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1.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 56: 101133, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35841648

RESUMO

The human amygdala is critical for emotional learning, valence coding, and complex social interactions, all of which mature throughout childhood, puberty, and adolescence. Across these ages, the amygdala paralaminar nucleus (PL) undergoes significant structural changes including increased numbers of mature neurons. The PL contains a large population of immature excitatory neurons at birth, some of which may continue to be born from local progenitors. These progenitors disappear rapidly in infancy, but the immature neurons persist throughout childhood and adolescent ages, indicating that they develop on a protracted timeline. Many of these late-maturing neurons settle locally within the PL, though a small subset appear to migrate into neighboring amygdala subnuclei. Despite its prominent growth during postnatal life and possible contributions to multiple amygdala circuits, the function of the PL remains unknown. PL maturation occurs predominately during late childhood and into puberty when sex hormone levels change. Sex hormones can promote developmental processes such as neuron migration, dendritic outgrowth, and synaptic plasticity, which appear to be ongoing in late-maturing PL neurons. Collectively, we describe how the growth of late-maturing neurons occurs in the right time and place to be relevant for amygdala functions and neuropsychiatric conditions.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo , Neurogênese , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Puberdade
3.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 909830, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35813640

RESUMO

Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most common aneuploidy in men and has long-term sequelae on health and wellbeing. KS is a chronic, lifelong condition and adolescents/young adults (AYAs) with KS face challenges in transitioning from pediatric to adult-oriented services. Discontinuity of care contributes to poor outcomes for health and wellbeing and transition programs for KS are lacking. We aimed to develop and test a mobile health tool (KS Transition Passport) to educate patients about KS, encourage self-management and support successful transition to adult-oriented care. First, we conducted a retrospective chart review and patient survey to examine KS transition at a university hospital. Second, we conducted a systematic scoping review of the literature on AYAs with KS. Last, we developed a mobile health transition passport and evaluated it with patient support groups. Participants evaluated the tool using the System Usability Scale and Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool (PEMAT). Chart review identified 21 AYAs diagnosed between 3.9-16.8 years-old (median 10.2 years). The survey revealed only 4/10 (40%) were on testosterone therapy and fewer (3/10, 30%) had regular medical care. The scoping review identified 21 relevant articles highlighting key aspects of care for AYAs with KS. An interprofessional team developed the mobile-health KS transition passport using an iterative process. Support group members (n=35) rated passport usability as 'ok' to 'good' (70 ± 20, median 73.5/100). Of PEMAT dimensions, 5/6 were deemed 'high quality' (86-90/100) and participants knew what to do with the information (actionability = 83/100). In conclusion, many patients with KS appear to have gaps in transition to adult-oriented care. Iterative development of a KS transition passport produced a mobile health tool that was usable, understandable and had high ratings for actionability.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Klinefelter , Telemedicina , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Transição Epidemiológica , Humanos , Síndrome de Klinefelter/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Klinefelter/terapia , Masculino , Puberdade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 20(1): 100, 2022 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35821045

RESUMO

Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) has recently been shown to alter the reproductive capacity by regulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF) bioavailability or IGF-independent effects. The present study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of IGFBP-5 on the onset of puberty in female rats. Immunofluorescence and real-time quantitative PCR were used to determine the expression and location of IGFBP-5 mRNA and protein distribution in the infant's hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary (HPO) axis prepuberty, peripuberty, puberty and adult female rats. Prepubertal rats with IGFBP-5 intracerebroventricular (ICV) were injected to determine the puberty-related genes expression and the concentrations of reproductive hormones. Primary hypothalamic cells were treated with IGFBP-5 to determine the expression of puberty-related genes and the Akt and mTOR proteins. Results showed that Igfbp-5 mRNA and protein were present on the HPO axis. The addition of IGFBP-5 to primary hypothalamic cells inhibited the expression of Gnrh and Igf-1 mRNAs (P < 0.05) and increased the expression of AKT and mTOR protein (P < 0.01). IGFBP-5 ICV-injection delayed the onset of puberty, reduced Gnrh, Igf-1, and Fshß mRNAs, and decreased the concentrations of E2, P4, FSH,serum LH levels and the ovaries weight (P < 0.05). More corpus luteum and fewer primary follicles were found after IGFBP-5 injection (P < 0.05).


