub, 2011), and a self-paced reading corpus (Futrell et al., 2018).


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Psicolinguística , Humanos , Memória , Software
7.
Scand J Psychol ; 62(6): 806-819, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423430

RESUMO

Proficiency in a language is strongly related to how well and how many words one knows. Vocabulary knowledge correlates with reading comprehension and general communication ability. Due to the increasing amount of research within the field of psycholinguistics and second language acquisition in Finnish, a standardized test to objectively measure Finnish vocabulary knowledge is called for. Lexize is such a test. It was modeled after LexTALE (Lemhöfer & Broersma, Behaviour Research Methods, 44:325-343, 2012), which was developed to measure vocabulary knowledge of English as a second language using visual lexical decision (VLD). Lexize is a VLD-based online test for Finnish that consists of 102 items. By comparing performance of L1 and L2 speakers of Finnish, Lexize was validated, returning considerable differences between test scores in native and non-native speakers. For non-native speakers there was a large range of test scores, correlating strongly with exposure to Finnish and self-ratings. In native speakers, test scores correlated with self-ratings, Finnish school grades, and age. In this group, higher Lexize scores were associated with a higher education level. We conclude that Lexize is a useful tool to assess Finnish vocabulary knowledge for non-native speakers and to some extent for native speakers. Lexize is available for free use at https://psyk.abo.fi/LexizeWeb/#/.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Vocabulário , Finlândia , Humanos , Idioma , Psicolinguística
8.
Cognition ; 215: 104814, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303181

RESUMO

Bilingual speakers often switch between languages in conversation without any advance notice. Psycholinguistic research has found that these language shifts (or code-switches) can be costly for comprehenders in certain situations. The present study explores the nature of these costs by comparing code-switches to other types of unexpected linguistic material. To do this, we used a novel EEG paradigm, the Storytime task, in which we record readings of natural texts, and then experimentally manipulate their properties by splicing in words. In this study, we manipulated the language of our target words (English, Spanish) and their fit with the preceding context (strong-fit, weak-fit). If code-switching incurs a unique cost beyond that incurred by an unexpected word, then we should see an additive pattern in our ERP indices. If an effect is driven by lexical expectation alone, then there should be a non-additive interaction such that all unexpected forms incur a similar cost. We found three effects: a general prediction effect (a non-additive N400), a post-lexical recognition of the switch in languages (an LPC for code-switched words), and a prolonged integration difficulty associated with weak-fitting words regardless of language (a sustained negativity). We interpret these findings as suggesting that the processing difficulties experienced by bilinguals can largely be understood within more general frameworks for understanding language comprehension. Our findings are consistent with the broader literature demonstrating that bilinguals do not have two wholly separate language systems but rather a single language system capable of using two coding systems.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Multilinguismo , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Psicolinguística
9.
Cognition ; 215: 104735, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303182

RESUMO

The influence of stimuli in psycholinguistic experiments diffuses across time because the human response to language is not instantaneous. The linear models typically used to analyze psycholinguistic data are unable to account for this phenomenon due to strong temporal independence assumptions, while existing deconvolutional methods for estimating diffuse temporal structure model time discretely and therefore cannot be directly applied to natural language stimuli where events (words) have variable duration. In light of evidence that continuous-time deconvolutional regression (CDR) can address these issues (Shain & Schuler, 2018), this article motivates the use of CDR for many experimental settings, exposits some of its mathematical properties, and empirically evaluates the influence of various experimental confounds (noise, multicollinearity, and impulse response misspecification), hyperparameter settings, and response types (behavioral and fMRI). Results show that CDR (1) yields highly consistent estimates across a variety of hyperparameter configurations, (2) faithfully recovers the data-generating model on synthetic data, even under adverse training conditions, and (3) outperforms widely-used statistical approaches when applied to naturalistic reading and fMRI data. In addition, procedures for testing scientific hypotheses using CDR are defined and demonstrated, and empirically-motivated best-practices for CDR modeling are proposed. Results support the use of CDR for analyzing psycholinguistic time series, especially in a naturalistic experimental paradigm.


Assuntos
Idioma , Psicolinguística , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Leitura
10.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254484, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270572

RESUMO

This study provides psycholinguistic and affective norms for 1,252 Spanish idiomatic expressions. A total of 965 Spanish native speakers rated the idioms in 7 subjective variables: familiarity, knowledge of the expression, decomposability, literality, predictability, valence and arousal. Correlational analyses showed that familiarity has a strong positive correlation with knowledge, suggesting that the knowledge of the figurative meaning of an idiom is highly related to its frequency of use. Familiarity has a moderate positive correlation with final word predictability, indicating that the more familiar an idiom is rated, the more predictable it tends to be. Decomposability shows a moderate positive correlation with literality, suggesting that those idioms whose figurative meaning is easier to deduce from their constituents tend to have a plausible literal meaning. In affective terms, Spanish idioms tend to convey more negative (66%) than positive meanings (33%). Furthermore, valence and arousal show a quadratic relationship, in line with the typical U-shaped relationship found for single words, which means that the more emotionally valenced an idiom is rated, the more arousing it is considered to be. This database will provide researchers with a large pool of stimuli for studying the representation and processing of idioms in healthy and clinical populations.


