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1.
Science ; 376(6591): eabm3427, 2022 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35446638

RESUMO

Although behavioral interventions are designed to seize attention, little consideration has been given to the costs of doing so. We estimated these costs in the context of a safety campaign that, to encourage safe driving, displays traffic fatality counts on highway dynamic message signs for 1 week each month. We found that crashes increase statewide during campaign weeks, which is inconsistent with any benefits. Furthermore, these effects do not persist beyond campaign weeks. Our results show that behavioral interventions, particularly negatively framed ones, can be too salient, crowding out more important considerations and causing interventions to backfire-with costly consequences.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Condução de Veículo , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Atenção , Humanos , Anúncios de Utilidade Pública como Assunto , Segurança
3.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e25762, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public health campaigns aimed at curbing the spread of COVID-19 are important in reducing disease transmission, but traditional information-based campaigns have received unexpectedly extreme backlash. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether customizing of public service announcements (PSAs) providing health guidelines to match individuals' identities increases their compliance. METHODS: We conducted a within- and between-subjects, randomized controlled cross-sectional, web-based study in July 2020. Participants viewed two PSAs: one advocating wearing a mask in public settings and one advocating staying at home. The control PSA only provided information, and the treatment PSAs were designed to appeal to the identities held by individuals; that is, either a Christian identity or an economically motivated identity. Participants were asked about their identity and then provided a control PSA and treatment PSA matching their identity, in random order. The PSAs were of approximately 100 words. RESULTS: We recruited 300 social media users from Amazon Mechanical Turk in accordance with usual protocols to ensure data quality. In total, 8 failed the data quality checks, and the remaining 292 were included in the analysis. In the identity-based PSA, the source of the PSA was changed, and a phrase of approximately 12 words relevant to the individual's identity was inserted. A PSA tailored for Christians, when matched with a Christian identity, increased the likelihood of compliance by 12 percentage points. A PSA that focused on economic values, when shown to individuals who identified as economically motivated, increased the likelihood of compliance by 6 points. CONCLUSIONS: Using social media to deliver COVID-19 public health announcements customized to individuals' identities is a promising measure to increase compliance with public health guidelines. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry 22331899; https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN22331899.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Comunicação Persuasiva , Anúncios de Utilidade Pública como Assunto , Identificação Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quarentena , Mídias Sociais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Addict Biol ; 26(1): e12882, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068323

RESUMO

Young adults consume most of their alcohol by binge drinking, and more than one-third report binge drinking in the past month. Some will transition out of excessive drinking, while others will maintain or increase alcohol use into adulthood. Public health campaigns depicting negative consequences of drinking have shown some efficacy at reducing this behavior. However, substance use in dependent individuals is governed in part by automatic or habitual responses to drug cues rather than the consequences. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure neural responses to drinking cues and drinking cues paired with antidrinking messages among young adults who binge drink (N = 30). This study also explored responses to smoking cues and antismoking messages. Neural responses were also compared between drinking/smoking and neutral cues. Self-reported drinking and smoking were collected at baseline, postscan, and 1 month. Results indicate that activity in the ventral striatum-implicated in reward processing-was lower for drinking cues paired with antidrinking messages than drinking cues. This difference was less pronounced in young adults who reported greater baseline past month drinking quantity. Past month drinking quantity decreased from baseline to 1 month. Further, young adults who showed higher activity during antidrinking messages in the medial prefrontal cortex-implicated in processing message self-relevance- reported a greater decrease in past month drinking frequency from baseline to 1 month. Findings may help to identify young adults who are at risk for continued heavy drinking in adulthood and inform interventions aimed to reduce drinking and reward in young adults.


Assuntos
Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Anúncios de Utilidade Pública como Assunto , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Recompensa , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105717

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Progressing climate change is accompanied by a worldwide increase in the intensity, frequency, and duration of heat wave events. Research has shown that heat waves are an emerging public health problem, as they have a significant impact on mortality. As studies exploring this relationship are scarce for Latvia, this study aims to investigate the short-term associations between heat waves and all-cause mortality as well as cause-specific mortality, during the summer months (May-September) in Riga. Materials and Methods: An ecological time series study using daily reported mortality and temperature data from Riga between 2009 and 2015 was employed. Heat waves were defined based on the categories of the Latvian and Swedish heat warning system. Using a Quasi-Poisson regression, the relationships between heat waves and all-cause as well as cause-specific mortality were investigated. Results: Heat waves in Riga were associated with a 10% to 20% increase in the risk of all-cause mortality, depending on the applied heat wave definition, compared to days with normal temperature. In addition, heat-related mortality was found to increase significantly in the ≥65 age group between 12% and 22% during heat waves. In terms of cause-specific mortality, a significant increase of approximately 15% to 26% was observed for cardiovascular mortality. No significant associations were found between heat waves and respiratory or external causes of mortality. Conclusion: These results indicate that there are short-term associations between heat waves and all-cause as well as cardiovascular mortality in Riga and that heat waves therefore represent a public health problem in this Baltic city.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Raios Infravermelhos , Mortalidade , Anúncios de Utilidade Pública como Assunto , Cidades , Mudança Climática/mortalidade , Raios Infravermelhos/efeitos adversos , Letônia , Anúncios de Utilidade Pública como Assunto/normas
8.
Psych J ; 9(3): 316-326, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884723