Assuntos
Proteína 5 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina , Puberdade , Animais , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Proteína 5 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/biossíntese , Proteína 5 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Puberdade/genética , Puberdade/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos
5.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 882144, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35784539

RESUMO

Camurati-Engelmann Disease (CED) is a rare sclerosing bone disease, sometimes associated delayed puberty. The treatment effect of glucocorticoid and angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) in bone health and puberty development remain unclear. We report a case of an 18-year-old girl who presented for a history of an enlarged head, pain of lower limbs, and no menstrual onset or breast development. Radiographs revealed thickening of skull and cortices in the diaphysis but sparse bone trabeculae in the spine and metaphysis. Sanger sequencing detected a mutation of c. 652C>T (p. R218C) in the gene TGFB1 and confirmed the diagnosis of CED. After treatment of a medium-to-small dosage of prednisone and losartan for 28 months, we observed improvement of bone mass in spine and hip and body fat mass and found initiation of puberty development. By a systemic review of current treatment strategies in patients with CED, we found that most cases reported relief of bone pain with treatment of glucocorticoid or ARB, but none has reported the outcome of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. We propose that long-term use of glucocorticoid combined with ARB may inhibit the activation of TGFß1 in CED, improve adipogenesis, and thus initiate puberty development and improve the bone mass in spine and hip.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Camurati-Engelmann , Adolescente , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Densidade Óssea , Síndrome de Camurati-Engelmann/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Camurati-Engelmann/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Camurati-Engelmann/genética , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Losartan/uso terapêutico , Dor , Puberdade
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 241: 113723, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679725

RESUMO

Constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP) refers to the late onset of puberty. CDGP is associated with poor psychosocial outcomes and elevated risk of cardiovascular and osteoporotic diseases, especially in women. The environmental factors that contribute to CDGP are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effects of chronic circadian disturbance (CCD) during the fetal stage on the pubertal development of female mice. Compared to non-stressed female (NS-F) mice that were not exposed to CCD in utero, adolescent CCD female (CCD-F) mice exhibited phenotypes that were consistent with CDGP, including lower body weight, reduced levels of circulating gonadal hormones, decreased expression of gonadal hormones and steroid synthesis-related enzymes in the ovary and hypothalamus, irregular estrus cycles, and tardive vaginal introitus initial opening (VO) days (equivalent to the menarche). Phenotypic differences in the above-noted parameters were not observed in CCD-F mice once they had reached adulthood. The expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism was perturbed in the ovary and hypothalamus of CCD-F mice. In addition, the ovaries of these animals exhibited altered diurnal expression profiles of circadian clock genes. Together, our findings not only suggest that CCD during fetal development may result in delayed puberty in female mice, they also offer insights on potential mechanisms that underlie CDGP.


Assuntos
Puberdade Tardia , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Puberdade
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742410

RESUMO

Manganese (Mn) and lead (Pb) have been associated with the deregulation of the neuroendocrine system, which could potentially favor the appearance of precocious puberty (PP) in environmentally exposed children. This study aims to evaluate the exposure to Mn and Pb and their potential effects in anticipating puberty in school-aged children living near a ferromanganese alloy plant in Bahia, Brazil. Toenail, occipital hair and blood samples were collected from 225 school-aged children. Tanner's scale was used for pubertal staging. Mn in blood (MnB), toenail (MnTn) and hair (MnH) and blood lead (PbB) levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Puberty-related hormone concentrations were determined by chemiluminescence. The age at which girls' breasts began to develop was inversely correlated with weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age Z-scores (p < 0.05); pubarche also had similar results. Mn biomarker levels did not present differences among pubertal classification nor among children with potential PP or not. Furthermore, Mn exposure was not associated with the age of onset of sexual characteristics for either girls or boys. However, PbB levels were positively correlated with boys' pubic hair stages (rho = 0.258; p = 0.009) and associated with the age of onset of girls' pubarche (ß = 0.299, 95%CI = 0.055-0.542; p = 0.017). Testosterone and LH concentrations were statistically higher in boys with an increased PbB (p = 0.09 and p = 0.02, respectively). Prospective studies are needed to better assess the association between exposure to Mn and Pb and the early onset of puberty.