Assuntos
Psicolinguística , Emoções , Idioma , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Semântica
11.
Can J Exp Psychol ; 75(2): 96-98, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124931

RESUMO

Throughout his 45-year career, Professor Albert Katz (Department of Psychology, Western University) has tackled challeng ing aspects of human communication in a way that creatively merges the theoretical insights and empirical rigor of cognitive linguistics, psycholinguistics, and cognitive neuroscience. In this personal reflection, Professor Katz writes a short biographical piece on the life journey that led to his research programs. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Neurociência Cognitiva , Psicolinguística , Humanos , Resolução de Problemas , Psicologia , Universidades
12.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252408, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081750

RESUMO

Emotions and temperature are closely related through embodied processes, and people seem to associate temperature concepts with emotions. While this relationship is often evidenced by everyday language (e.g., cold and warm feelings), what remains missing to date is a systematic study that holistically analyzes how and why people associate specific temperatures with emotions. The present research aimed to investigate the associations between temperature concepts and emotion adjectives on both explicit and implicit levels. In Experiment 1, we evaluated explicit associations between twelve pairs of emotion adjectives derived from the circumplex model of affect, and five different temperature concepts ranging from 0°C to 40°C, based on responses from 403 native speakers of four different languages (English, Spanish, Japanese, Chinese). The results of Experiment 1 revealed that, across languages, the temperatures were associated with different regions of the circumplex model. The 0°C and 10°C were associated with negative-valanced, low-arousal emotions, while 20°C was associated with positive-valanced, low-to-medium-arousal emotions. Moreover, 30°C was associated with positive-valanced, high-arousal emotions; and 40°C was associated with high-arousal and either positive- or negative-valanced emotions. In Experiment 2 (N = 102), we explored whether these temperature-emotion associations were also present at the implicit level, by conducting Implicit Association Tests (IATs) with temperature words (cold and hot) and opposing pairs of emotional adjectives for each dimension of valence (Unhappy/Dissatisfied vs. Happy/Satisfied) and arousal (Passive/Quiet vs. Active/Alert) on native English speakers. The results of Experiment 2 revealed that participants held implicit associations between the word hot and positive-valanced and high-arousal emotions. Additionally, the word cold was associated with negative-valanced and low-arousal emotions. These findings provide evidence for the existence of temperature-emotion associations at both explicit and implicit levels across languages.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Temperatura , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Cortex ; 141: 363-402, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130047

RESUMO

Words differ in the complexity of their semantic representations and their relationships to other words and these differences can be operationalised as a variety of semantic variables. The research presented here investigates how word production in aphasia is influenced by six feature-based semantic variables (number of near semantic neighbours, semantic similarity, number of semantic features, typicality, intercorrelational density, and distinctiveness). Previous research has reported inconsistent findings for some of the semantic variables, while others have not been previously studied in aphasia. Spoken picture naming data from a large group of individuals with aphasia with mixed spoken word production impairments (n = 175) and a sub-group who produced few phonological errors (n = 60) was analysed. We examined effects of the semantic variables on overall naming accuracy and on the occurrence of different error types (semantic errors overall, coordinate errors, omissions), while controlling for other psycholinguistic variables using generalised linear mixed effects models and Bayesian correlations. Across analyses, number of semantic features was the most important predictor with a facilitatory main effect on naming accuracy in the sub-group analysis. Number of semantic features, along with typicality and semantic similarity, also predicted error types and in some analyses these effects depended on the integrity of semantic processing. Effects of the semantic variables and their theoretical explanations and implications are discussed in light of previous research and models of word production.


