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1.
Rev Med Suisse ; 18(785): 1154-1156, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678346

RESUMO

In most cases, video games provide entertainment and social and psychological benefits. Involvement in video games can become problematic and associated with functional impairment for individuals characterized by psychosocial, environmental or psychopathological vulnerabilities. The WHO recently decided to include gaming disorder in ICD-11. The definition of gaming disorder is oriented towards consequences and functional impact, in order to avoid over-pathologizing of healthy gaming patterns. The public health issues of video game disorder have found a promising response through the recognition of this disorder by the WHO and the common definition offered by the ICD-11. The treatment of this disorder, essentially psychotherapeutic, requires taking into account the underlying psychological processes.


La pratique vidéoludique est dans la plupart des cas source de divertissement et de bénéfices sur les plans sociaux et psychologiques. Cette pratique peut devenir problématique chez des individus présentant des facteurs de vulnérabilité. L'OMS a pris la décision d'inclure le trouble du jeu vidéo dans la CIM-11 comme un trouble du spectre addictif. La définition du trouble du jeu vidéo est orientée sur les conséquences et l'impact fonctionnel, pour éviter la surpathologisation d'un comportement de jeu sain. Les enjeux de santé publique du trouble du jeu vidéo ont trouvé une réponse prometteuse au travers de la reconnaissance de ce trouble par l'OMS. La prise en charge de ce trouble, essentiellement psychothérapeutique, passe par la prise en compte des processus psychologiques sous-jacents.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Jogos de Vídeo , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Internet , Psicopatologia , Saúde Pública , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia
2.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 31: e40, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678377

RESUMO

AIMS: Pica and rumination disorder are known as feeding disorder diagnoses in childhood, but little is known about their occurrence in adulthood. This study aimed to assess prevalence rates of one-time and recurrent pica and rumination behaviours (PB and RB) in adults, including sociodemographic subgroups, and to examine associations with other eating disorder and general psychopathology. METHODS: The representative population sample (N = 2403) completed measures on PB and RB, symptoms of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), body image and symptoms of depression and anxiety. RESULTS: Any PB and RB were reported in 5.33 and 5.49%, respectively, while recurrent PB or RB occurred in 1.08 and 0.71%, respectively. Co-occurrence was high, with 35.29% of recurrent PB in RB, and 23.08% vice versa. Prevalence rates of recurrent PB or RB did not differ by gender, weight status, educational or migration history from those without recurrent behaviours. Adults with v. without recurrent PB and RB showed more symptoms of ARFID, general eating disorders depression and anxiety, and behavioural symptoms of eating disorders (with the exception of compensatory behaviours in recurrent PB), and less positive body image. However, there were no differences regarding age and body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the clinical significance of PB and RB in adults regarding both prevalence and associations with other psychopathological symptoms. In particular, associations with body image need to be investigated further, as in contrast to other eating disorders, body image disturbance is not yet represented in the diagnostic criteria for pica and rumination disorder. In sum, the findings highlight the need for clinical attention for these disorders and related behaviours in adults.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Síndrome da Ruminação , Adulto , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pica/diagnóstico , Pica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Psicopatologia
3.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 64(5): 291-294, 2022.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35735039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because of rapid developments in genetic technology, more underlying genetic causes of psychiatric disorders can be detected which may contribute to better monitoring and treatment of co-morbidities than previously. AIM: Review of monogenetic causes of psychiatric disorders. METHODE: Review of the literature. RESULTATS: Research in people with monogenetic disorders will generate new knowledge and insights on psychopathology and cognitive function in general and pave the way to new treatment targets. In this article we discuss four monogenetic disorders that are relevant for clinical psychiatry and (educational) psychology: fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, Rett Syndrome, and Huntington’s disease. CONCLUSION: Given the multisystem nature of these genetic disorders, a well-coordinated, multidisciplinary approach by specialized expert centers is highly recommended.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil , Transtornos Mentais , Psiquiatria , Comorbidade , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/genética , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Psicopatologia
4.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 64(5): 295-300, 2022.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35735040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood mental health problems are partly influence by genetic factors with heritability estimates varying between 40% and 90%. AIM: We provide examples of genetic research focusing on explaining the continuity of symptoms and the association between parental traits and offspring psychopathology. METHOD: We summarize two recently publish review papers RESULTS: There are significant genetic correlations between childhood and adult mental disorders. Genetic factors also explain part of the associations between parental traits and offspring psychopathology, because parents and children share 50% of their genetic material. CONCLUSION: The role of genetic factors is not restricted to influencing the risk to develop a mental disorder. They also play a role in persistence of symptoms and the associations with the environment.