Assuntos
Manganês , Puberdade Precoce , Ligas , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Íons/análise , Ferro , Chumbo/análise , Masculino , Puberdade , Puberdade Precoce/induzido quimicamente , Puberdade Precoce/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 355, 2022 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729519

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We investigated the age of starting Estrogen replacement therapy as a key parameter for reaching near normal Final Height (FH) in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) girls with growth retardation. METHOD: This open label, quasi-experimental designed and matched controlled clinical trial was performed on CKD girls with short stature and later onset of puberty or delayed puberty according to clinical and laboratory investigations. Participants of group 1 and 2 had been treated with Growth Hormone (GH), and Ethinyl Estradiol (EE). EE was administered from 11 and 13 yrs. old in groups 1 and 2 respectively. Group 3 was selected from patients that did not accept to start GH or EE till 15 years old. The effect of the age of starting EE on FH, GH therapy outcomes, bone density, and calcium profile were evaluated. RESULT: Overall, 16, 22, and 21 patients were analyzed in groups 1, 2, and 3 respectively. Mean Mid-Parental Height (MPH) had no significant difference between the 3 groups. GH therapy significantly enhanced mean FH in groups 1 and 2 in comparison with group 3 (ß = - 4.29, p < 0.001). Also, multivariable backward linear regression illustrated significant negative association between FH and age of starting EE (ß = 0.26, p < 0.001). Mean Para Thyroid Hormone (PTH), mean femoral and lumbar bone density were significantly enhanced after GH and EE therapy (p value: < 0.001). CONCLUSION: We recommend starting EE from 11 yrs. old in CKD short stature girls who have no clinical and laboratory sign of sexual maturity at 11 yrs. to enhance the cost effectiveness of GH therapy.


Assuntos
Nanismo , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Adolescente , Estatura , Nanismo/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios , Feminino , Hormônio do Crescimento/farmacologia , Hormônio do Crescimento/uso terapêutico , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Puberdade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 902364, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35757429

RESUMO

The evaluation of children with short stature includes monitoring over a prolonged period to establish a growth pattern as well as the exclusion of chronic medical conditions that affect growth. After a period of monitoring, evaluation, and screening, growth hormone stimulation testing is considered when the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is entertained. Though flawed, growth hormone stimulation tests remain part of the comprehensive evaluation of growth and are essential for the diagnosis of growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Variables including testing length, growth hormone assay and diagnostic cut off affect results. Beyond the intrinsic issues of testing, results of GH stimulation testing can be influenced by patient characteristics. Various factors including age, gender, puberty, nutritional status and body weight modulate the secretion of GH.


Assuntos
Nanismo Hipofisário , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano , Criança , Nanismo Hipofisário/diagnóstico , Hormônio do Crescimento , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Puberdade
12.
Ann Endocrinol (Paris) ; 83(4): 250-253, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35728696

RESUMO

Mini-puberty is defined as the period in infancy with elevated FSH and LH resulting in increased levels of sex hormones. It differs between boys and girls and its impact on future fertility is not completely known. This mini-review focus on the effects of mini-puberty on genital development and some aspects possibly related to future fertility.


Assuntos
Hormônio Foliculoestimulante , Hormônio Luteinizante , Feminino , Fertilidade , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Humanos , Masculino , Puberdade
13.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 323(2): H312-H321, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35687504

RESUMO

Windkessel function is governed by conductance artery compliance that is associated with cardiovascular disease in adults independently of other risk factors. Sex-related differences in conductance artery compliance partly explain the sex-related differences in risk of cardiovascular disease. Studies on sex-related differences in conductance artery function in prepubertal children are few and inconclusive. This study determined the conductance artery compliance and cardiac function by magnetic resonance imaging in 150 healthy children (75 girls) aged 7-10 yr. Any sex-related difference in conductance artery function was determined with correction for other potential predictors in multivariable linear regression models. Our data showed that ascending [crude mean difference 1.11 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.22; 2.01)] and descending [crude mean difference 1.10 95% CI (0.09; 1.91)] aortic distensibility were higher in girls, but differences disappeared after adjustment for pubertal status and other identified potential predictors. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cardiac output, left ventricle (LV) systolic function, and total peripheral resistance did not differ between the sexes. In girls, heart rate was 7 beats/min higher, whereas pulse pressure (by 2 mmHg), LV end-diastolic volume index (by 7 mL), and stroke volume (by 5 mL) were lower. LV peak filling rate indexed to LV end-diastolic volume was 0.5 s-1 higher in girls. In conclusion, prepubertal girls and boys have equal conductance artery function. Thus, the well-known sex difference in adult conductance artery function seems to develop after the onset of puberty with girls initially increasing aortic distensibility.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Although it has been suggested that sex differences in conductance artery function may exist early in childhood, this study demonstrates that the well-known, sex-related difference in conductance artery stiffness (hence Windkessel function) in adulthood is not established before puberty. Thus, healthy prepubertal girls and boys have comparable conductance artery compliance. In contrast to previous studies, our study suggests that pubertal girls develop a more distensible aorta than prepubertal children.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Rigidez Vascular , Adulto , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Puberdade , Função Ventricular Esquerda
14.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 56: 101120, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35716638

