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1.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1982502, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745445

RESUMO

This special issue of the European Journal of Psychotraumatology (EJPT) presents the first studies published by EJPT on COVID-19. We present 26 qualitative and quantitative studies assessing the prevalence of trauma-related symptoms and psychopathology within specific vulnerable populations such as health-care workers, students, children, and managers, or more broadly at a country level with a diverse set of outcomes including post-traumatic stress, moral injury, grief and post-traumatic growth. Intervention studies focus on whether telehealth delivery of mental health therapy in the pandemic environment was useful and effective. It is clear that the pandemic has brought with it a rise in trauma exposure and consequently impacted on trauma-related mental health. While for many individuals, COVID-19-related events met criteria for a DSM-5 Criterion A event, challenges remain in disentangling trauma exposure from stress, anxiety, and other phenomena. It is important to determine the contexts in which a trauma lens makes a useful contribution to understanding the mental health impacts of COVID-19 and the ways in which this may facilitate recovery. The papers included in this Special Issue provide an important and much-needed evidence-based foundation for developing trauma-informed understanding and responses to the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Psicopatologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
2.
Am J Psychiatry ; 178(11): 998-1013, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734741

RESUMO

Adversity early in life is common and is a major risk factor for the onset of psychopathology. Delineating the neurodevelopmental pathways by which early adversity affects mental health is critical for early risk identification and targeted treatment approaches. A rapidly growing cross-species literature has facilitated advances in identifying the mechanisms linking adversity with psychopathology, specific dimensions of adversity and timing-related factors that differentially relate to outcomes, and protective factors that buffer against the effects of adversity. Yet, vast complexity and heterogeneity in early environments and neurodevelopmental trajectories contribute to the challenges of understanding risk and resilience in the context of early adversity. In this overview, the author highlights progress in four major areas-mechanisms, heterogeneity, developmental timing, and protective factors; synthesizes key challenges; and provides recommendations for future research that can facilitate progress in the field. Translation across species and ongoing refinement of conceptual models have strong potential to inform prevention and intervention strategies that can reduce the immense burden of psychopathology associated with early adversity.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Intervenção Médica Precoce , Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Experiências Adversas da Infância/prevenção & controle , Experiências Adversas da Infância/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Fatores de Proteção , Psicopatologia , Fatores de Risco
4.
Psychiatr Hung ; 36(3): 294-302, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738526

RESUMO

Negative symptoms in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder are present both in behavior and in the subjective experience of the patients, however the relationships between these two components have not been sufficiently studied. Standardized assessment methods were utilized in a study of 96 acutely exacerbated inpatients and 26 stabilized outpatients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder for the measurement of nega tive symptoms, subjective experiences, depression, general psychopathology and neurological side effects. Halo - peridol blood levels were controlled in the inpatient group. Results of this study suggest that the behavioral symptoms and the subjective experiences of the negative syndrome are not correlated with each other. The subjective experiences of negative symptoms were highly correlated with depression in the acutely exacerbated inpatients, but not in the outpatients. Medication levels and neurological side effects were not related either to the behavioral or the experiential aspects of the negative syndrome.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicopatologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
5.
Psychiatr Hung ; 36(3): 303-335, 2021.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738527

RESUMO

Depending on affinity, attitude, preference, understanding, and mental state, music can influence emotions, mood, motivation, psychomotor, cognitive, and spiritual functions in the receptive person. It is presumed that a given music may reflect the actual psychic condition of the composer and, if applicable, the nature of the chosen topic to be characterized. However, extreme situations may emerge from these components i.e. the music might overshoot the frontiers of normal psychological phenomena and 'heavy mental' psychopathological symptoms or syndromes may appear in it. Present search restricts the wide range of music categories to the classical one (instrumental and vocal, opera included) and attempts to screen for such 'heavy mental' psychopathological signs beside mentioning the slighter symptoms. Phenomena of amnesia, dementia/delirium, mental retardation, biased perception, chemical/behavioural addiction, delusion, misidentification, mania, depression, suicide, anxiety, obsession-compulsion, conversion, disso - ciation, para/hyper/insomnia, sexual and personality disorders are listed as examples from the wide repertoire. The figure of the 'fool' and the topic of 'madness' (in general, and folia, tarantella) are mentioned as well as the appearance of some behavioural traits ('seven deadly sins'), feigning psychic/somatic states, pathological lying, mutism, stutterism, famous oracles, mesmerism, and employing magic or various potions. Mad scenes as psychotic conditions (often tran - sient if due to psychotrauma from romantic love) occur in many operas. However, quite a few of them have been written by Donizetti. Considering his life, behaviour and composing features, the question arises about Donizetti's ailment: was it mood disorder, Barbaja, or luetic derailment?