Assuntos
Filho de Pais Incapacitados , Transtornos Mentais , Adolescente , Psiquiatria do Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Pesquisa em Genética , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Psicopatologia , Fatores de Risco
5.
Behav Res Ther ; 154: 104121, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642991

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced widespread societal changes that have required ongoing adaptation. Unsurprisingly, stress-related psychopathology has increased during the pandemic, in both children and adults. We review these patterns through the lens of several leading conceptual models of the link between stress and psychopathology. Some of these models focus on characteristics of environmental stressors-including cumulative risk, specific stressor types, and stress sensitization approaches. Understanding the specific aspects of environmental stressors that are most likely to lead to psychopathology can shed light on who may be in most need of clinical intervention. Other models center on factors that can buffer against the onset of psychopathology following stress and the mechanisms through which stressors contribute to emergent psychopathology. These models highlight specific psychosocial processes that may be most usefully targeted by interventions to reduce stress-related psychopathology. We review evidence for each of these stress models in the context of other widescale community-level disruptions, like natural disasters and terrorist attacks, alongside emerging evidence for these stress pathways from the COVID-19 pandemic. We discuss clinical implications for developing interventions to reduce stress-related psychopathology during the pandemic, with a focus on brief, digital interventions that may be more accessible than traditional clinical services.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Mentais , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pandemias , Psicopatologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742209

RESUMO

(1) Background: The one general psychopathology (p Factor) theory asserts that a superordinate dimensional construct encompasses underlying forms of psychopathology, but the theory has limited empirical linkages to criminology. (2) Methods: We utilized case reports from 12 male offenders selected from a federal jurisdiction in the central United States who were in the 99th percentile on a composite indicator of psychopathology to advance a qualitative study of the p Factor. (3) Results: Clients experienced frequent and often pathological traumatic experiences and exhibited exceedingly early onset of conduct problems usually during the preschool period. Their criminal careers were overwhelmingly versatile and contained numerous offense types, had extensive justice system contacts, and exhibited remarkable deficits in global functioning. Most clients spent the majority of their life in local, state, or federal confinement. Consistent with the theory, clients experienced a generalized psychopathology disposition that had undercurrents of externalizing, internalizing, psychotic, paraphilic, and homicidal features. (4) Conclusions: A qualitative understanding of the p Factor and its contribution to offending behaviors among correctional clients complements the statistical approach to developmental psychopathology.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Transtornos Mentais , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento Criminoso , Humanos , Masculino , Psicopatologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estados Unidos
7.
Riv Psichiatr ; 57(3): 123-126, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35695682

RESUMO

The term "Locus of Control" has been defined by Rotter (1954) as a general attitude regarding the nature of the causal relationship between one's behavior and its consequences. External Locus of Control Behavior represents an important factor of psychopathological vulnerability and can increase people's vulnerability to psychosis. Using the Craig Scale (1984), we investigated the Locus of Control Behavior in a sample of patients at high risk of psychosis compared to schizophrenia patients and mood disorder patients. Furthermore, we investigated the possible correlation between an external Locus of Control and psychopathological dimensions such as aberrant salience, and attenuated positive and negative symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Psicopatologia
8.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 61(6): 830-831, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643526

RESUMO

The field of psychiatry increasingly highlights the importance of studying not only the influence of the brain on behavior, but also the long-term influences that the persistence of specific behaviors can have on the brain. A severe behavioral phenotype that puts children at risk for later psychopathology is the Child Behavior Checklist-Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP).1 In earlier work, Shaw et al.2 proposed a model in which the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and orbitofrontal cortex, structures involved in the bottom-up response to emotional stimuli, are related to emotion dysregulation. Additionally, 3 key limbic white matter tracts have also been shown to be associated with CBCL-DP symptoms: the uncinate fasciculus, cingulum bundle, and forceps minor.3,4.


