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1.
Rev. psicanal ; 28(1): http://revista.sppa.org.br/index.php/RPdaSPPA/article/view/897/903, Abril 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290982

RESUMO

A supervisão foi concebida sob a forma de diagramas, cujas estruturas expressam como o autor organiza e executa sua prática supervisiva. Dentro disso, confidências são entendidas como provenientes do supervisionando, expressas pelo material clínico e demais manifestações. Por outro lado, inconfidências são aquelas intervenções feitas pelo supervisor ao revelar intimidades do que pensa sobre o material clínico, sobre o supervisionando e, desdobrando-se, sobre a sua própria experiência analítica. Repactuar experiências diversas, em setting distintos e de temporalidades anacrônicas, é o desafio imposto à dupla sob a forma de o estranho, conceito equivalente ao de objeto analítico ou de objeto analítico subjugador. De acordo com a técnica e com a estrutura usadas, o presente modelo de supervisão pode ser aplicado a qualquer supervisionando em treinamento da IPA, funcionando na convergência desses três modelos. O trabalho finaliza com um exemplo clínico, através do qual o autor procura ilustrar o exposto (Au)


Supervision was conceived as diagrams, whose structures express how the author organizes and executes their own supervisory practice. Within this, confidences are understood as coming from the supervisee, expressed by the clinical material and other manifestations. On the other hand, inconfidences are those interventions made by the supervisor, unveiling intimacies of their thoughts on the clinical material, on the supervisee, and unfolding over their own analytical experience. Conciliate different experiences, in different settings and anachronistic temporalities is the challenge imposed upon the pair in the form of uncanny, a concept ­ in this paper ­ equivalent to that of analytic object, intersubjective analytic third or "subjugating third". According to the technique and structure used, this model of supervision can be used for any supervisee in training by IPA, functioning in the intersection of these three models. This paper ends with a clinical example, by which the author tries to illustrate the above (Au)


La supervisión se concibió en forma de diagramas, cuyas estructuras expresan cómo el autor organiza y ejecuta su práctica supervisora. Dentro de eso, se entiende que las confidencias provienen del supervisado, expresadas por material clínico y demás manifestaciones. Por otro lado, las infidencias son aquellas intervenciones que realiza el supervisor al revelar intimidades de lo que piensa sobre el material clínico, sobre la persona supervisada y, desplegándose, sobre su propia experiencia analítica. Pactar otra vez diferentes experiencias, en diferentes settings y con temporalidades anacrónicas, es el desafío que se le impone al dúo en la forma de uncanny, concepto equivalente al de objeto analítico u objeto analítico subyugador. De acuerdo con la técnica y estructura utilizadas, el presente modelo de supervisión se puede aplicar a cualquier supervisado en formación de la IPA, funcionando en la convergencia de estos tres modelos. El trabajo finaliza con un ejemplo clínico, a través del cual el autor intenta ilustrar lo anterior (Au)


Assuntos
Interpretação Psicanalítica , Processos Psicoterapêuticos , Psicanálise , Teoria Psicanalítica , Terapia Psicanalítica , Psicologia Aplicada , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , Psicoterapeutas
2.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(1): 1-3, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444047

RESUMO

It is impossible to write this editorial without recognizing that we are living in challenging times. Unprecedented changes in how, when, where, and with whom we work have occurred in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to the threat to human life, the pandemic is expected to increase poverty and deepen preexisting inequalities for vulnerable groups such as women (United Nations, 2020) and individuals living in poorer countries (United Nations Development Programme, 2020). In the United States, the pandemic has disproportionately negatively affected racial and ethnic minority group members (https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/health-equity/race-ethnicity.html). For example, in the United States infection and mortality rates are especially high among African Americans (Yancy, 2020). These sobering realities, along with the recent deaths of George Floyd, Ahmaud Arbery, and Breonna Taylor, and so many others, are vivid and wrenching reminders of longstanding social injustice and systematic racism, both in the United States and around the globe. When preparing my candidate statement and vision for the journal, a global pandemic and widespread social protest were the furthest thing from my mind. However, several aspects of my vision for JAP are highly relevant to the current context. This includes increasing representation and supporting diversity, as well as improving the translation of our science for the public good. Other elements of my vision for the journal include enhancing the review process and promoting open science. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Psicologia Aplicada/métodos , Racismo/psicologia , Justiça Social/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
3.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 16(3): 590-613, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316201