RESUMO

Threat appeals have been widely utilized in numerous types of public service announcements (PSAs), and previous research has focused on the impact of the inherent messages in these announcements. By examining the research on the effects of framing PSAs in terms of the threat of the message to oneself or others, we proposed a clear conceptualization of "threat-target framing." The first two studies addressed the direct effects of threat-target framing and found that other-oriented threat appeals can evoke more guilt than can self-oriented threat appeals. Moreover, self-oriented threat appeals can evoke more fear and immediately direct recipients' attention to the smoker than can other-oriented threat appeals. Study 3 reported that a contextual factor-relationship norms-was introduced as a potential moderating factor. Results showed that relationship norms had the potential to moderate the effect of threat-target framing on recipients' fear response, but not the effect on recipients' guilt and coping response. In sum, the results highlighted the importance of message framing of advertising copies and the placement context. Our findings may be useful in understanding the antecedents of the persuasiveness of PSAs.


Assuntos
Emoções , Comunicação Persuasiva , Anúncios de Utilidade Pública como Assunto , Fumantes/psicologia , Adulto , China , Medo , Feminino , Culpa , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Health Commun ; 24(11): 821-828, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621538

RESUMO

Scholars have warned that mental health anti-stigma campaigns targeting the general public can possibly be detrimental to some who are stigmatized. Scholars also have noted that people with depression respond to some public service announcements (PSAs) differently than those without. Accordingly, the current study explored whether anti-stigma PSAs targeting the general public could cause problematic outcomes for people with depression. Participants with (n = 55) and without (n = 133) heightened depressive symptomatology viewed two mental health anti-stigma PSAs. Participants provided thoughts about the PSAs through a single, open-ended question. To allow for an assessment of convergence, participants rated overall favorability toward each PSA through a close-ended item. Results indicated that most qualitative responses were favorable; however, 23.6% of respondents with heightened depressive symptomatology, compared to 1.5% without, provided responses coded as indicating that at least one PSA caused unintended negative affect, χ2(1) = 25.96, [Formula: see text] p < .001. Evidence of untoward effects primarily came from the Friend PSA and the qualitative responses indicate how this occurred. Moreover, complementing the qualitative coding, the Friend PSA was rated less favorably by participants with heightened depressive symptomatology (M = 5.00, SD = 1.67), than those without (M = 5.64, SD = 1.44), F(1, 186) = 6.99, p = .009, ηp2 = .036. There were no significant differences in quantitative favorability ratings regarding the Labeling PSA. Indicating that further investigation is warranted, results suggest it is possible for an anti-stigma PSA targeting the general public to cause unintended negative affect among some people with depression.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Saúde Mental , Anúncios de Utilidade Pública como Assunto , Estigma Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Health Commun ; 24(11): 801-820, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592721