Assuntos
Substância Branca , Encéfalo , Emoções , Humanos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicopatologia , Substância Branca/patologia
9.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; 51(3): 261-263, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671232

RESUMO

The premise of experimental therapeutics is that one can (a) target a process, or mechanism, underlying psychopathology and (b) that change in said mechanism can cause clinical improvement. Targeting specific mechanisms may permit more effective and personalized medicine. The experimental therapeutics approach holds promise for improving the potency and efficiency of treatments for childhood psychopathology, and for advancing our understanding of the factors that both cause and sustain psychopathology. This special issue presents new research utilizing this framework and offers guidelines for the application of the experimental therapeutics framework.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psicologia do Adolescente , Adolescente , Criança , Família , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Psicologia da Criança , Psicopatologia
10.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 13(1): 2083375, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35713586

RESUMO

Background: Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) include a constellation of physical and emotional profiles that youth exposed to trauma may experience. An estimated 20% of youth are exposed to trauma, and in refugee populations, up to 54% experience posttraumatic stress. Given the physical and mental health consequences associated with trauma exposure and subsequent psychopathology, identifying biomarkers of symptom severity is a top research priority.Objective: Previous research in adults found that skin conductance responses to trauma interview predicted current and future PTSS. We extended this method to refugee youth exposed to civilian war trauma and forced migration, to examine associations between PTSS and skin conductance in this uniquely vulnerable child and adolescent population.Methods: 86 refugee youth ages 7-17 years completed a trauma interview and assessment of self-reported PTSS. The mobile eSense app on a iPad was used to obtain continuous recordings of skin conductance level (SCL) during a trauma interview (trauma SCL). Skin conductance response (SCR) was calculated by subtracting the baseline SCL from the maximum amplitude of the trauma SCL.Results: SCL during trauma was significantly greater than baseline SCL, Trauma exposure was significantly associated with SCR to trauma interview, R2 = .084, p = .042. SCR to trauma interview was positively correlated with reexperiencing (R2 = .127, p = .028), and hyperarousal symptoms (R 2 = .123, p = .048).Conclusions: The present study provides evidence for feasibility of SCR to trauma interview as a candidate biomarker of PTSS in youth. This is the first study to look at SCR to trauma interview in youth resettled as refugees and is part of the limited but growing body of research to look at biomarkers in refugee cohorts more broadly. As the number of forcibly displaced persons surges, early detection and prevention of trauma-related psychology is becoming more important than ever. HIGHLIGHTS: Using the mobile eSense app, we demonstrate that skin conductance is measurable in a variety of research settings and that skin conductance response may be a biological indicator of trauma and related psychopathology - namely re-experiencing symptoms - in youth resettled as refugees.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Criança , Emoções , Humanos , Psicopatologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico
11.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 244, 2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688817

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests that partially distinct mechanisms may underlie the association between different dimensions of early life adversity (ELA) and psychopathology in children and adolescents. While there is minimal evidence that different types of ELA are associated with specific psychopathology outcomes, there are partially unique cognitive and socioemotional consequences of specific dimensions of ELA that increase transdiagnostic risk of mental health problems across the internalizing and externalizing spectra. The current review provides an overview of recent findings examining the cognitive (e.g., language, executive function), socioemotional (e.g., attention bias, emotion regulation), and mental health correlates of ELA along the dimensions of threat/harshness, deprivation, and unpredictability. We underscore similarities and differences in the mechanisms connecting different dimensions of ELA to particular mental health outcomes, and identify gaps and future directions that may help to clarify inconsistencies in the literature. This review focuses on childhood and adolescence, periods of exquisite neurobiological change and sensitivity to the environment. The utility of dimensional models of ELA in better understanding the mechanistic pathways towards the expression of psychopathology is discussed, with the review supporting the value of such models in better understanding the developmental sequelae associated with ELA. Integration of dimensional models of ELA with existing models focused on psychiatric classification and biobehavioral mechanisms may advance our understanding of the etiology, phenomenology, and treatment of mental health difficulties in children and youth.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Criança , Cognição , Humanos , Psicopatologia
12.
Clin Psychol Rev ; 95: 102177, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690042

RESUMO

Trauma-related psychopathology, most notably posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), poses unique challenges for psychiatric nosology due to the wide range of symptoms and diagnoses associated with trauma and challenges representing the impact of trauma exposure on psychopathology. In this paper, we review the literature on categorical (i.e., Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases systems) versus dimensional conceptualizations of trauma-related symptoms with an emphasis on the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) and the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) frameworks. We identify strengths of each approach and challenges in accommodating the full range of trauma-related psychopathology and the clinical implications thereof. We discuss several potential approaches for improving the representation of traumatic stress, including the use of PTSD subtypes, trauma-related specifiers for psychiatric diagnoses, and the development of a dimension that we call the traumatic stress spectrum, which spans both adaptive and adverse reactions to trauma. These approaches to representing traumatic stress can be evaluated empirically and further refined. We also discuss how the use of an integrated RDoC-HiTOP approach to reconceptualize traumatic stress might maximize the ability to model valid and reliable trauma-related phenotypes, which would aid in the investigation of clinically relevant biological correlates.