RESUMO

Long-standing structural features of the military have created a culture and society that is dramatically different and disconnected from civilian society. Thus, veterans transitioning to civilian society face a number of challenges related to fulfilling basic psychological needs (e.g., need for structure and order, belonging) and civilians' reliance on stereotypes to understand military veterans. In an attempt to enrich the understanding of these challenges, we integrate social psychological theories and insights with research from sociology, clinical psychology, military psychology, and organizational behavior. Theories of compensatory control, stereotype threat, and stereotyping are drawn on to help explain the psychological challenges that veterans may encounter during their transition to civilian society. We present recent research that leverages these theories to understand issues veterans face. This theoretical integration illustrates the opportunity and potential for psychological researchers to conduct basic and applied research in the context of veterans and for clinicians and managers to draw on basic theory to inform programs and interventions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Pesquisa Comportamental , Psicologia Aplicada , Veteranos/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241683, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180809

RESUMO

Emerging research on how suspects perceive the physical environment during investigative interviews yields contrasting findings. While previous studies have suggested that a room made to be physically comfortable may be optimal for interviewing suspects, another study found it can instead lead to higher suspicion of the investigator's intentions. The current study examined current detainees' and general population participants' beliefs about a room that resembled a "typical" interview room, and one decorated to be warm, inviting, and comfortable. Participants also provided descriptive information about their perceptions of police interview environments (e.g., preferences, expectations). We hypothesized that the decorated room would elicit higher ratings of suspicion and wariness compared to the "typical" room. Our findings showed that, overall, participants expected to be interviewed in the "typical" room but preferred the decorated one. Contrary to our expectations, they rated the "typical" room higher on feelings of suspicion than the decorated room. The decorated room also corresponded with what participants reported to be an environment that promotes disclosure. These results bode well for conducting investigative interviews in comfortable environments.


Assuntos
Decoração de Interiores e Mobiliário/normas , Entrevistas como Assunto , Prisões Locais/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicologia Aplicada/métodos
7.
aSEPHallus ; 15(30): 18-25, maio.2020-out.2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152243

RESUMO

Este artigo constituiu-se com base nas experiências com a psicanálise aplicada na assistência aos colaboradores de uma instituição hospitalar ao longo da construção de um projeto de pesquisa coordenado pela Profa. Dra. Tania Coelho dos Santos e financiado pelo CNPq. Consiste numa abordagem dos impasses psíquicos de funcionários e dos consequentes fenômenos clínicos-institucionais encontrados. A atenção psicológica aos colaboradores recebeu maior destaque durante a pandemia Covid-19. Em resposta ao medo do desamparo e ameaça de morte recolhemos reações emocionais intensas e comportamentos disruptivos no ambiente de trabalho. Como consequência o serviço de psicologia organizou-se para tratar das urgências subjetivas deflagradas no âmbito institucional


Cet article a été basé sur les expériences de la psychanalyse appliquée à l'assistance des employés d'un hôpital développées lors de la construction d'un projet de recherche coordonné pour la Prof. Tania Coelho dos Santos et financé par le Conseil national pour le développement scientifique et technologique. Il consiste en une approche des impasses psychiques des employés et des phénomènes cliniques-institutionnels qui en découlent. L'attention psychologique offerte aux employés a gagné de l' importance pendant la pandémie de Covid-19. Nous avons observé des réactions émotionnelles intenses et des comportements perturbateurs sur le lieu de travail en réponse à la peur causée par l'impuissance et la menace de mort. C'est pourquoi le service de psychologie a été réorganisé pour faire face aux urgences subjectives déclenchées à l'intérieur de l' institution


This article was based on the experience assisting employees of a hospital through applied psychoanalysis, developed during the construction of a research project coordinated by ProfessorTania Coelho dos Santos and financed by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development. It consists of an approach to the psychic impasses of employees and the consequent clinical-institutional phenomena encountered. Psychological attention to the employees gained greater prominence during the Covid-19 pandemic. In response to the fear of helplessness and the threat of death, we observed intense emotional reactions and disruptive behaviors in the workplace. As a consequence, the psychology service was organized to deal with the subjective emergencies triggered inside the institution