RESUMO

Psychosocial acceleration theory suggests that early stress accelerates pubertal development. Using half of the baseline Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) cohort, Thijssen et al. (2020) provide support that accelerated puberty following stressful family environments may promote neurodevelopment. Here, we replicate and extend those analyses using 1) data from the second half of the ABCD sample (n = 3300 +, ages 9-10), and 2) longitudinal imaging data from the original sample (n = 1800 +, ages 11-12). A family environment latent variable was created and related to anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) thickness, area, white matter fractional anisotropy, amygdala volume, and cingulo-opercular network (CON)-amygdala resting-state functional connectivity. Results from the independent sample replicate the mediating effects of family environment through pubertal stage on amygdala-CON functional connectivity. Sex-stratified analyses show indirect effects via pubertal stage in girls; boys show evidence for direct associations. Analyses using wave 2 imaging data or wave 2-wave 1 difference scores from the originally-analyzed sample replicate the resting-state indirect effects. The current paper replicates the mediating role for puberty in the association between family environment and neurodevelopment. As both direct and indirect associations were found, puberty may be one of multiple mechanisms driving accelerated neurodevelopment following environmental stress.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Substância Branca , Adolescente , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Encéfalo , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Puberdade
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 833960, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35712300

RESUMO

Importance: Girls in East Asia have a higher myopia prevalence than boys. Less research has been done on whether girls' earlier puberty could explain this sex difference. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between myopia and puberty and the role of puberty in explaining the sex disparity in adolescent myopia prevalence. Design Setting and Participants: In this nationwide cross-sectional study, data came from five consecutive national surveys from 1995 to 2014 in China. We included 338,896 boys aged 11-18 and 439,481 girls aged 9-18. Main Outcomes and Measures: Myopia was defined according to unaided distance visual acuity and subjective refraction; puberty status was defined dichotomously as menarche or spermarche status. The association between myopia and puberty was evaluated by robust Poisson GEE regression. Mediation analyses were used to quantify how much of the sex disparity in myopia could be explained by puberty. Results: Post-menarche girls and post-spermarche boys showed 29-41% and 8-19% higher risk of myopia than pre-menarche girls and pre-spermarche boys, respectively. The association remained significant in girls [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.07, 95%CI:1.04-1.10] but disappeared in boys (p > 0.05) after adjusting for potential confounders. Girls had a 12-23% higher risk of myopia than boys. A total of 16.7% of the sex disparity in myopia could be explained by girls' earlier puberty, whereas 11.1% could be explained by behavioral factors. Conclusion and Relevance: Puberty status is independently associated with myopia in girls but not in boys. A significant proportion of the sex disparity in adolescent myopia could be explained by girls' earlier puberty, suggesting the need to consider sex-differentiated strategies for myopia prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Miopia , Maturidade Sexual , Adolescente , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/epidemiologia , Puberdade
16.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 35(7): 938-945, 2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Delayed puberty is a common presentation to endocrine clinics, with adult height, sexual capability and fertility being the main concerns for the child and his/her family. Presentation is variable including short stature and/or absence of secondary sexual characteristics. The aetiology can either be constitutional, functional or permanent hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, permanent hypergonadotropic hypogonadism or unclassified. Despite the importance of this subject, there are no publications from Sudan. METHODS: A retrospective hospital-based study. Records of all patients who were seen in the endocrinology unit at Gaffar Ibn Auf Children's Hospital and were diagnosed as having delayed puberty were reviewed and demographic, clinical, and investigations data were obtained. RESULTS: A total of 136 patients were included in this study. Presentation includes short stature in 52.2%, both short stature and delayed puberty in 27.2%, and delayed puberty in 20.6%. The most common aetiologies were permanent hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and functional hypogonadotropic hypogonadism presented in 37.5% and 36% respectively, while constitutional delay of growth and puberty was found in only 14.7%. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) was the most frequent chronic illness followed by coeliac disease. Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism was diagnosed in 11.7%, the majority of which were females. CONCLUSIONS: The aetiological pattern reported in this series highlights the role of nutrition and general well-being in pubertal development, as well as the major impact of genetics and consanguinity on disease patterns. Data from African countries are limited and this is the first reported cohort on delayed puberty from Sudan.