Assuntos
Psicopatologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
13.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 220, 2022 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35768815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2013, a few years after the launch of the National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative, Cuthbert and Insel published a paper titled "Toward the future of psychiatric diagnosis: the seven pillars of RDoC." The RDoC project is a translational research effort to encourage new ways of studying psychopathology through a focus on disruptions in normal functions (such as reward learning or attention) that are defined jointly by observable behavior and neurobiological measures. The paper outlined the principles of the RDoC research framework, including emphases on research that acquires data from multiple measurement classes to foster integrative analyses, adopts dimensional approaches, and employs novel methods for ascertaining participants and identifying valid subgroups. DISCUSSION: To mark the first decade of the RDoC initiative, we revisit the seven pillars and highlight new research findings and updates to the framework that are related to each. This reappraisal emphasizes the flexible nature of the RDoC framework and its application in diverse areas of research, new findings related to the importance of developmental trajectories within and across neurobehavioral domains, and the value of computational approaches for clarifying complex multivariate relations among behavioral and neurobiological systems. CONCLUSION: The seven pillars of RDoC have provided a foundation that has helped to guide a surge of new studies that have examined neurobehavioral domains related to mental disorders, in the service of informing future psychiatric nosology. Building on this footing, future areas of emphasis for the RDoC project will include studying central-peripheral interactions, developing novel approaches to phenotyping for genomic studies, and identifying new targets for clinical trial research to facilitate progress in precision psychiatry.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psiquiatria , Genômica , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Psiquiatria/métodos , Psicopatologia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
14.
Eur Psychiatry ; 65(1): e33, 2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35686446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Network analysis has been used to explore the interplay between psychopathology and functioning in psychosis, but no study has used dedicated statistical techniques to focus on the bridge symptoms connecting these domains. The current study aims to estimate the network of depressive, negative, and positive symptoms, general psychopathology, and real-world functioning in people with first-episode schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder, focusing on bridge nodes. METHODS: Baseline data from the OPTiMiSE trial were analyzed. The sample included 446 participants (age 40.0 ± 10.9 years, 70% males). The network was estimated with a Gaussian graphical model, using scores on individual items of the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), the Calgary depression scale for schizophrenia, and the personal and social performance scale. Stability, strength centrality, expected influence (EI), predictability, and bridge centrality statistics were computed. The top 20% scoring nodes on bridge strength were selected as bridge nodes. RESULTS: Nodes from different rating scales assessing similar psychopathological and functioning constructs tended to cluster together in the estimated network. The most central nodes (EI) were Delusions, Emotional Withdrawal, Depression, and Depressed Mood. Bridge nodes included Depression, Conceptual Disorganization, Active Social Avoidance, Delusions, Stereotyped Thinking, Poor Impulse Control, Guilty Feelings, Unusual Thought Content, and Hostility. Most of the bridge nodes belonged to the general psychopathology subscale of the PANSS. Depression (G6) was the bridge node with the highest value. CONCLUSIONS: The current study provides novel insights for understanding the complex phenotype of psychotic disorders and the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of comorbidity and functional impairment after psychosis onset.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Adulto , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicopatologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico
15.
Hist Psychiatry ; 33(2): 143-162, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35588214

RESUMO

Gustav Specht (1860-1940) developed academic psychiatry in Erlangen. After studying medicine in Würzburg, Munich and Berlin, he became assistant medical director in the mental asylum of Erlangen. In 1897 he was appointed extraordinary, and in 1903 ordinary, Professor of Psychiatry. A good clinician and teacher, Specht worked during a time of paradigm change in psychiatry. He was an expert in chronic mania, and introduced the concept of the 'grumbler's delusion'. Paranoia he believed to be the core problem of psychopathology and considered the depressive syndrome as an 'exogenous-type' of reaction. For him, trauma was important in the genesis of mental illness, and his 'hystero-melancholy' anticipated the concept of borderline personality disorder.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria , Depressão , História do Século XX , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Humanos , Transtornos Paranoides , Psiquiatria/história , Psicopatologia
16.
Hist Psychiatry ; 33(2): 236-255, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35588218