RESUMO

Depression is a treatable condition; unfortunately, many do not seek help. Depression public service announcements (D-PSAs) are one means of increasing help-seeking behavior. However, as Beck's cognitive theory of depression indicates, it can be challenging to persuade people with depression. Although there have been successful D-PSAs, some have been ineffective or led to boomerang effects. With the goal of providing guidance for future messages, we use a mixed-methods approach to assess how people with heightened depressive symptomatology perceive motivations and barriers regarding help-seeking. Study 1 participants (N = 186), with and without depressive symptomatology, provided motivations and barriers to seeking help for depression. Study 1's qualitative analysis determined 112 motivations and 124 barriers to help-seeking. Study 2 participants (N= 214), all with heightened depressive symptomatology, rated the motivations and barriers from Study 1 on their attitude function, importance, awareness, and argument strength. This insight guided successful D-PSA creation in a follow-up study, reported elsewhere. The methodological approach utilized, and the specific motivations and barriers revealed, will ideally assist scholars and practitioners seeking to develop future D-PSAs.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Depressão/psicologia , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Anúncios de Utilidade Pública como Assunto , Adulto , Depressão/terapia , Feminino , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Comunicação Persuasiva , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
11.
Soc Sci Med ; 241: 112205, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to determine whether short-term exposure to firearm safety messaging significantly improved (1) firearm storage practices, and (2) attitudes of safe firearm storage behaviors among U.S. veterans, a group at elevated risk for firearm suicide. DESIGN: A three-arm, parallel-group RCT was conducted online in the U.S. nationwide from December 2015 to January 2016. SETTING: A national random sample of U.S. veterans (N = 358) was recruited from the GfK KnowledgePanel, a probability-based internet panel representative of U.S. adults. All study activities were administered online over a three-week study period. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomized and exposed three times (once per week) to either (a) firearm safety message only (n = 115); (b) firearm safety and mental health promotion messages (n = 133); or (c) active control group exposed to mental health promotion message only (n = 110). Each message was less than two minutes long. MEASURES: Assessments were completed at baseline (pre-randomization) and at end-of-trial. Changes in awareness of risk for injuries, attitudes/beliefs related to safe storage practices, behavioral intentions, and storage practices were measured using self-reported surveys. Linear mixed effect models with weighted generalized estimating equations were used to test for exposure effects. Analyses were conducted February 2018. RESULTS: Analyses restricted to those with baseline firearm access (n = 195) identified no significant changes for intentions or safe storage practices across exposure groups. At baseline, participants' attitudes and beliefs were generally supportive of safe firearm storage. The Firearm Safety message yielded small increases in agreement with the concept that secure storage is "important during emotional or stressful times" (0.36; 95% CI = 0.08, 0.64). Other significant changes in awareness and beliefs were found, but across all study conditions. CONCLUSION: Results reinforce the critical need for considerable research and testing prior to the widespread implementation of public messages to increase the likelihood for desired exposure effects.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Anúncios de Utilidade Pública como Assunto , Segurança , Veteranos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Health Commun ; 24(4): 413-421, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256742

RESUMO

Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are increasingly popular, especially among young adults. Many ENDS advertisements and anti-ENDS public service announcements (PSAs) contain portrayals of ENDS use and visible vapor. Though it is plausible that vapor would be processed in similar ways to traditional combustible cigarette smoking cues, this has not been consistently established. In a laboratory session, we assessed cognitive and emotional processing using psychophysiological measures (e.g., facial electromyography, heart rate, and skin conductance) among young participants who were either smokers only (N = 43) or dual users of ENDS and cigarettes (N = 28) as they viewed four anti-vaping PSAs depicting either vapor or no vapor. Self-report urge to smoke traditional cigarettes and urge to vape and recognition (encoding) of information within the PSAs were measured following each PSA. Orbicularis oculi activation (positive emotion), heart rate deceleration (cognitive resource allocation), recognition (encoding), and vaping urge were greater in the vapor-present condition relative to vapor-absent condition. Hence, the presence of vapor in anti-vaping PSAs activates the approach/appetitive motivational system indicated by greater positive emotion, cognitive resource allocation, and memory, but also greater vaping urge compared to PSAs absent in vapor. Recommendations for inclusion of vapor and design of anti-vaping PSAs are discussed.


Assuntos
Anúncios de Utilidade Pública como Assunto , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Fumar/psicologia , Vaping/fisiopatologia , Vaping/psicologia , Adulto , Cognição/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Fumantes , Adulto Jovem
13.
Am J Health Behav ; 43(3): 478-489, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046879

RESUMO

Objectives: Waterpipe smoking can lead to negative health outcomes. In this study, we examined responses to anti-waterpipe smoking public service announcements (PSAs). Methods: In a pilot study, current waterpipe smokers (N = 20) and susceptible waterpipe never smokers (N = 25) were randomized to view either 3 anti-waterpipe PSAs, created by the Truth campaign, or 3 control videos. Participants answered questions pertaining to message acceptance at 3 time-points and perceived risk and motivation to quit or avoid waterpipe at 4 time-points. Results: Participants were recruited from the community (N = 45; Mage = 22.4 years). Whereas waterpipe smokers and never smokers who viewed the PSAs significantly increased in acceptance of (p < .05) and positive attitudes towards (p < .05) the messages with increased viewing of the mes- sages, waterpipe never smokers did so at a significantly higher rate (p < .05). Waterpipe never smokers who viewed the PSAs had increased perceived severity and susceptibility of health harms of waterpipe compared to the control (ps < .05). We also found gender differences. Conclusions: The 3 tested PSAs from the Truth campaign show evidence of effectiveness against waterpipe use.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Motivação , Anúncios de Utilidade Pública como Assunto , Fumar Cachimbo de Água , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
14.
Health Mark Q ; 36(1): 17-34, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849027

RESUMO

This study investigates the interactions between mood (positive/negative) and information processing style (item-specific/relational/narrative processing) on responses to three types of advertising messages (ungrouped list/grouped list/narrative ads). A mood congruency effect was postulated and found to influence recall, persuasion and behavioral intention. Results supported the hypothesis that message effectiveness was moderated by mood in the direction of congruency. That is, participants in a positive mood recalled more information, were more persuaded, and were more likely to adopt the recommended behavior after exposure to advertisements with a grouped list format. Evidence regarding similarity of factors influencing relational and narrative processing is presented.