Assuntos
Psicanálise , Psicologia Aplicada , Projetos de Pesquisa , Infecções por Coronavirus , Sintomas Afetivos/terapia , Pandemias , Hospitais
8.
aSEPHallus ; 15(30): 26-40, maio.2020-out.2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177318

RESUMO

A pandemia de Covid-19 conduziu a um aumento súbito e de crescimento imprevisível da demanda por serviços médico-hospitalares O reconhecimento da sobrecarga emocional e de trabalho da equipe multidisciplinar exigiu do serviço de psicologia novas estratégias de atenção à saúde mental dos funcionários.Por meio de uma linha telefônica, foi possível prestar atendimento psicológico aos colaboradores em urgência subjetiva, pois a crise na saúde da população em geral repercutiu diretamente na saúde física e mental dos profissionais que trabalham nos hospitais


La pandémie de Covid-19 a entraîné une augmentation soudaine et imprévisible de la demande de services médico-hospitaliers. La reconnaissance de la surcharge émotionnelle et de travail de l'équipe multidisciplinaire a obligé le département de psychologie à développer de nouvelles stratégies pour les soins de santé mentale du personnel. Pour répondre à ce besoin, une nouvelle approche a été instituée, dans laquelle il était possible de fournir des soins psychologiques aux employés en cas d'urgence subjective par le biais d'une ligne téléphonique, étant donnéque la crise de la santé de la population en général avait eu un effet direct sur la santé physique et mentale des professionnels travaillant dans les hôpitaux


The Covid-19 pandemic led to a sudden and unpredictable increase in demand for medical-hospital services. The recognition of the emotional and work overload of the multidisciplinary team required the psychology department to develop new strategies for staff mental health care. To meet this need, a new approach was instituted, which enabled to provide psychological care to employees in a subjective emergency, since the crisis in the health of the population in general had a direct impact on the physical and mental health of professionals who work in hospitals


Assuntos
Psicologia Aplicada , Serviços Hospitalares , Pessoal de Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus , Atenção à Saúde , Pandemias , Hospitais
9.
J Appl Psychol ; 105(12): 1351-1381, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772525

RESUMO

The psychometric soundness of measures has been a central concern of articles published in the Journal of Applied Psychology (JAP) since the inception of the journal. At the same time, it isn't clear that investigators and reviewers prioritize psychometric soundness to a degree that would allow one to have sufficient confidence in conclusions regarding constructs. The purposes of the present article are to (a) examine current scale development and evaluation practices in JAP; (b) compare these practices to recommended practices, previous practices, and practices in other journals; and (c) use these comparisons to make recommendations for reviewers, editors, and investigators regarding the creation and evaluation of measures including Excel-based calculators for various indices. Finally, given that model complexity appears to have increased the need for short scales, we offer a user-friendly R Shiny app (https://orgscience.uncc.edu/about-us/resources) that identifies the subset of items that maximize a variety of psychometric criteria rather than merely maximizing alpha. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Psicologia Aplicada , Humanos , Psicometria
10.
J Community Psychol ; 48(7): 2131-2137, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789911

RESUMO

In addition to the twinned crises of ecology and political economy, we face today a crisis of care. The crisis of care, I contend, is fundamentally a political and an ethical crisis. In this short commentary, I outline the structural (i.e., systemic) and reproductive (i.e., labour) character of this crisis, using the COVID-19 pandemic as an example. From here, I argue for the imperative to centre an expansive conception of care in critical community psychology work. Specifically, I posit that by working with and alongside activist care workers, community psychologists can assist in building socially just modalities of care. After reflecting on my work with collective caring initiatives, I offer five (tentative) guiding principles for a community psychology that is committed to addressing the crisis of care, namely: (1) commitment to building political coalitions; (2) commitment to refuting capitalist conceptions of care; (3) commitment to expanding conceptions of care; (4) commitment to embracing the psychological consequences of care work; and (5) a politicoethical commitment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Atenção à Saúde/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Política , Psicologia Aplicada/normas , Características de Residência , COVID-19 , Humanos
11.
Front Public Health ; 8: 247, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671010