RESUMO

In 1880 Carl Wernicke gave this plenary lecture at an annual meeting of German physicians and natural scientists. He used principles from his 1874 aphasia monograph to build a neural model of mental illness. He proposed that the brain keeps a record of experiences in distinct areas of the sensory and motor cortices in the form of memory images, which allows for recognition of objects and the planning of motor acts. He conjectured that imperfections, partial defects and complete loss of such memory images lead, respectively, to mild, moderate and severe forms of psychopathology in sensory and motor realms. The lecture is an early presentation of Wernicke's system of psychiatry. Several of his concepts have remained relevant in contemporary neuroscience.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psiquiatria , Humanos , Masculino , Psicopatologia
18.
Psychiatry Res ; 313: 114593, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533473

RESUMO

Limitations of a polythetic-categorical classification system has sparked ongoing quantitative efforts to establish a valid and reliable method for diagnosing mental illness. Dimensional methods of classification, such as the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP), have been found to ameliorate the limitations of a categorical approach - despite the provisional placement of a Somatoform spectrum. The current investigation sought to elucidate the placement of the Somatoform spectrum within the HiTOP model, and to further corroborate discriminant and convergent validity of the Somatoform spectrum. Using a sample of patients seeking chronic low-back pain treatment (n = 200), superior model fit suggested Somatoform fits better as a separate spectrum from Internalizing and placing Somatoform as a subfactor of Internalizing did not improve model fit. Discriminant and convergent validity with an external criteria demonstrated distinctiveness of the Somatoform spectrum from the Internalizing spectrum in the HiTOP model.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psicopatologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico
19.
Annu Rev Clin Psychol ; 18: 443-469, 2022 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534121

RESUMO

A basic survival need is the ability to respond to, and persevere in the midst of, experiential challenges. Mechanisms of neuroplasticity permit this responsivity via functional adaptations (flexibility), as well as more substantial structural modifications following chronic stress or injury. This review focuses on prefrontally based flexibility, expressed throughout large-scale neuronal networks through the actions of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. With substance use disorders and stress-related internalizing disorders as exemplars, we review human behavioral and neuroimaging data, considering whether executive control, particularly cognitive flexibility, is impaired premorbidly, enduringly compromised with illness progression, or both. We conclude that deviations in control processes are consistently expressed in the context of active illness but operate through different mechanisms and with distinct longitudinal patterns in externalizing versus internalizing conditions.


Assuntos
Psicopatologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Cognição , Humanos , Plasticidade Neuronal , Córtex Pré-Frontal
20.
J Affect Disord ; 311: 55-62, 2022 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35550828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a highly prevalent transdiagnostic psychiatric symptom in adolescents. Research in adults has begun to investigate neurocognitive processes associated with NSSI as potential underlying phenotypes. However, research on neurocognitive function in adolescent patients with NSSI is scarce. METHODS: In this study, we examined neurocognitive functioning in the domains of processing speed, attention, learning, working memory, and executive function in a relatively large sample of n = 240 adolescent patients engaging in NSSI and n = 49 healthy controls. Further, associations between neurocognitive performance and clinical characteristics in the patient group were examined. RESULTS: While conventional regression analyses showed somewhat weaker neurocognition in the NSSI group in several domains, propensity score matching for IQ showed little evidence that patients engaging in NSSI showed worse neurocognition when general intelligence was considered. Further, a random forest machine learning algorithm was not able to classify NSSI vs. control groups based on neurocognitive features. Within the patient group, linear regression and latent class analyses yielded little evidence that neurocognitive performance was related with clinical characteristics or phenotypes. LIMITATIONS: As the study did not include a clinical control group, findings might not be specific to NSSI. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings challenge the importance of specific neurocognitive measures related to the presence or severity of NSSI in adolescents. Future studies should consider general intelligence as an important confounding factor and should focus on domains of affective cognition. Finally, longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether low neurocognitive performance serves to inform prognosis of NSSI or psychopathology in general.


Assuntos
Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Adolescente , Cognição , Humanos , Psicopatologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia
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