Assuntos
Afeto , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/métodos , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Intenção , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Comunicação Persuasiva , Adulto , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Narração , Anúncios de Utilidade Pública como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Affect Disord ; 244: 124-154, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diversity of guidelines for safe public messaging about suicide and the heterogeneous scientific research on the topic warrants comparisons of guidelines and analysis of the relevance of research findings to determine best practices. METHODS: We searched databases and websites for organizations' guidelines concerning safe public messaging on suicide, and relevant research articles. RESULTS: We identified 24 public messaging guidelines, 11 terminology guidelines and 44 research papers. No recommendations were in all guidelines, with more agreement on what not to do than on what to do. Recommendations in over half of guidelines are: avoid glorifying suicide, do not describe suicide methods, don't say suicide in inexplicable or explain simplistically, do not state that suicide is frequent in specific circumstances, encourage help seeking. There were disagreements on including personal details about people who died by suicide, and agreement to avoid: "committed suicide," "completed suicide," "successful suicide," "failed suicide/attempt" "unsuccessful suicide/attempt". Only "died by suicide" was recommended by a majority. Some recommended and some said to avoid: "Suicide attempt," "attempt to end his life," "attempted suicide," "non-fatal attempt at suicide," "unintentional (death)," "intentional self-harm," "suicidal ideation," "completed suicide," "survivor," "suicide loss survivor." Research papers had a wide range of objectives, methodologies, media studied and target populations. None provided empirical data that could help support or refute any recommendations. LIMITATIONS: Lack of justifications for guidelines and scarce relevant research makes validation of recommendations challenging. CONCLUSIONS: Research is needed to validate recommendations and terminology and develop consensus on guidelines for public messages, and determine if media guidelines for reporting on suicide are relevant for public messaging who's goal is to inform and educate rather than report news.


Assuntos
Guias como Assunto/normas , Anúncios de Utilidade Pública como Assunto/normas , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Terminologia como Assunto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos
16.
Health Promot J Austr ; 30(2): 246-251, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30198198

RESUMO

ISSUE ADDRESSED: Public service announcements (PSA) targeting physical activity are not always effective at enacting behaviour change. One factor that may impact message effectiveness is whether the message matches its intent (ie, what norm is being portrayed and received). The current study explored the effects of two PSAs on parents' perceptions of outdoor play. METHODS: Parents (N = 333) completed a pre/postexperimental online survey to examine the acute impact of a PSA on their perception of how often children play outdoors (ie, descriptive norms). Participants provided their descriptive norm perceptions and then were randomised to view one of two PSAs: (a) the Mr. Lonely PSA, which portrayed outdoor activity as not normative, and (b) a control message, which portrayed outdoor activity as the norm (VERB PSA). After viewing their PSA, descriptive norm perceptions were reported again. RESULTS: A two-way mixed ANOVA indicated that participants who viewed the Mr. Lonely PSA (where outdoor play was not normative) perceived that children and youth played outdoors less frequently immediately after watching the PSA compared to before viewing it (P < 0.05). No significant change occurred in the control condition. CONCLUSIONS: PSAs can alter individuals' perceptions of whether they perceive outdoor play as normative among children and youth. SO WHAT?: As individuals align their behaviour with what is typical, PSA developers should be wary of what message is being conveyed. In terms of activity, portraying that outdoor play is not normative may not have the intended outcome.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Pais/psicologia , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Anúncios de Utilidade Pública como Assunto , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino
17.
Health Commun ; 34(9): 964-974, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29521531