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Música , Transtornos Psicóticos , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Humanos , Psicopatologia
6.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(11): 1001-1012, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688345

RESUMO

In foundational texts on schizophrenia, the mental disorder was constitutively linked to a specific disintegration of subjectivity (often termed a self-disorder). Apart from Scharfetter's work on ego-pathology, research on self-disorders generally faded into oblivion, and self-disorders were only rediscovered as notable psychopathological features of the schizophrenia spectrum nearly two decades ago. Subsequently, the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience (EASE) scale was constructed to allow systematic assessment of non-psychotic self-disorders. This Review is the first systematic review of empirical studies on self-disorders based on the EASE or other related scales. The results consistently show that self-disorders hyper-aggregate in schizophrenia spectrum disorders but not in other mental disorders; that self-disorders are found in individuals at a clinical risk of developing psychosis; that self-disorders show a high degree of temporal stability; that self-disorders predict the later development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders; and that self-disorders correlate with the canonical dimensions of the psychopathology of schizophrenia, impaired social functioning, and suicidality. Issues with the methods of the reviewed literature are critically discussed and the role of self-disorders in clinical psychiatry and future research is outlined.


Assuntos
Psicopatologia/métodos , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Adulto , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Autoimagem , Interação Social , Ideação Suicida
7.
Am J Psychiatry ; 178(10): 896-902, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592843

RESUMO

Sleep disturbances and depression are closely linked and share a bidirectional relationship. These interconnections can inform the pathophysiology underlying each condition. Insomnia is an established and modifiable risk factor for depression, the treatment of which offers the critical opportunity to prevent major depressive episodes, a paradigm-shifting model for psychiatry. Identification of occult sleep disorders may also improve outcomes in treatment-resistant depression. Sleep alterations and manipulations may additionally clarify the mechanisms that underlie rapid-acting antidepressant therapies. Both sleep disturbance and depression are heterogeneous processes, and evolving standards in psychiatric research that consider the transdiagnostic components of each are more likely to lead to translational progress at their nexus. Emerging tools to objectively quantify sleep and its disturbances in the home environment offer great potential to advance clinical care and research, but nascent technologies require further advances and validation prior to widespread application at the interface of sleep and depression.


Assuntos
Depressão , Transtornos Intrínsecos do Sono , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/tendências , Psicopatologia/métodos , Sono/fisiologia , Transtornos Intrínsecos do Sono/psicologia , Transtornos Intrínsecos do Sono/terapia
8.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 508, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611129

RESUMO

Resilience in the face of major life stressors is changeable over time and with experience. Accordingly, differing sets of neurobiological factors may contribute to an adaptive stress response before, during, and after the stressor. Longitudinal studies are therefore particularly effective in answering questions about the determinants of resilience. Here we provide an overview of the rapidly-growing body of longitudinal neuroimaging research on stress resilience. Despite lingering gaps and limitations, these studies are beginning to reveal individual differences in neural circuit structure and function that appear protective against the emergence of future psychopathology following a major life stressor. Here we outline a neural circuit model of resilience to trauma. Specifically, pre-trauma biomarkers of resilience show that an ability to modulate activity within threat and salience networks predicts fewer stress-related symptoms. In contrast, early post-trauma biomarkers of subsequent resilience or recovery show a more complex pattern, spanning a number of major circuits including attention and cognitive control networks as well as primary sensory cortices. This novel synthesis suggests stress resilience may be scaffolded by stable individual differences in the processing of threat cues, and further buttressed by post-trauma adaptations to the stressor that encompass multiple mechanisms and circuits. More attention and resources supporting this work will inform the targets and timing of mechanistic resilience-boosting interventions.


Assuntos
Resiliência Psicológica , Estudos Longitudinais , Neurobiologia , Neuroimagem , Psicopatologia
9.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 23(12): 83, 2021 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674064

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This systematic review aims to collect evidence regarding the impact of the SarsCov-2 pandemic on people affected by eating disorders (EDs) targeting the following variables: psychopathology changes, mechanisms of vulnerability or resilience, and perception of treatment modifications during the pandemic. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the beginning of the pandemic, a mental health deterioration has been detected in the general population and especially in people affected by pre-existing psychiatric conditions. Furthermore, mental healthcare has moved toward online treatment. ED people showed a trend toward worsening of ED-specific psychopathology and impairment in general psychopathology. The most common vulnerability mechanisms were social isolation and feelings of uncertainty, while heightened self-care and reduced social pressure were resilience factors. The online treatment, although raising many concerns related to its quality, was considered the best alternative to the face-to-face approach. These findings may support the idea that stressful events contribute to the exacerbation of ED psychopathology and highlight the relevance of internalizing symptoms in EDs. The identification of putative risk and resilience variables as well as of subjective factors affecting online treatment perception may inform healthcare professionals and may promote more personalized approaches.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Humanos , Pandemias , Psicopatologia , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Am J Psychiatry ; 178(11): 1037-1049, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645277

