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1.
An. psicol ; 40(2): 189-198, May-Sep, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-232714

RESUMO

El suicidio se ha convertido en un problema social y de salud pública a nivel mundial. En este sentido, la Terapia de Aceptación y Compromiso (ACT) podría ser eficaz en su abordaje, existiendo evidencia sobre la relación entre algunos de sus componentes y la conducta suicida. Así, el presente estudio tuvo por objetivo realizar una revisión sistemática sobre la eficacia de ACT en conducta suicida. Para ello se siguió el protocolo PRISMA, empleando las siguientes bases de datos: PsycInfo, PubMed, Scopus y PsicoDoc. Inicialmente se obtuvieron 108 publicaciones potencialmente relevantes, de las cuales, finalmente, 13 fueron incluidas en la revisión. La calidad de los estudios se analizó a través de un instrumento de evaluación de riesgo de sesgos. Como resultados, a nivel general se observaron disminuciones estadísticamente significativas en ideación suicida (IS) y factores de riesgo de suicidio. Además, algunos estudios señalaron relaciones estadísticamente significativas entre un aumento de flexibilidad psicológica y la disminución de IS. Si bien los datos apuntaron a una posible eficacia de ACT en la reducción de IS, es necesario llevar a cabo mayor número de estudios experimentales que contemplen la complejidad de la conducta suicida y exploren los procesos de cambio implicados.(AU)


Suicide has emerged as a pressing global issue affecting both so-ciety and public health.In this context, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) could prove effective in its approach, supported by evi-dence of the relationship between certain components of ACT and suicidal behavior. Thus, the present study aims to conduct a systematic review on the efficacy of ACT in suicidal behavior. For this, the PRISMA protocol was followed, using thefollowing databases: PsycInfo, PubMed, Scopus and PsicoDoc. Initially, 108 potentially relevant publicationswereobtained,13ofwhichwerefinallyincludedinthereview.Weanalyzedstudy qualityus-ingariskofbiasassessmentinstrument.Asaresult,statisticallysignificantdecreases in suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide risk factors were observed. In addition, some studies indicated statistically significant relationships be-tween increased psychological flexibility and decreasedSI.WhilethedatasuggestedthepotentialeffectivenessofACTinreducingsuicidal ideation (SI), more experimental studies are needed to consider the complexity of suicidal behavior and explore the processes of changeinvolved.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Ideação Suicida , Saúde Mental , Psicologia Clínica , Suicídio , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco
2.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 31(3): e2998, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38890793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Creating a formulation is one of the key competencies of a clinical psychologist and is understood to be important for guiding therapeutic input and understanding client distress. However, client experience of formulations can vary, with some reporting it is unhelpful and distressing. This novel review explores the experiences of clinicians and clients when creating a formulation, specifically the barriers and facilitators to collaborating on a formulation. This ultimately aims to improve client experience and engagement in formulation. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO and EMBASE was conducted using PRISMA guidelines. The protocol was registered on PROSPERO. This search was conducted using terms related to 'psychological formulation' and 'experience'. Nineteen qualitative papers met inclusion criteria and were appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. Findings that pertained to formulation were thematically synthesised. RESULTS: Three analytical themes were identified: toleration of the formulation process-'a necessary evil', which highlights the potential emotional impact of formulation on the client and indicates the importance of responding to client readiness and expectations of formulation; development of the therapeutic relationship-'it's like a two way thing, isn't it?', which suggests that client empowerment, adapting to client needs and clinicians creating a safe and containing environment facilitated the formulation process; systemic factors-'walking a tightrope', which highlights the constraints of resources and team dynamics in therapists' ability to engage in collaborative formulation. CONCLUSION: Facilitators to a collaborative formulation include the following: simple formulations, thorough assessment and preparation for formulation, 'doing with' activities such as timelines and diagrams and working environments that include supportive colleagues and time for reflection and training.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Psicoterapia/métodos , Comportamento Cooperativo , Psicologia Clínica/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia
3.
Health Expect ; 27(3): e14121, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38923088