RESUMO

This study examined how the presence of substance cues interacted with arousing content level in public service announcements (PSAs) to affect human motivational activation, and as a result, affect cognitive information processing. A 2 (arousing content level: high vs. low arousing content fear appeal PSAs) × 2 (substance cue: absence vs. presence) × 4 (repetition) within-subject factorial design experiment was conducted. Overall, the results indicated that the presence of substance cues in high arousing content fear appeal messages elicited defensive processing, yielding poor audio recognition memory sensitivity and a more conservative criterion bias. However, the addition of substance cues to low arousing content fear appeal messages increased audio recognition sensitivity. The presence of substance cues decreased visual recognition regardless of the arousing content level. Implications and future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Cognição , Sinais (Psicologia) , Motivação , Anúncios de Utilidade Pública como Assunto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Nível de Alerta , Asco , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Detecção de Sinal Psicológico , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30235814

RESUMO

Following an extreme heat event in 2009, a Heat Alert and Response System (HARS) was implemented for the greater Vancouver area of British Columbia (BC), Canada. This system has provided a framework for guiding public health interventions and assessing population response and adaptation to extreme heat in greater Vancouver, but no other parts of BC were covered by HARS. The objective of this study was to identify evidence-based heat alert thresholds for the Southwest, Southeast, Northwest, and Northeast regions to facilitate the introduction of HARS across BC. This was done based on a national approach that considers high temperatures on two consecutive days and the intervening overnight low, referred to as the high-low-high approach. Daily forecast and observed air temperatures and daily mortality counts for May through September of 2004 through 2016 were obtained. For each date (dayt), dayt-2 forecasts were used to assign high temperatures for dayt and dayt+1 and the overnight low. A range of high-low-high threshold combinations was assessed for each region by finding associations with daily mortality using time-series models and other considerations. The following thresholds were established: 29-16-29 °C in the Southwest; 35-18-35 °C in the Southeast; 28-13-28 °C in the Northwest; and 29-14-29 °C in the Northeast. Heat alert thresholds for all regions in BC provide health authorities with information on dangerously hot temperature conditions and inform the activation of protective public health interventions.


Assuntos
Calor Extremo , Mortalidade , Anúncios de Utilidade Pública como Assunto/normas , Colúmbia Britânica , Previsões , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Temperatura
19.
Am J Public Health ; 108(9): 1180-1186, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30088996

RESUMO

Fear is now commonly used in public health campaigns, yet for years ethical and efficacy-centered concerns provided a challenge to using fear in such efforts. From the 1950s through the 1970s, the field of public health believed that using fear to influence individual behavior would virtually always backfire. Yet faced with the limited effectiveness of informational approaches to cessation, antitobacco campaigns featured fear in the 1960s. These provoked little protest outside the tobacco industry. At the outset of the AIDS epidemic, fear was also employed. However, activists denounced these messages as stigmatizing, halting use of fear for HIV/AIDS until the 21st century. Opposition began to fracture with growing concerns about complacency and the risks of HIV transmission, particularly among gay men. With AIDS, fear overcame opposition only when it was framed as fair warning with the potential to correct misperceptions.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Medo/psicologia , Anúncios de Utilidade Pública como Assunto , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Estados Unidos
20.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 188: 251-258, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29793189

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anti-vaping public service announcements (PSAs) are intended to discourage vaping or use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). However, vaping portrayals in PSAs may have unintended effects if they increase smoking or vaping urges. This study examined benefits and unintended effects of anti-vaping PSAs with vapor portrayals on smoking and vaping-related outcomes. METHODS: Young adult smokers (N = 171) and dual users (N = 122) aged 21-30 years were randomly assigned to view: 1) anti-vaping PSAs with vapor; 2) anti-vaping PSAs without vapor; 3) physical activity PSAs; or 4) anti-smoking PSAs with smoking cues. Outcomes were changes in vaping and smoking urges before and after viewing PSAs, post-test vaping and smoking intentions in the next hour, and post-test intention to purchase ENDS and traditional cigarettes. RESULTS: Smokers only: Exposure to anti-vaping PSAs with vapor (vs. physical activity) was associated with lower intention to vape and to purchase ENDS (ps < 0.001) and lower intention to smoke and purchase cigarettes (ps < 0.05). Exposure to anti-vaping PSAs with vapor (vs. PSAs without vapor and vs. anti-smoking PSAs with smoking cues) was associated with lower intention to vape in the next hour (ps < 0.05). Exposure to anti-vaping PSAs without vapor (vs. physical activity) was associated with lower change in vaping urge (p < 0.05) and intention to purchase ENDS (p < 0.001). Dual users: Exposure to anti-vaping PSAs without vapor (vs. anti-smoking PSAs) was associated with lower intention to purchase ENDS (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Viewing anti-vaping PSAs with vapor was not associated with unintended effects and may have benefits on reducing smoking and vaping-related outcomes.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Anúncios de Utilidade Pública como Assunto , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Produtos do Tabaco , Vaping/psicologia , Adulto , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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