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1.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 24(2): 172-181, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pterygota alata (Roxb.) R.Br. bark extract has been studied to have cytotoxic activity on 4T1 cells. This study was conducted to determine the cytotoxic activity of several fractions of Pterygota alata (Roxb.) R.Br. bark against 4T1 breast cancer cells and to investigate the most active fractions on Bcl-2 and Bax expressions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The bark of Pterygota alata (Roxb.) R.Br. was extracted using 80% methanol and was fractionated into fractions of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and insoluble n-butanol with liquid-liquid partition. Cytotoxic tests were performed using the MTT method and expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 on 4T1 breast cancer cells were detected with immunocytochemical staining. Identification of compounds in the most active fraction using GC-MS. RESULTS: The results showed that the most active fraction was the insoluble fraction of n-butanol (IFB) with an IC50 of 15.14 µg mL-1. IFB also decreases the expression of Bcl-2 and increases the expression of Bax. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that Pterygota alata (Roxb.) R.Br. bark has the potential to be developed for medical use, especially for breast cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Pterigotos , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Chlorocebus aethiops , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Camundongos , Casca de Planta , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Pterigotos/química , Transdução de Sinais , Células Vero
2.
Arthropod Struct Dev ; 57: 100944, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361571

RESUMO

External male genitalia of insects are greatly diverse in form and frequently used in evolutionary context and taxonomy. Therefore, our proper recognition of homologous structures among various groups from Paleozoic and extant insect taxa is of crucial interest, allowing to understand the key steps in insect evolution. Here, we reveal structural details of two Late Carboniferous representatives of Megasecoptera (families Bardohymenidae and Brodiopteridae), such as the presence of separated coxal plates VIII and ventral expansions of coxal lobes IX. Together with the confirmed presence of abdominal styli in some other members of Palaeodictyopterida (Diaphanopterodea) this suggests that early pterygotes may have had traits more archaic than expected. Whether or not these traits point to a stem-group relationship of Palaeodictyopterida to all other Pterygota as suspected by earlier authors remains unclear at this stage. Furthermore, the present study provides an updated comparison of male postabdomen morphology among extant species of wingless Archaeognatha and representatives of early diverging groups of Pterygota from the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian, the Megasecoptera (Palaeodictyopterida), Permoplectoptera (Ephemeroptera) and Meganisoptera (Odonatoptera).


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Insetos/anatomia & histologia , Abdome , Animais , Masculino , Pterigotos/anatomia & histologia
3.
J Hered ; 109(4): 477-483, 2018 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29206981

RESUMO

The recently discovered insect order Mantophasmatodea currently comprises 19 Southern African species. These mainly occur in allopatry, have high levels of color polymorphism and communicate via species- and gender-specific vibratory signals. High levels of interspecific morphological conservatism mean that cryptic species are likely to be uncovered. These aspects of Mantophasmatodean biology make them an ideal group in which to investigate population divergence due to habitat-specific adaptation, sexual selection, and potentially sensory speciation. Lack of appropriate genetic markers has thus far rendered such studies unfeasible. To address this need, the first microsatellite loci for this order were developed. Fifty polymorphic loci were designed specifically for Karoophasma biedouwense (Austrophasmatidae), out of which 23 were labeled and tested for amplification across the order using 2-3 individuals from 10 species, representing all 4 currently known families. A Bayesian mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) topology was reconstructed and divergence dates within the order were estimated for the first time. Amplification success and levels of polymorphism were compared with genetic divergence and time since divergence. In agreement with studies on vertebrate taxa, both amplification and variability were negatively correlated with distance (temporal and genetic). The high number of informative loci will offer sufficient resolution for both broad level population genetic analysis and individual based pedigree or parentage analyses for most species in Austrophasmatidae, with at least some loci available for the other families. This resource will facilitate research into the evolutionary biology of this understudied but fascinating group.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Pterigotos/genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Ecossistema , Feminino , Deriva Genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Masculino , Linhagem
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