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Major negative life events, such as trauma exposure, can play a key role in igniting or exacerbating psychopathology. However, few disorders are diagnosed with respect to precipitating events, and the role of these events in the unfolding of new psychopathology is not well understood. The authors conducted a multisite transdiagnostic longitudinal study of trauma exposure and related mental health outcomes to identify neurobiological predictors of risk, resilience, and different symptom presentations. METHODS: A total of 146 participants (discovery cohort: N=69; internal replication cohort: N=77) were recruited from emergency departments within 72 hours of a trauma and followed for the next 6 months with a survey, MRI, and physiological assessments. RESULTS: Task-based functional MRI 2 weeks after a motor vehicle collision identified four clusters of individuals based on profiles of neural activity reflecting threat reactivity, reward reactivity, and inhibitory engagement. Three clusters were replicated in an independent sample with a variety of trauma types. The clusters showed different longitudinal patterns of posttrauma symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a novel characterization of heterogeneous stress responses shortly after trauma exposure, identifying potential neuroimaging-based biotypes of trauma resilience and psychopathology.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Neuroimagem Funcional/métodos , Transtornos Mentais , Ferimentos e Lesões , Variação Biológica Individual , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/etiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/fisiopatologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/psicologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Desencadeantes , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicopatologia , Psicofisiologia , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/classificação , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
11.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 66: 102893, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715547

RESUMO

Faced with clinical, methodological, conceptual and modeling challenges, psychiatric nosology turned forty years ago towards a descriptive approach, with the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III). More recently, the discipline has sought answers in precision medicine and biomarkers, e.g., with the Research Domain Criteria project of the National Institute for Mental Health, towards statistical and dimensional approaches, e.g., the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology, or towards dynamic (e.g., staging models) and computational approaches (e.g., symptom network in psychopathology). However, despite these attempts to guardedly move away from a descriptive perspective, the functions of classifications have remained the same in psychiatry over time. These functions could be seen as the guarantee of a stable ground for psychiatry, and it seems necessary that they be made explicit from methodological and deontological points of view.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psiquiatria , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Psicopatologia
12.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693683

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To define psychopathological and phenomenological characteristics of the apocalyptic variant of end-world delusion with religious content (EWDRC) in schizophrenia, to identify features of clinical dynamics of delusional disorders and their interaction with delusional behavior of patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 28 patients with schizophrenia (F20.01, F20.02 according to ICD-10) and EWDRC were examined. Clinical-psychopathological and follow-up methods were used. RESULTS: The development of the end-world delusional ideas occurred in unstructured affective-delusional disorder with acute sensual delusion. Two types of EWDRC were differentiated: with predominance of perception delusion or picturesque delusion. These types differed by acuity and massiveness of psychotic symptomatology, the mono- or polythematic character of delusional disorders, affect type, as well as by the duration and intensity of the development of delusional stages, and in their phenomenological specifics. CONCLUSION: Delusional ideas of the end of the world in schizophrenic patients develop in the structure of the syndrome of acute sensory delusions with a predominance of delusions of perception (type I) or visual-figurative delusions of the imagination (type II), which have different duration, degree of dominance and depth of psychopathological disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Delusões , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Psicopatologia
13.
aSEPHallus ; 16(32): 129-147, maio.-out.2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342720

RESUMO

Diagnóstico de autismo: contribuições da teoria psicanalítica: A partir da noção de sujeito e dos modos de sua constituição perante a orientação psicanalítica lacaniana, podemos definir que o autismo não é meramente um sintoma nem um tipo específico das psicoses, mas uma estrutura clínica com particularidades. Compreende-se o autismo como sendo concernente ao campo psicopatológico, considerando-se a dimensão do sujeito advinda da alteridade. O sintoma é tomado como um fenômeno de relação transferencial que emerge como uma questão de semiologia na classificação, ou seja, o diagnóstico é posto na prática linguística. As controvérsias a respeito das contingências do autismo e das suas possíveis classificações foram expostas neste trabalho para além da descrição operacional atrelada a categorias nosográficas, mas examinadas sob a perspectiva de uma psicopatologia fundamental.