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The National Framework for Inclusion Health identified the need for collaborative action between the NHS and third sector health to improve access and outcomes for Inclusion Health groups. Clinical psychology trainee placements in homelessness settings could be a valuable pathway to improving access to psychological support for people experiencing homelessness and the provision of clinical services, which is key to developing the workforce and a catalyst for the future recruitment of clinical psychologists in the third sector. METHODS: A qualitative evaluation was conducted using semistructured interviews to explore the perspectives of clinical psychology trainees, supervisors, staff in homelessness settings and a peer mentor. Twenty-two participants were recruited from two universities and six services across the South East, including 11 clinical psychology trainees, six supervisors, four placement staff and one peer mentor. RESULTS: Placement staff described the value of a psychological approach but identified some challenges to be overcome. Induction was identified as the key to success. Supervisors recognised the breadth and depth added to trainees' knowledge and skills alongside significant challenges. Trainees valued the opportunities to work in homelessness settings and develop their understanding of the role. The peer mentor identified collaborative working as especially important. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical psychology trainee placements are a necessary programme to fulfil the NHS vision for Inclusion Health. These placements equip the health and social care workforce to create excellent and sustainable provisions to improve the physical and mental health of people experiencing homelessness whilst also providing much-needed psychological support for staff. PATIENT AND PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: Psychologically Informed Environments Through Staff Training: Staff training and support within these placements contribute to the development of psychologically informed environments. This not only leads to better outcomes for both staff and clients but also aligns with the objectives of the National Framework for Inclusion Health, fostering sustainable provision for the health needs of people experiencing homelessness (PEH). Enhanced Therapeutic Adaptability: Trainees gain invaluable experience in adapting therapy to meet the diverse needs of clients, benefiting both trainees and clients alike. This adaptability fosters more effective therapeutic relationships and contributes to the improvement of inclusion health provision in the long term. Tailored Therapy for Timely Intervention: Clinical psychology trainee placements in homelessness settings offer therapy that bypasses long waiting times for interventions, crucial for individuals experiencing homelessness. This flexible approach caters to the unpredictable engagement levels of PEH, ensuring timely support aligning with the Health and Care Act 2022 to improve overall health and address health disparities through primary care networks.


Assuntos
Pessoas Mal Alojadas , Psicologia Clínica , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Psicologia Clínica/educação , Entrevistas como Assunto , Mentores , Masculino , Feminino , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido
5.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303246, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Art therapy allows people to express feelings about any subject through creative work. It is beneficial for people who feel out of touch with their emotions. In Ghana, little is known about art therapy as a therapeutic tool. Herbal treatment, biomedical and faith healing practices are the most common treatment options for mental health. This research aimed to provide new insights into clinical psychologists on their knowledge and use of art therapy in treating clients and identified the enablers and barriers in this therapeutic intervention. METHOD: Twenty-one clinical psychologists were sampled using the snowball sampling method. They were interviewed over the phone using a semi-structured interview guide which was developed based on the predefined study objectives. Thematic analysis was employed to analyze the data resulting in three central thematic areas. RESULTS: Twelve of the clinical psychologists were females and eight were male, with an age range between twenty-five to fifty years. The major themes identified were knowledge of art therapy, the use of art therapy and enablers and barriers in using art therapy. The study revealed that clinical psychologists had limited knowledge of art therapy mainly due to lack of training. With the use of art therapy, the participants revealed that they had used some form of art therapy before and they perceived art therapy to be effective on their clients however, they demonstrated low confidence in using it. Practitioner training and the availability of art therapy-related resources were identified as both facilitators and hindrances to the use of art therapy. CONCLUSION: Clinical Psychologists are cognizant of art therapy albeit they have limited knowledge. Therefore, training in how to use art therapy and the availability of resources to facilitate art therapy can be provided for Clinical Psychologists by the Ghana Mental Health Authority.


Assuntos
Arteterapia , Saúde Mental , Humanos , Arteterapia/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicologia Clínica , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Gana , Transtornos Mentais/terapia
6.
Clin Psychol Rev ; 110: 102417, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38688158