RESUMO

Psychology is not only a basic behavioral science but also an applied discipline that is used to solve societal problems. In a problem-driven context, the search for existing literature, the correct application of appropriate theories, and the collection of additional research data are basic tools essential for the systematic development of any theory- and evidence-based behavior change intervention. The processes of brainstorming, literature review, theory selection and application, and data collection are "Core Processes" that can be used in different phases/steps of intervention planning-from needs assessment to intervention design to program implementation and evaluation-and within different planning frameworks. In this paper, we illustrate how the use of these "Core Processes" provides expert, empirical and theoretical guidance to planners from problem definition to problem solution. Specific emphasis is put on finding theories that are potentially useful in providing answers to planning questions using a combination of approaches to access and select theories (i.e., the topic, concept, and general theories approaches). Furthermore, emphasis is put on the logic of answering planning questions in a specific order by first brainstorming before consulting the literature, then applying theories, and finally collecting additional data.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Psicologia Aplicada , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Resolução de Problemas
12.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 5(1): 22, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405880

RESUMO

Basic cognitive research can help to explain our response to wine, and the myriad factors that affect it. Wine is a complex, culture-laden, multisensory stimulus, and our perception/experience of its properties is influenced by everything from the packaging in which it is presented through the glassware in which it is served and evaluated. A growing body of experiential wine research now demonstrates that a number of contextual factors, including everything from the colour of the ambient lighting through to background music can exert a profound, and in some cases predictable, influence over the tasting experience. Sonic seasoning - that is, the matching of music or soundscapes with specific wines in order to accentuate or draw attention to certain qualities/attributes in the wine, such as sweetness, length, or body, also represents a rapidly growing area of empirical study. While such multisensory, experiential wine research undoubtedly has a number of practical applications, it also provides insights concerning multisensory perception that are relevant to basic scientists. Furthermore, the findings of the wine research are also often relevant to those marketers interested in understanding how the consumers' perception of any other food or beverage product can potentially be modified.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Comportamento do Consumidor , Música , Psicologia Aplicada , Percepção Gustatória/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Vinho , Humanos
13.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 20(9): 1235-1244, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735126

RESUMO

Applied psychology is characterised by a variety of theoretical models, informing distinct approaches to classification, explanation, and intervention in service-delivery. Such theoretical or psychological models include behavioural, biological, cognitive, humanistic, psychodynamic, and social paradigms, with exposure to these models and attitude formation occurring within the structured university-based stage of sport psychology development. It is, therefore, important for the sport psychological domain to investigate developing attitudes, given these models inform subsequent professional practice and decision making. Accordingly, the present study explored the attitudes of Stage-1 sport psychology students through a modified form of the Maudsley Attitude Questionnaire (34 males, M age = 24.71 years, SD = 7.23 and 42 females, M age = 24.76 years, SD = 6.20). The questionnaire was designed to assess attitudes across eight psychological models (e.g. biological, cognitive) and four sport psychology issues (pre-performance anxiety, a lack of confidence, depression, and eating disorders). Analyses of variance demonstrated significant main, model, and interaction effects. No one psychological model was endorsed by all respondents, with model endorsement varying significantly as a function of the issue presented. Principal Axis Factoring revealed a large contribution attributable to cognitive-behavioural and 'eclectic' (mixed elements of social constructionism, biological, and psychodynamic) models. In contrast, the spiritual model represented low levels of participant endorsement and application. Investigation of Stage-1 students can promote an evidence-based understanding on currently developing attitudes and inform the development of sport psychology education, supervision of training routes, and subsequent professional delivery.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Modelos Psicológicos , Psicologia Aplicada , Psicologia do Esporte , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prática Profissional , Psicologia Aplicada/educação , Psicologia do Esporte/educação , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Appl Psychol ; 105(4): 390-409, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414829