Les contributions de la psychanalyse au diagnostic d'autisme : On part de l'orientation psychanalytique lacanienne pour réfléchir sur le problème que l'autisme constitue dans le scénario actuel. Avec la notion de sujet et les modalités de sa constitution, on peut définir que l'autisme n'est pas simplement un symptôme ou un type spécifique de psychose, mais une structure clinique avec ses propres spécificités. L'autisme est compris comme étant localisé sur le champ psychopathologique, en considérant la dimension du sujet issue de l'altérité. Le symptôme est compris comme un phénomène issu de la relation transférentielle qui émerge comme problème de sémiologie dans la classification, c'est-à-dire que le diagnostic est localisé dans la pratique linguistique. Les controverses par rapport aux contingences sur l'autisme et ses classifications possibles ont été exposées dans cet ouvrage, au-delà de la description opérationnelle liée a des catégories nosographiques, mais examinées sous la perspective d'une psychopathologie fondamentale.


Psychoanalytical contributions to the autism diagnosis: The Lacanian psychoanalytic approach is the starting point to guide the problem that autism constitutes in the current scenario. Considering the notion of subject and the ways in which it is constituted, we can define that autism is not merely a symptom or a specific type of psychosis, but rather a clinical structure with its own specificities. Autism is understood as being situated in the field of psychopathology, taking into consideration the dimension of the subject originated from the otherness. Symptom is understood as a phenomenon in the relationship of transference, which emerges as a problem of semiology in the classification, that is, diagnosis is placed into linguistics practice. The controversies concerning the contingencies over autism and its possible classifications have been described in this paper beyond the operational description tied to nosographic categories, but examined under the perspective of a fundamental psychopathology.


Assuntos
Psicopatologia , Transtorno Autístico , Psicanálise
14.
aSEPHallus ; 16(32): 148-165, maio.-out.2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342721

RESUMO

Procuramos debater algumas perspectivas da clínica contemporânea e do campo da psicopatologia no contexto do laço social hoje, tomando como base as mudanças conceituais em Jacques Lacan sobre o Nome-doPai e as incidências sobre a noção de suplência no seu último ensino. Entendemos que a renovação da clínica em Lacan revigora a psicopatologia na lógica borromeana e orienta a prática do psicanalista na clínica do Real.


Clinique, psychopathologie et lien social aujourd'hui: On cherche à débattre de certaines perspectives de la clinique contemporaine et du domaine de la psychopathologie dans le contexte du lien social aujourd'hui. On l'examine à partir des changements conceptuels de Jacques Lacan autour du Nom-du-Père et des incidences sur la notion de suppléance dans ses dernières études. On comprend que la rénovation de la clinique de Lacan revigore la psychopathologie dans la logique borroméenne et guide la pratique du psychanalyste dans la clinique du Réel.


Clinic, psychopathology and social bond today: In this study, we discussed some perspectives of contemporary clinic and psychopathology field in the current social bond context, based on Jacques Lacan's concept changes regarding the Name-of-The-Father and the incidences of s replacement notion in his last teaching. We understand that clinic reformulation in Lacan invigorates the field of psychopathology in Borromean logic and guides psychoanalysts' practices in the clinic of the real.


Assuntos
Psicanálise , Psicopatologia
15.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(Suppl 9): 30-34, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559775