Assuntos
Afasia , Semântica , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Linguística , Psicolinguística
14.
Neuroimage ; 237: 118168, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000398

RESUMO

Spoken language comprehension is a fundamental component of our cognitive skills. We are quite proficient at deciphering words from the auditory input despite the fact that the speech we hear is often masked by noise such as background babble originating from talkers other than the one we are attending to. To perceive spoken language as intended, we rely on prior linguistic knowledge and context. Prior knowledge includes all sounds and words that are familiar to a listener and depends on linguistic experience. For bilinguals, the phonetic and lexical repertoire encompasses two languages, and the degree of overlap between word forms across languages affects the degree to which they influence one another during auditory word recognition. To support spoken word recognition, listeners often rely on semantic information (i.e., the words we hear are usually related in a meaningful way). Although the number of multilinguals across the globe is increasing, little is known about how crosslinguistic effects (i.e., word overlap) interact with semantic context and affect the flexible neural systems that support accurate word recognition. The current multi-echo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study addresses this question by examining how prime-target word pair semantic relationships interact with the target word's form similarity (cognate status) to the translation equivalent in the dominant language (L1) during accurate word recognition of a non-dominant (L2) language. We tested 26 early-proficient Spanish-Basque (L1-L2) bilinguals. When L2 targets matching L1 translation-equivalent phonological word forms were preceded by unrelated semantic contexts that drive lexical competition, a flexible language control (fronto-parietal-subcortical) network was upregulated, whereas when they were preceded by related semantic contexts that reduce lexical competition, it was downregulated. We conclude that an interplay between semantic and crosslinguistic effects regulates flexible control mechanisms of speech processing to facilitate L2 word recognition, in noise.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Multilinguismo , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
15.
Cogn Sci ; 45(5): e12943, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018227

RESUMO

Lexical ambiguity-the phenomenon of a single word having multiple, distinguishable senses-is pervasive in language. Both the degree of ambiguity of a word (roughly, its number of senses) and the relatedness of those senses have been found to have widespread effects on language acquisition and processing. Recently, distributional approaches to semantics, in which a word's meaning is determined by its contexts, have led to successful research quantifying the degree of ambiguity, but these measures have not distinguished between the ambiguity of words with multiple related senses versus multiple unrelated meanings. In this work, we present the first assessment of whether distributional meaning representations can capture the ambiguity structure of a word, including both the number and relatedness of senses. On a very large sample of English words, we find that some, but not all, distributional semantic representations that we test exhibit detectable differences between sets of monosemes (unambiguous words; N = 964), polysemes (with multiple related senses; N = 4,096), and homonyms (with multiple unrelated senses; N = 355). Our findings begin to answer open questions from earlier work regarding whether distributional semantic representations of words, which successfully capture various semantic relationships, also reflect fine-grained aspects of meaning structure that influence human behavior. Our findings emphasize the importance of measuring whether proposed lexical representations capture such distinctions: In addition to standard benchmarks that test the similarity structure of distributional semantic models, we need to also consider whether they have cognitively plausible ambiguity structure.


Assuntos
Psicolinguística , Semântica , Humanos , Idioma
16.
Cogn Sci ; 45(5): e12949, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018238

RESUMO

Compositionality has been a central concept in linguistics and philosophy for decades, and it is increasingly prominent in many other areas of cognitive science. Its status, however, remains contentious. Here, I reassess the nature and scope of the principle of compositionality (Partee, 1995) from the perspective of psycholinguistics and cognitive neuroscience. First, I review classic arguments for compositionality and conclude that they fail to establish compositionality as a property of human language. Next, I state a new competence argument, acknowledging the fact that any competent user of a language L can assign to most expressions in L at least one meaning which is a function only of the meanings of the expression's parts and of its syntactic structure. I then discuss selected results from cognitive neuroscience, indicating that the human brain possesses the processing capacities presupposed by the competence argument. Finally, I outline a language processing architecture consistent with the neuroscience results, where semantic representations may be generated by a syntax-driven stream and by an "asyntactic" processing stream, jointly or independently. Compositionality is viewed as a constraint on computation in the former stream only.


Assuntos
Idioma , Semântica , Encéfalo , Humanos , Linguística , Psicolinguística
17.
Neuroimage ; 237: 118182, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020020

RESUMO

Gestures are an integral part of in-person conversations and complement the meaning of the speech they accompany. The neural processing of co-speech gestures is supported by a mostly left-lateralized network of fronto-temporal regions. However, in contrast to iconic gestures, metaphoric as well as unrelated gestures have been found to more strongly engage the left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), respectively. With this study, we conducted the first systematic comparison of all three types of gestures and resulting potential laterality effects. During collection of functional imaging data, 74 subjects were presented with 5 s videos of abstract speech with related metaphoric gestures, concrete speech with related iconic gestures and concrete speech with unrelated gestures. They were asked to judge whether the content of the speech and gesture matched or not. Differential contrasts revealed that both abstract related and concrete unrelated compared to concrete related stimuli elicited stronger activation of the bilateral IFG. Analyses of lateralization indices for IFG activation further showed a left hemispheric dominance for metaphoric gestures and a right hemispheric dominance for unrelated gestures. Our results give support to the hypothesis that the bilateral IFG is activated specifically when processing load for speech-gesture combinations is high. In addition, laterality effects indicate a stronger involvement of the right IFG in mismatch detection and conflict processing, whereas the left IFG performs the actual integration of information from speech and gesture.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Gestos , Metáfora , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Percepção Social , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
18.
Neuroimage ; 236: 118073, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878380