RESUMO

Summated rating scales are ubiquitous in organizational research, and there are well-delineated guidelines for scale development (e.g., Hinkin, 1998). Nevertheless, there has been less research on the explicit selection of the response anchors. Constructing survey questions with equal-interval properties (i.e., interval or ratio data) is important if researchers plan to analyze their data using parametric statistics. As such, the primary objectives of the current study were to (a) determine the most common contexts in which summated rating scales are used (e.g., agreement, similarity, frequency, amount, and judgment), (b) determine the most commonly used anchors (e.g., strongly disagree, often, very good), and (c) provide empirical data on the conceptual distance between these anchors. We present the mean and standard deviation of scores for estimates of each anchor and the percentage of distribution overlap between the anchors. Our results provide researchers with data that can be used to guide the selection of verbal anchors with equal-interval properties so as to reduce measurement error and improve confidence in the results of subsequent analyses. We also conducted multiple empirical studies to examine the consequences of measuring constructs with unequal-interval anchors. A clear pattern of results is that correlations involving unequal-interval anchors are consistently weaker than correlations involving equal-interval anchors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Psicologia Aplicada/instrumentação , Psicologia Aplicada/métodos , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Humanos
15.
Int J Occup Saf Ergon ; 26(1): 204-209, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084314

RESUMO

Background. This study aimed to evaluate the physiological strain index (PSI) along with specific immune system markers in response to a simulated firefighting occupation workload. Methods. Ten healthy male adults completed a 6-min simulated fire stair climb (SFSC) at 60 steps/min. The protocol consisted of four conditions, some including wearing a 34.04-kg vest to simulate personal protective equipment (PPE) and/or inclusion of a color-word interference test (CWIT) as a distracting mechanism. The PSI was evaluated by continuously monitoring the heart rate and core temperature. Salivary cortisol (CORT) was measured at baseline, mid SFSC and post SFSC. C-reactive protein (CRP) was evaluated at baseline and 1 h post SFSC. Results. Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed a significantly different PSI across conditions (p = 0.001). A significantly elevated PSI was exhibited during all 6 min of SFSC for both PPE and PPE + CWIT conditions. Neither CORT (p = 0.116) nor CRP (p = 0.700) was significantly different across conditions or from baseline. Conclusion. These findings suggest that firefighters are potentially at a substantial degree of physiological stress from exercise and the weight of gear alone. Further work should be conducted to further evaluate the usefulness of the PSI as a means to monitor firefighters during fire suppression.


Assuntos
Ergonomia , Inflamação , Treinamento por Simulação , Estresse Fisiológico , Bombeiros , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Saúde do Trabalhador , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Psicologia Aplicada , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Exp Psychol Appl ; 26(3): 522-537, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763862

RESUMO

In this paper we describe the risks of complex applied research, especially in work domains where professional practitioners are scarce. For such research, careful preparation and piloting is needed, especially when estimating sample size is required for a full study. However, such pilot work may reduce the potential sample size for the full study. We describe how the these issues have been addressed in applied psychology contexts. We then present a case study illustrating how we determined sample size for a study investigating the impact of workplace interruptions on errors that intensive care unit nurses might make during medication preparation and administration. The pilot work was performed in a functionally related domain to nursing-bartending-and bartender participants filled cocktail orders. Pilot 1 investigated performance with 0 interruptions and applied a model from a field observation to estimate probable effect sizes and sample sizes with 1 or 4 interruptions per medication scenario. Pilot 2 collected empirical data on the effect of 1 or 4 interruptions per cocktail scenario on cocktail errors and estimated sample size for the medication study, which was subsequently successfully run. The applied community could benefit from further discussions about these issues and the means for addressing them. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Enfermagem de Cuidados Críticos , Treinamento com Simulação de Alta Fidelidade , Erros de Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais , Psicologia Aplicada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Carga de Trabalho
17.
J Appl Psychol ; 105(9): 1013-1035, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855031

RESUMO

This article proposes a new approach to modeling the antecedents of incongruence between 2 dependent variables. In this approach, incongruence is decomposed into 2 orthogonal components representing directional and nondirectional difference (DNDD). Nondirectional difference is further divided into components representing shared and unique variability. We review previous approaches to modeling antecedents of difference, including the use of arithmetic, absolute, and squared differences, as well as the approaches of Edwards (1995) and Cheung (2009). Based on 2 studies, we demonstrate the advantages of DNDD approach compared with other methods. In the first study, we use a Monte Carlo simulation to demonstrate the circumstances under which each type of difference arises, and we compare the insights revealed by each approach. In the second study, we provide an illustrative example of DNDD approach using a field dataset. In the discussion, we review the strengths and limitations of our approach and propose several practical applications. Our article proposes 2 extensions to the basic DNDD approach, including modeling difference with a known target or "true" value, and using multilevel analysis to model nondirectional difference with exchangeable ratings. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Modelos Estatísticos , Psicologia Aplicada/métodos , Humanos , Método de Monte Carlo , Análise Multinível
18.
Psico (Porto Alegre) ; 51(4): 33790, 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178105