Assuntos
Nanismo , Hipogonadismo , Síndrome de Klinefelter , Puberdade Tardia , Adulto , Criança , Nanismo/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/complicações , Hipogonadismo/etiologia , Masculino , Puberdade , Puberdade Tardia/diagnóstico , Puberdade Tardia/epidemiologia , Puberdade Tardia/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sudão/epidemiologia
18.
New Bioeth ; 28(3): 268-291, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35758886

RESUMO

Gender dysphoria is a persistent distress about one's assigned gender. Referrals regarding gender dysphoria have recently greatly increased, often of a form that is rapid in onset. The sex ratio has changed, most now being natal females. Mental health issues pre-date the dysphoria in most. Puberty blockers are offered in clinics to help the child avoid puberty. Puberty blockers have known serious side effects, with uncertainty about their long-term use. They do not improve mental health. Without medication, most will desist from the dysphoria in time. Yet over 90% of those treated with puberty blockers progress to cross-sex hormones and often surgery, with irreversible consequences. The brain is biologically and socially immature in childhood and unlikely to understand the long-term consequences of treatment. The prevailing culture to affirm the dysphoria is critically reviewed. It is concluded that children are unable to consent to the use of puberty blockers.


Assuntos
Disforia de Gênero , Puberdade , Criança , Feminino , Disforia de Gênero/tratamento farmacológico , Identidade de Gênero , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Puberdade/psicologia
19.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 310, 2022 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35624438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity has important effects on the onset and development of puberty. Although a number of studies have confirmed the relationship between obesity and precocious puberty, little is known about the pleiotropic genes of obesity and precocious puberty and the interaction between genes and environment. There are four objectives: (1) to analyze the incidence of precocious puberty in the general population in China; (2) to verify the direct effect of obesity on children's precocious puberty using a variety of methods; (3) to verify the effect of obesity and its risk gene polymorphism on precocious puberty in a prospective cohort study; and (4) to analyze the interaction effect of genes and environment on pubertal development. METHODS: We will conduct a multi-center prospective cohort study in three cities, which are selected in southern, central, and northern China, respectively. Primary schools in these cities will be selected by a stratified cluster random sampling method. Primary school students from grade 1 to grade 3 (6 to 10 years old) will be selected for the cohort with extensive baseline data collection, including assessment of pubertal development, family demographic information, early development, sleep pattern, dietary pattern, and physical activity. Participants will be followed up for at least three years, and long-term follow-up will depend on future funding. DISCUSSION: The findings of this multicenter prospective population-based cohort study may expand previous related puberty development research as well as provide important information on the mechanism of early puberty. Targeted interventions can also be developed to improve adolescent health problems related to puberty development based on the available evidence. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04113070 , prospectively registered on October 2, 2019.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Puberdade Precoce , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Puberdade , Puberdade Precoce/etiologia , Puberdade Precoce/genética
20.
Dev Psychobiol ; 64(5): e22278, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603415

RESUMO

The mechanisms that link maternal immune activation (MIA) with the onset of neurodevelopmental disorders remain largely unclear. Accelerated puberty is also associated with a heightened risk for psychopathology in later life, but there is a dearth of evidence on the impacts of maternal infection on pubertal timing. We examined the effects of MIA on reproductive development, mechanical allodynia, and sensorimotor gating in juvenile, adolescent, and adult male and female mice. Moreover, we investigated hypothalamic neural markers associated with the reproductive and stress axes. Finally, we tested the mitigating effects of environmental enrichment (EE), which has clinical relevancy in human rehabilitation settings. Our results show that administration of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) on gestational day 12.5 led to early preputial separation, vaginal openings, and age of first estrus in offspring. MIA exposure altered pain sensitivity across development and modestly altered prepulse inhibition. The downregulation of Nr3c1 and Oprk mRNA in the hypothalamus of juvenile mice suggests that MIA's effects may be mediated through disruption of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. In contrast, life-long housing with EE rescued many of these MIA-induced consequences. Overall, our findings suggest that accelerated puberty may be associated with the deleterious effects of infection during pregnancy and the onset of psychopathology.


Assuntos
Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adolescente , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperalgesia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Poli I-C/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Puberdade
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