RESUMO

The article addresses the emergence of new ways of expressing adolescent discomfort, ways that are consequence of a new way of functioning, of thinking and of being completely different from that which has been studied to date from Psychopathology. This raises profound questions which lead to rethink both the diagnostic equipment of the therapist, hi setting and the way to develop the therapeutic process. The article proposes some keys to understanding these emergencies and, on the basis of the experience matured, some guidelines for intervention.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psicopatologia , Adolescente , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Agitação Psicomotora
16.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 63(7): 526-534, 2021.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy and the postpartum period is a vulnerable phase in life for women and can influence the development or course of a psychiatric disorder. These patients can receive extra guidance during this period by the POP-collaboration (Psychiatry, Obstetrics and Pediatrics) in many hospitals. AIM: To describe the characteristics of patients who received psychiatric consultation by the POP-collaboration at the LUMC and the interventions that were conducted. METHOD: Data of patients who were seen at the psychiatric (outpatient) clinic for POP-guidance between 1 January 2016 and 1 April 2020 were analyzed. RESULTS: 292 patients were seen in 310 guidance programs at the psychiatric (outpatient) clinic. Patients referred preconceptionally or during the pregnancy mostly suffered anxiety or unipolar mood disorders. Postpartum it concerned mostly psychotic disorders and bipolar mood disorders. A majority had two or more psychiatric disorders. Interventions were psycho-education, supportive contact, collaboration with their own health-professionals, adjustment of the current treatment, making a prevention plan, a prolonged stay at hospital after childbirth or (rarely) an admission to the psychiatric ward. CONCLUSION: Patients seen for guidance by the POP-collaboration at the LUMC are a vulnerable patient population with frequently complex psychopathology, and need personalized psychoeducation, supervision and treatment.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Transtornos Mentais , Psiquiatria , Transtornos Psicóticos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Gravidez , Psicopatologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta
17.
Res Dev Disabil ; 118: 104063, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA) has been associated with the regulation of certain types of internalizing psychopathologies, and is affected by acute aerobic exercise (AE). However, no previous studies have examined the association between FAA and internalizing problems or the effects of acute exercise on FAA in children with ADHD. AIMS: This study had two objectives. First, it aimed to examine the relationship between FAA and internalizing behaviors in children with ADHD. Second, it sought to investigate the differential effects of acute AE (30 and 50 min) on FAA. METHOD: Participants were assigned to one of the following three groups: 50 min of AE, 30 min of AE, and a control group. Resting electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded before and after their respective treatments. EEG data from 43 participants were analyzed to investigate the association between pre-test FAA and internalizing problems as assessed by Child Behavior Checklist scores. Additionally, EEG data from 46 participants were analyzed to examine the effects of acute AE on post-test FAA while controlling for pre-test FAA. RESULTS: Pre-test FAA was found to be significantly negatively associated with internalizing problems, with both hemispheres contributing to this association. Regarding the effects of acute exercise, the 50-minute AE group had highest post-test FAA, reflected by the increased relative left-side frontal activity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that FAA is a biological marker of internalizing symptoms in children with ADHD, and a 50-minute session of AE can effectively modulate FAA.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Psicopatologia
18.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 34(6): 600-607, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535007

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate and summarize recent research investigating psychological, social and environmental risk factors for development of psychopathology in childhood, while controlling for biological (genetic) influences by using a matched sibling, twin or adoptee design. RECENT FINDINGS: Nineteen studies were included, of which eleven were longitudinal and eight were cohort studies. Included studies used adequate designs and statistical methods, controlled for unmeasured confounders and, in many cases, for other measured risk factors. None of the studies used the framework for environmental factors presented in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The outcome variable psychopathology was rarely assessed using a diagnostic standard. The findings were sorted in five themes based on included exposures: 'Social support, social rejection and perceived identity,' 'Early symptoms of psychopathology,' 'Antibiotic exposure,' 'Factors in the family' and 'Nature versus nurture'. SUMMARY: Using twin/sibling/adoptee designs, a number of unique predictors of psychopathology were found, even when controlling for familial confounders and other specified risk factors. Future studies of psychopathology development should benefit from longitudinal, genetically sensitive designs and from use of diagnostic standards for psychopathology outcome, and should also incorporate ICF for classification of risk factors.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Psicopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Irmãos
19.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(749): 1532-1533, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495590

RESUMO

Obsessive-compulsive disorders represent a relatively simple psychiatric diagnosis but of a great psychopathological heterogeneity in youth. The link between these disorders and early psychosis is discussed. A differential somatic diagnosis may also be questioned. An assessment of the signs suggesting a risk of psychotic decompensation and possibly a complete psychological assessment are part of the psychiatric investigation for these patients.


Assuntos
Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Transtornos Psicóticos , Adolescente , Humanos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Psicopatologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia
20.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 65: 102861, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deficit syndrome (DS) is a common subgroup of schizophrenia. However, few studies have examined the prevalence and risk factors for DS in Chinese Han patients with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence, demographic and clinical characteristics of DS in Chinese Han patients with first-episode drug naïve (FEDN) schizophrenia. METHODS: In total, 235 patients with schizophrenia were recruited, and clinical and demographic data were collected. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was utilized for the psychopathological symptoms, and the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) for depressive symptoms. The Proxy for the Deficit Syndrome (PDS) was adopted to identify DS. RESULTS: The prevalence of DS in the cohort of first-episode schizophrenia patients was 23.0%. Compared to those patients without DS, patients with DS had younger age, lower education level, and were more likely to be single. Further, DS patients had significantly lower scores of positive symptoms, general psychopathology, and depression than non-DS patients. Patients with DS had fewer suicide attempts, but they had more severe negative symptoms and cognitive impairment (all p < 0.05). Multiple regression showed that poor cognitive functioning, lower levels of depression and younger age at onset were predictors of DS. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese Han patients with FEDN schizophrenia have high prevalence of DS. Some demographic and clinical parameters may be associated with DS.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Esquizofrenia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Psicopatologia , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia
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