RESUMO

Este estudo objetiva adaptar a Escala de Ansiedade ao Falar em Público (EAFP) para o contexto brasileiro, reunindo evidências de sua validade fatorial, convergente, análise dos itens e consistência interna. Dois estudos foram realizados com amostra de universitários. No Estudo 1 participaram 211 pessoas (Midade = 25 anos; DPidade = 9,18; 58,8% homens). Os resultados sugeriram uma estrutura unifatorial constituída pelos 14 itens que se mostraram discriminativos. No Estudo 2 participaram 208 pessoas (Midade = 25 anos; DPidade = 7,79; 79% mulheres), sendo confirmada a estrutura unifatorial, que se demonstrou invariante quanto ao sexo, apresentando validade convergente com indicadores de saúde geral e confiança de falar em público. Concluiu-se que a versão brasileira da EAFP reuniu evidências psicométricas adequadas, apoiando seu uso em pesquisas que avaliem ansiedade de falar em público.


This study aims to adapt the Public Speaking Anxiety Scale (PSAS) to the brazilian context, gathering evidence of its factorial and convergent validity, item analysis and reliability. Two studies were performed with a sample of university students. In Study 1, 211 people participated (Mage = 25 years, DPage = 9.18, 58.8% men), and the results suggested a unifactory structure consisting of 14 items that were discriminatory. In Study 2,208 people participated (Mage = 25 years, DPage = 7.79, 79% women), confirming the unifatorial structure, which proved to be invariant in relation to sex, showing converging validity with indicators of general health and confidence to speak in public. It was concluded that the brazilian version of the PSAS gathered adequate psychometric evidence, supporting its use in research evaluating public speaking anxiety.


Este estudio objetiva adaptar la Escala de Ansiedad al Hablar en Público (EAHP) para el contexto brasileño, reuniendo evidencias de su validez factorial, convergente, análisis de ítems y consistencia interna. Dos estudios se realizaron con una muestra de universitarios. En el Estudio 1 participaron 211 personas (Medad = 25 años, DPedad = 9,18, 58,8% hombres), teniendo los resultados sugeridos una estructura unifatorial constituida por los 14 ítems que se mostraron discriminatorios. En el Estudio 2 participaron 208 personas (Medad = 25 años, DPe-dad = 7,79, 79% mujeres), confirmando la estructura unifactora, que se demostró invariante en cuanto al sexo, presentando validez convergente con indicadores de salud general y confianza de hablar en público. Se concluyó que la versión brasileña de la EAHP reunió evidencias psicométricas adecuadas, apoyando su uso en investigaciones que evalúen ansiedad de hablar en público.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Ansiedade , Fala , Psicologia Aplicada , Psicometria
19.
Psico (Porto Alegre) ; 51(3): 34372, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147698

RESUMO

Considering the challenges of the cultural adaptation process for refugees and the importance of analyzing these in a Latin American context, the present study aimed to investigate the influence of cultural orientations and cultural distance on psychological and sociocultural adaptation of Syrian refugees living in Brazil. Eighty-four adult Syrian refugees, living in Brazil for at least 6 months completed an online survey regarding acculturation variables. Results showed that greater perception of cultural distance was related to lower sociocultural adaptation; higher rates of home culture orientation were related to low psychological and sociocultural adaptation. Having a Brazilian culture orientation was related with better psychological and sociocultural adaptation. The present research has theoretical and practical implications, allowing for a better understanding of some aspects of the adaptation of Syrian refugees in Brazil.