RESUMO

Although psychological treatments are broadly recognized as evidence-based interventions for various mental disorders, challenges remain. For example, a substantial proportion of patients receiving such treatments do not fully recover, and many obstacles hinder the dissemination, implementation, and training of psychological treatments. These problems require those in our field to rethink some of our basic models of mental disorders and their treatments, and question how research and practice in clinical psychology should progress. To answer these questions, a group of experts of clinical psychology convened at a Think-Tank in Marburg, Germany, in August 2022 to review the evidence and analyze barriers for current and future developments. After this event, an overview of the current state-of-the-art was drafted and suggestions for improvements and specific recommendations for research and practice were integrated. Recommendations arising from our meeting cover further improving psychological interventions through translational approaches, improving clinical research methodology, bridging the gap between more nomothetic (group-oriented) studies and idiographic (person-centered) decisions, using network approaches in addition to selecting single mechanisms to embrace the complexity of clinical reality, making use of scalable digital options for assessments and interventions, improving the training and education of future psychotherapists, and accepting the societal responsibilities that clinical psychology has in improving national and global health care. The objective of the Marburg Declaration is to stimulate a significant change regarding our understanding of mental disorders and their treatments, with the aim to trigger a new era of evidence-based psychological interventions.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psicoterapia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Psicoterapia/tendências , Intervenção Psicossocial/métodos , Psicologia Clínica/tendências
7.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 1-11, Ene-Abri, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229021

RESUMO

A pesar de los descubrimientos recientes, los pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII) aún enfrentan desafíos para lograr la remisión. Los objetivos del estudio fueron identificar las características de los pacientes con el Inventario de Personalidad de Freiburg y la intensidad de la enfermedad colónica, comorbilidades que podrían estar relacionadas con la personalidad de los sujetos. Los datos se recopilaron en el período 2019-2020 de 46 pacientes y utilizaron métodos no paramétricos. En comparación con el grupo de control, las escalas de Inhibición, Problemas de salud y Emocionalidad tenían puntuaciones brutas significativamente más altas. Las escalas de Orientación Social, Franqueza y Extraversión tuvieron puntajes brutos significativamente más bajos. El estado de salud fue un factor médico que influyó en la escala de Quejas Somáticas, los pacientes que tenían lesiones o comorbilidades tenían puntuaciones brutas significativamente más altas. Los pacientes que tenían comorbilidades además de la EII tenían puntuaciones brutas considerablemente más altas en la escala de Excitabilidad. Se requieren intervenciones psicoterapéuticas de cambio en la percepción de la vida para abordar la descripción del sufrimiento subjetivo relacionado con molestias físicas (escala de quejas somáticas), una fuerte orientación hacia el rendimiento (escala de tensión), cambios de humor, ansiedad y pesimismo (escala de emocionalidad). Otra intervención es la reconsideración y (re)priorización de valores, como la familia, las relaciones íntimas, los amigos, la salud, el crecimiento, el desarrollo, el trabajo equilibrado, todos los cuales pueden promover una sensación de bienestar y equilibrio.(AU)


Despite recent discoveries, patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) still face challenges with attainment of remission. The objectives of the study were to identify the characteristics of patients with the Freiburg Personality Inventory and the intensity of the intestinal disease, comorbidities that could be related to the personality of the subjects. Data were collected in the period 2019–2020 from 46 patients and used nonparametric methods. Compared to the normative sample, the Inhibitedness, Health Concerns, and Emotionality scales had significantly higher raw scores. The Social Orientation, Frankness, and Extraversionscales had significantly lower raw scores. Health status was a medical factor that influenced the Somatic Complaintsscale, patients who had lesions or comorbidities had significantly higher raw scores. Patients who had comorbidities in addition to IBD had considerably higher raw scores on the Excitability scale. Psychotherapeutic change interventions regarding life perception are required to tackle the description of subjective suffering related to physical inconveniences (Somatic Complaintsscale), a strong orientation toward performance (Strainscale), mood swings, anxiety, and pessimism (Emotionality scale). Another intervention is reconsidering values and (re) prioritization, such as family, intimate relationships, friends, health, growth, development, balanced work, all of which can promote a feeling of well-being and balance.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Psicoterapia/métodos , Sintomas Afetivos , Doença de Crohn/psicologia , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Medicina do Comportamento , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Colite Ulcerativa
8.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100416], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-230355