RESUMO

Multivariate neuroimaging studies indicate that the brain represents word and object concepts in a format that readily generalises across stimuli. Here we investigated whether this was true for neural representations of simple events described using sentences. Participants viewed sentences describing four events in different ways. Multivariate classifiers were trained to discriminate the four events using a subset of sentences, allowing us to test generalisation to novel sentences. We found that neural patterns in a left-lateralised network of frontal, temporal and parietal regions discriminated events in a way that generalised successfully over changes in the syntactic and lexical properties of the sentences used to describe them. In contrast, decoding in visual areas was sentence-specific and failed to generalise to novel sentences. In the reverse analysis, we tested for decoding of syntactic and lexical structure, independent of the event being described. Regions displaying this coding were limited and largely fell outside the canonical semantic network. Our results indicate that a distributed neural network represents the meaning of event sentences in a way that is robust to changes in their structure and form. They suggest that the semantic system disregards the surface properties of stimuli in order to represent their underlying conceptual significance.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Formação de Conceito/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Adolescente , Adulto , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
19.
Neuroimage ; 236: 118083, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878381

RESUMO

By using a longitudinal design and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), our previous study (Wang et al., 2020) found a scaffolding effect of early phonological processing in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) in 6-year-old children on later behavioral reading skill in 7.5-year-old children. Other than this previous study, nothing is known about longitudinal change in the bidirectional relation between reading skill and phonological processing in the brain. To fill this gap, in the current study, we used the same experimental paradigm as in Wang et al. (2020) to measure children's reading skill and brain activity during an auditory phonological awareness task, but with children who were 7.5 years old at Time 1 (T1) and about 1.5 years later when they were 9 years old at Time 2 (T2). The phonological awareness task included both small grain (i.e., onset) and large grain (i.e., rhyme) conditions. In a univariate analysis, we found that better reading skill at T1 predicted lower brain activation in IFG at T2 for onset processing after controlling for brain activation and non-verbal IQ at T1. This suggests that early reading ability reduces the effort of phonemic access, thus supporting the refinement hypothesis. When using general psychophysiological interaction (gPPI), we found that higher functional connectivity from IFG to STG for rhyme processing at T1 predicted better reading skill at T2 after controlling for reading skill and non-verbal IQ at T1. This suggests that the early effectiveness of accessing rhyme representations scaffolds reading acquisition. As both results did not survive multiple comparison corrections, replication of these findings is needed. However, both findings are consistent with prior studies demonstrating that phonological access in the frontal lobe becomes important in older elementary school readers. Moreover, the refinement effect for onsets is consistent with the hypothesis that learning to read allows for better access of small grain phonology, and the scaffolding effect for rhymes supports the idea that reading progresses to larger grain orthography-to-phonology mapping in older skilled readers. The current study, along with our previous study on younger children, indicates that the development of reading skill is associated with (1) the early importance of the quality of the phonological representations to later access of these representations, and (2) early importance of small grain sizes to later development of large grain ones.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Leitura , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Fonética , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Cogn Sci ; 45(4): e12955, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33873247

RESUMO

Most words in natural languages are polysemous; that is, they have related but different meanings in different contexts. This one-to-many mapping of form to meaning presents a challenge to understanding how word meanings are learned, represented, and processed. Previous work has focused on solutions in which multiple static semantic representations are linked to a single word form, which fails to capture important generalizations about how polysemous words are used; in particular, the graded nature of polysemous senses, and the flexibility and regularity of polysemy use. We provide a novel view of how polysemous words are represented and processed, focusing on how meaning is modulated by context. Our theory is implemented within a recurrent neural network that learns distributional information through exposure to a large and representative corpus of English. Clusters of meaning emerge from how the model processes individual word forms. In keeping with distributional theories of semantics, we suggest word meanings are generalized from contexts of different word tokens, with polysemy emerging as multiple clusters of contextually modulated meanings. We validate our results against a human-annotated corpus of polysemy focusing on the gradedness, flexibility, and regularity of polysemous sense individuation, as well as behavioral findings of offline sense relatedness ratings and online sentence processing. The results provide novel insights into how polysemy emerges from contextual processing of word meaning from both a theoretical and computational point of view.


Assuntos
Psicolinguística , Semântica , Humanos , Idioma , Aprendizagem
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