Considerando os desafios do processo de adaptação cultural para os refugiados e a importância disto para o contexto da América Latina, o presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar a influência da orientação cultural e distância cultural na adaptação psicológica e sociocultural de sírios no Brasil. 84 refugiados sírios, morando no Brasil há pelo menos 6 meses, responderam um survey online sobre variáveis relacionadas à aculturação. Os resultados evidenciaram que maiores índices de percepção de distância cultural estão relacionados com menores índices de adaptação sociocultural. Possuir uma orientação para a cultura brasileira está relacionado a melhores índices de adaptação psicológica e sociocultural. A presente pesquisa possui implicações teóricas e práticas, permitindo um melhor entendimento de alguns aspectos da adaptação de refugiados sírios no Brasil.


Considerando los desafíos del proceso de adaptación cultural para los refugiados y la importancia de esto para el contexto de América Latina, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la influencia de la orientación cultural y distancia cultural en la adaptación psicológica y sociocultural de sirios en Brasil. Ochenta y cuatro refugiados sirios, viviendo en Brasil por lo menos 6 meses, respondieron un cuestionario online sobre variables relacionadas a la aculturación. Los resultados evidenciaron que mayores índices de percepción de distancia cultural estubieron relacionados con menores índices de adaptación sociocultural. Poseer una orientación hacia una cultura brasileña está relacionada a mejores índices de adaptación psicológica y sociocultural. La presente investigación tiene implicaciones teóricas y prácticas, permitiendo un mejor entendimiento de algunos aspectos de la adaptación de refugiados sirios en Brasil.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Refugiados , Adaptação Psicológica , Aculturação , Psicologia Aplicada , Cultura
20.
Rev. iberoam. psicol. (En línea) ; 13(1): 49-59, 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1247810

RESUMO

El objetivo general del presente trabajo fue estudiar qué tipos de relación conceptual utilizan niños en edad escolar, adultos jóvenes y adultos mayores, ya que se presume que a lo largo del desarrollo varía la preferencia por los tipos de relación conceptual; no obstante, los estudios sobre el tema son escasos y sus resultados son divergentes. Para esto, 226 niños de 6 a 12 años, 300 adultos de 20 a 40 años, y 300 adultos mayores de 60 años realizaron una tarea de producción de atributos de conceptos de seres vivos y no vivos. En dicha tarea, los participantes proporcionaron atributos a partir de conceptos tales como "hormiga" y "pirámide". Los atributos fueron codificados según fuesen taxonómicos ("es un animal"), perceptivos ("es largo") o temáticos ("se encuentra en Egipto"). Los resultados, producto del análisis de comparación de medias, indican que la producción de atributos taxonómicos fue significativamente mayor para los adultos jóvenes que para los adultos mayores y los niños, cuya producción taxonómica fue pareja. En cuanto a la producción temática, esta fue alta y homogénea en los tres grupos de edad. Por último, para el dominio de los seres no vivos, los atributos resultaron en su mayoría temáticos y perceptivos, y para el de los seres vivos, mayormente perceptivos. Se concluye que el uso o preferencia por las relaciones conceptuales varía a lo largo del desarrollo, siendo las taxonómicas más inaccesibles para los niños y los adultos mayores, y menos preponderantes tanto en seres vivos como no vivos


The general aim of this paper was to study what types of conceptual relations are used by school-age children, young adults and old adults, since it is presumed that throughout development the preference for the types of conceptual relations varies, but studies on the subject are scarce, and their results are divergent. For this, 226 children aged 6 to 12 years, 300 adults aged 20 to 40, and 300 adults over 60, performed a feature production task of concepts from the living and the non-living domains. In this task, participants provided attributes from concepts such as "ant" and "pyramid". The attributes were coded according to whether they were taxonomic ("it is an animal"), perceptual ("it is long") or thematic ("it is found in Egypt"). The results from the analysis of variance indicate that the production of taxonomic attributes was significantly higher for young adults than for older adults and children, whose taxonomic production was even. In terms of thematic production, it was high and homogeneous in all three age groups. Finally, for the non-living things domain, the attributes were mostly thematic and perceptive, and for the living beings, mostly perceptive. It is argued that the use or preference for conceptual relations varies throughout development, with taxonomic relations being more inaccessible to children and older adults, and less prevalent for living and non-living things


Assuntos
Humanos , Análise de Variância , Cognição , Psicologia Aplicada , Grupos Etários
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