RESUMO

Background: Experiences of childhood psychological maltreatment have been found to be associated with various mental health outcomes, and this association persists into adulthood.Objective: This study investigated whether some types of psychological maltreatment are more harmful than others; whether the harms associated with different types of psychological maltreatment are generalized or specific to particular domains of psychopathology; and whether the associations vary by gender. Method: Participants (N = 544, 63.9 % mother as primary caregiver) were Chinese adults from various regions in China. Participants completed measures of childhood psychological maltreatment experiences perpetrated by their primary caregiver and the mental health outcomes of depression, anxiety, anger, physical aggression, and hostility. The data were analyzed in a hierarchical model in which depression and anxiety were defined as indicators of an internalizing factor, while anger, physical aggression, and hostility were defined as indicators of an externalizing factor. Internalizing and externalizing then defined a higher-order general psychopathology factor. The results suggested equivalent harms of psychological abuse and psychological neglect. Further, the associations between psychological maltreatment and mental health were not unique to specific symptom domains but showed broadband associations with general psychopathology. Results: These findings suggest that trans-diagnostic interventions may be the most effective approach for addressing the mental health impacts of psychological maltreatment. Conclusion: Childhood psychological maltreatment may pose a broadband risk for any and all forms of psychopathology.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Experiências Adversas da Infância , Depressão , Ansiedade , Hostilidade , China , Psicologia Clínica , Saúde Mental , Psicopatologia
9.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100415], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-230356

RESUMO

Purpose: An increasing number of studies support the beneficial relationship between physical activity and stress coping in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, there has been limited understanding of the variables that may influence the nature of this relationship. Therefore, based on the social-cognitive framework and previous research, we aimed to examine the association between the habitual physical activity of people with MS and their coping effectiveness. Furthermore, we sought to determine the extent to which self-efficacy acts as a mediator in this relationship, considering the level of disability as a moderator variable. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 351 people with MS participated. The participants were asked to complete several assessment tools, including the Mini-COPE Inventory for Measurement—Coping with Stress, the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. Additionally, a neurologist assessed the severity of the disease using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. Information on the demographic and clinical characteristics of the participants was collected via a self-report survey. Two moderated mediation analyses were conducted as part of the study. Results: The study findings indicated a positive correlation between engagement in physical activity and self-efficacy among participants with high and medium disability levels. This, in turn, demonstrated a positive association with effective stress-coping strategies and a negative association with ineffective coping methods. In particular, a significant relationship was observed between involvement in physical activity and self-efficacy in participants with high disability, while it was not statistically significant in participants with low disability.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Exercício Físico , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Saúde da Pessoa com Deficiência , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência , Psicologia Clínica , Saúde Mental , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia
10.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100418], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-230357

RESUMO

Background/Objective: The aim was to investigate the extent and longitudinal determinants of post-traumatic growth (PTG) in cancer survivors. Methods: A sample of 1316 cancer survivors with various cancer types was examined using the EORTC QLQ-FA12 to assess fatigue, the EORTC QLQ-C30 pain items to assess pain and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4) to assess emotional distress two years after diagnosis (t0). Additionally, patients rated how well they felt informed about fatigue at t0. PTG was assessed with the 21-item PTG-Inventory four years after diagnosis (t1) comprising the five subdimensions appreciation of life, relation to others, personal strengths, new possibilities and spiritual change. Results: Regarding the extent of PTG, most positive developments were experienced in the PTG subdimension appreciation of life whereas the subdimension spiritual change was the least pronounced domain. Fatigue, pain and emotional distress were longitudinal but non-linear predictors of long-term PTG. Additionally, poor informedness about fatigue was associated with less PTG. Conclusions: PTG can be perceived even years after a traumatic cancer event and is longitudinally associated with common cancer side effects like fatigue, emotional distress and pain. Further research into the role of individuals' informedness contributing to PTG is needed.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Fadiga , Medição da Dor , Ansiedade/psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Saúde Mental , Inquéritos e Questionários , Psico-Oncologia
11.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100419], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-230358

RESUMO

Background: Attentional bias toward infant faces is associated with parental sensitivity and supports the infant-caregiver attachment relationship, ultimately fostering child health outcomes. However, experience-related determinants of parents' attentional bias to infant faces have been poorly investigated. We examined attentional bias to infant versus adult faces in a sample of same-sex mothers (N = 76), and whether it varied depending on maternal involvement in childcare and the perceived quality of past experiences of care. Method: A Go/no-Go attentional task was used to compare the effects of infant and adult faces in retaining attention. Maternal involvement in childcare was measured using items addressing nurturing behaviors. Memories of past experiences of care were collected using the short-form version of the Parental Acceptance-Rejection scale. Results: Results confirmed that infant faces induced greater attentional bias compared to adult faces. More involved mothers were more biased, in terms of attention, to infant versus adult faces. Attentional bias to infant versus adult faces increased as mothers felt more rejected by their own fathers during childhood. Discussion: Our findings suggested that attentional bias to infant faces might be associated with past experiences of care and direct commitment in childcare in same-sex mothers. Robust and accurate empirical findings on same-sex parent families are essential to inform social policies supporting these families’ well being.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Relações Mãe-Filho , Viés de Atenção , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Cuidado da Criança , Psicologia Clínica , Saúde Mental
12.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100413], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-230359

RESUMO

Both the primary motor cortex (M1) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) rTMS have the potential to reduce certain chronic pain conditions. However, the analgesic mechanisms remain unclear, in which M1- and DLPFC-rTMS may have different impact on the release of dopamine receptor D2 neurotransmissions (DRD2). Using a double-blind, randomised, sham- and placebo-controlled design, this study investigated the influence of DRD2 antagonist on rTMS-induced analgesia and corticospinal excitability across the M1 and DLPFC. Healthy participants in each group (M1, DLPFC, or Sham) received an oral dose of chlorpromazine or placebo before the delivery of rTMS in two separate sessions. Heat pain and cortical excitability were assessed before drug administration and after rTMS intervention. DRD2 antagonist selectively abolished the increased heat pain threshold induced by DLPFC stimulation and increased pain unpleasantness. The absence of analgesic effects in DLPFC stimulation was not accompanied by plastic changes in the corticospinal pathway. In contrast, DRD2 antagonist increased corticospinal excitability and rebalanced excitation-inhibition relationship following motor cortex stimulation, although there were no clear changes in pain experiences. These novel findings together highlight the influence of dopaminergic neurotransmission on rTMS-induced analgesia and corticospinal excitability dependent on stimulation targets.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Crônica , Manejo da Dor , Receptores de Dopamina D2 , Dopamina , Psicologia Clínica , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100422], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-230360

RESUMO

Background/Objective: WazzUp Mama© is a remotely delivered web-based tailored intervention to prevent and reduce perinatal emotional distress, originally developed in the Netherlands. The current study aimed to evaluate the adapted WazzUp Mama© intervention in a Flemish (Dutch-speaking part of Belgium) perinatal population. Methods: A 1:3 nested case-control study was performed. A data set including 676 participants (169 cases/507 controls) was composed based on core characteristics. Using independent t-test and chi-square, the two groups were compared for mean depression, self and perceived stigma, depression literacy scores, and for positive Whooley items and heightened depression scores. The primary analysis was adjusted for covariates. Results: The number of positive Whooley items, the above cut-off depression scores, mean depression, perceived stigma, and depression literacy scores showed statistically significant differences between cases and controls, in favor of the intervention group. When adjusting for the covariates, the statistically significant differences between cases and controls remained for depression, perceived stigma, and depression literacy, for the positive Whooley items and for above cut-off depression scores. Conclusion: WazzUp Mama© indicates to have a moderate to large positive effect on optimizing perinatal emotional wellbeing, to positively change perceived stigma and to increase depression literacy.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Ansiedade , Depressão , Alfabetização Digital , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Psicologia Clínica , Psicologia , Saúde da Mulher
14.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100417], Ene-Mar, 2024. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-230361

RESUMO

Background: Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) are usually observed making inappropriate risky decisions. However, whether and to what extent MDD is associated with impairments in risky decision-making remains unclear. We performed a three-level meta-analysis to explore the relationship between risky decision-making and MDD. Method: We searched the Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and PsycINFO databases up to February 7, 2023, and calculated Hedges' g to demonstrate the difference in risky decision-making between MDD patients and healthy controls (HCs). The moderating effect of sample and task characteristics were also revealed. Results: Across 73 effect sizes in 39 cross-sectional studies, MDD patients exhibited greater risk-seeking than HCs (Hedges' g = 0.187, p = .030). Furthermore, age (p = .068), region (p = .005), and task type (p < .001) were found to have moderating effects. Specifically, patients preferred risk-seeking over HCs as age increased. European patients showed significantly increased risk-seeking compared to American and Asian patients. Patients in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) exhibited a notable rise in risk-seeking compared to other tasks, along with an increased risk aversion in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). The multiple-moderator analysis showed that only task type had significant effects, which may be explained by a tentative framework of "operationalization-mechanism-measure" specificity. Conclusions: MDD patients generally exhibit higher risk-seeking than HCs. It implies that impaired risky decision-making might be a noteworthy symptom of depression, which should be placed more emphasis for clinical management and psycho-education.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Tomada de Decisões , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Perigoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Psicologia Clínica
15.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100423], Ene-Mar, 2024. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-230362

RESUMO

Background/objective: A neurocognitive model of distancing has systematically identified a set of brain regions that support the control mechanisms for emotion regulation (ER). However, the temporal dynamics of these control mechanisms during ER remains unclear. Method: To address this issue, we recorded behavioral and electroencephalogram (EEG) data to compare proactive and reactive ER modes in an adapted ER task (N = 30 adults). In different ER modes, participants were instructed to downregulate their negative emotional experiences by applying the reappraisal tactic of distancing. Results: The behavioral results showed that proactive ER, which involves preparing for the upcoming regulation, reduced the negative emotional experience more than reactive ER, which involves no preparation process, in the reappraisal-negative condition. This indicated that proactive ER was more effective than reactive ER in regulating negative emotions. Event-related potential (ERP) and multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) results showed that ER through distancing involved two phases: First, the reappraisal cue enhanced the allocation of attention to activate the mental building blocks and constructed a new perspective in the preparation process. Second, participants who benefited from the preparation process initiated the ER earlier and adaptively re-engaged in the ER if time permitted. Conclusions: Taken together, the control mechanisms underlying the preparation process influence the timing of ER, while the control mechanisms underlying the regulation process determine the regulatory effect.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Comportamento , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica
16.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100421], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-230363

RESUMO

Background/Objective: To investigate the modulatory effects of different physical exercise modalities on connectivity of amygdala subregions and its association with pain symptoms in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Methods: 140 patients with KOA were randomly allocated either to the Tai Chi, Baduanjin, Stationary cycling, or health education group and conducted a 12 week-long intervention in one of the four groups. The behavioral, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and blood data were collected at baseline and the end of the study. Results: Compared to the control group, all physical exercise modalities lead to significant increases in Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) pain score (pain relief) and serum Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) levels. Additionally, all physical exercise modalities resulted in decreased resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the basolateral amygdala (BA)-temporal pole and BA-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The overlapping BA-temporal pole rsFC observed in both Tai Chi and Baduanjin groups was significantly associated with pain relief, while the BA-mPFC rsFC was significantly associated with PD-1 levels. In addition, we found increased fractional anisotropy (FA) values, a measurement of water diffusion anisotropy of tissue that responded to changes in brain microstructure, within the mind-body exercise groups' BA-temporal pole pathway. The average FA value of this pathway was positively correlated with KOOS pain score at baseline across all subjects. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that physical exercise has the potential to modulate both functional and anatomical connectivity of the amygdala subregions, indicating a possible shared pathway for various physical exercise modalities.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/reabilitação , Complexo Nuclear Basolateral da Amígdala , Dor , Medição da Dor , Terapia por Exercício , Psicologia Clínica , Psicologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles
17.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100420], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-230364

RESUMO

Background: An imbalance in affect regulation, reflected by a hyperactive threat system and hypoactive soothing system, may impact physical symptoms in people with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMD) and central sensitivity syndromes (CSS), including chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and irritable bowel syndrome. This study aimed to identify and structure comprehensive overviews of threat and soothing influences that may worsen or alleviate physical symptoms in people with RMD or CSS. Method: A concept mapping procedure was used. An online open-question survey (N = 686, 641 [93.4%] women) yielded comprehensive sets of 40 threats and 40 soothers that were individually sorted by people with RMD or CSS (N = 115, 112 [97.4%] women). Results: Hierarchical cluster analyses generated eight threat clusters: environmental stimuli, physical symptoms, food and drugs, inactivity, demands, effort, invalidation, and emotional stress. Ten soother clusters were identified: social emotional support, rest and balance, pleasant surroundings, illness understanding, positive mindset and autonomy, spirituality, leisure activity, wellness, treatment and care, and nutrition and treats. Conclusions: Our study provided a comprehensive taxonomy of threats and soothers in people with RMD or CSS. The results can be used in experimental research to label threat and soothing stimuli and in clinical practice to screen and monitor relevant treatment targets.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Reumáticas , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Dor Musculoesquelética , Mialgia , Psicologia Clínica , Psicologia
18.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100424], Ene-Mar, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol, Português, Francês | IBECS | ID: ibc-230365

RESUMO

Objective: This review aimed to summarize longitudinal research about the interplay between sleep, mental health, and positive well-being in adolescents. Method: Multiple search strategies were applied until 28th January 2023 to identify relevant research published in peer-reviewed journal articles or available grey literature. A final set of 63 studies were included in the systematic review and 42 in the meta-analysis. Results: Results highlighted that long sleep duration, good sleep quality, and low insomnia symptoms were bidirectionally related to lower internalizing (Sleep T1 → Internalizing symptoms T2: r = -.20, p < .001; Internalizing symptoms T1 → Sleep T2: r = -.21, p < .001) and externalizing (Sleep T1 → Externalizing symptoms T2: r = -.15, p < .001; Externalizing symptoms T1→ Sleep T2: r = -.17, p < .001) symptoms, and to higher levels of psychological well-being (Sleep T1 → Psychological well-being T2: r = .15, p < .001; Psychological well-being T1 → Sleep T2: r = .15, p < .05). Moreover, good sleep was positively related to higher subjective well-being at a later time point (r = .18, p < .001). Conclusions: Overall, these findings suggest a bidirectional relation between different aspects of sleep, mental health, and positive well-being.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Psicologia do Adolescente , Sono , Saúde Mental , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Saúde do Adolescente , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Estudos Longitudinais
19.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100426], Ene-Mar, 2024. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-230366

RESUMO

Background: Emerging research supports the idea that physical activity benefits brain development. However, the body of evidence focused on understanding the effects of physical activity on white matter microstructure during childhood is still in its infancy, and further well-designed randomized clinical trials are needed. Aim: This study aimed: (i) to investigate the effects of a 20-week physical activity intervention on global white matter microstructure in children with overweight or obesity, and (ii) to explore whether the effect of physical activity on white matter microstructure is global or restricted to a particular set of white matter bundles. Methods: In total, 109 children aged 8 to 11 years with overweight or obesity were randomized and allocated to either the physical activity program or the control group. Data were collected from November 2014 to June 2016, with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data processing and analyses conducted between June 2017 and November 2021. Images were pre-processed using the Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Brain´s Software Library (FSL) and white matter properties were explored by probabilistic fiber tractography and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Results: Intention-to-treat analyses were performed for all children who completed the pre-test and post-test DTI assessment, with good quality DTI data (N = 89). Of them, 83 children (10.06±1.11 years, 39 % girls, intervention group=44) met the per-protocol criteria (attended at least 70 % of the recommended sessions). Our probabilistic fiber tractography analysis did not show any effects in terms of global and tract-specific fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) in the per-protocol or intention-to-treat analyses. Additionally, we did not observe any effects on the voxel-wise DTI parameters (i.e., FA and MD) using the most restricted TBSS approach (i.e., per protocol analyses and p-corrected image with a statistical...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Exercício Físico , Substância Branca , Sobrepeso , Obesidade Infantil , Estilo de Vida , Cérebro , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Saúde da Criança
20.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100425], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-230367

RESUMO

Background: Executive Function (EF) is a potential mechanism linking physical activity (PA) and mental health. However, evidence regarding the association between free-living PA and EF is limited with mixed results. Across two studies, we examined associations between accelerometer-assessed moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and facets of EF in different age groups (Study 1) and at different times of day (Study 2). Method: In Study 1, we tested the association between MVPA and verbal fluency across seven days in 285 participants (children, adults, older adults). In Study 2, we tested between- and within-person associations between MVPA and working memory (afternoon, evening, next morning) across three 18-day bursts in 64 preadolescents. Results: Study 1 showed no association between MVPA and verbal fluency overall, but there was an interaction by age group: a positive association was evident in older adults only. In Study 2, we observed a positive between-person association between MVPA and subsequent afternoon and next morning working memory, but not within-person. In the evening, MVPA was not related to working memory. Conclusions: The association between free-living PA and EF differs between age groups and times of day. Future research should consider these factors when examining the association and its role for mental health.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Cognição , Exercício Físico , Saúde Mental , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Neurologia
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