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2.
J Prof Nurs ; 37(5): 846-850, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742513

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In light of the increased research priorities set forth by both national and global funding sources, the goal of this project is to take a step towards deeper understanding of the responsibility of high-resource nurses conducting research in low-resource environments. A secondary goal is to understand the role of local collaboration partners in the development and implementation of research in their setting. DESIGN: A review of recent nursing research where the primary investigator was from a top-ranking U.S. university and the data collection took place in a low- or middle-income setting. METHODS: The literature was examined for two areas of interest: 1) the presence of local partners as authors, and 2) the role of local partners in development of the research question and study design. This review is through the lens of a collaborative work between an American nurse who conducted her doctoral research in sub-Saharan Africa and an African nurse who is a faculty member at a U.S. university. Ten nursing schools were reviewed for faculty involved in global health research. Ninety-nine faculty were reviewed for global interests and thirty-two were found to conduct research in low-resource settings. Inclusion criteria for publications: Authorship of nurse researcher; Data collection in an LMIC; Published between 2013 and 2019; Full-text available. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Systematic or literature review. RESULTS: Of the abstracts reviewed (N = 248), 141 publications were excluded due to duplicates and research design, for a total of 107 articles included in this review. Seventy-nine percent of publications (N = 85) included local authors, while 84% (N = 90) included local ethical approval. Of publications with local authors, 53% did not state the role played, 27% stated local authors were involved in study conception, 40% stated local authors were involved in data collection/analysis, and 35% stated local authors reviewed/approved the final manuscript. CONCLUSIONS: More than half of published studies did not state the role of their local partners. Data collection/analysis are the major roles reported in the literature. To design more effective local studies and promote positive health outcomes, international partners should be involved in all stages of the research process, particularly study conception, and their roles acknowledged in all publications.


Assuntos
Pesquisa em Enfermagem , Autoria , Feminino , Humanos , Publicações , Escolas de Enfermagem , Universidades
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(19): 5123-5129, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738410

RESUMO

The systematic collation and mining of ethnic medicine literature is the key to the screening and textual research of classic prescriptions. This study focused on the textual research of such key issues as the source of prescriptions, the translation of minority languages into Chinese characters and their corresponding medical terms, the original plants of drugs, and the standard dosage. It is believed that the methods and experience of textual research of classic prescriptions in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) can be utilized by the ethnic medicine. At the same time, the prominent problems unique to ethnic medicine cannot be neglected.(1)Attention should be paid to extraterritorial traditional medical literature in the textual research of the source of prescriptions. For instance, Indian medical literature is the source of many classic prescriptions in Tibetan medicine, Ibn Sina's Canon of Medicine the source of those in Uygur and Hui medicine, and ancient Indian Buddhist classics the source of those in Dai medicine.(2)The translation and comparison of medical terms in different language systems requires the cooperation of linguists, historians, and medical experts, the combination of historical research, historical linguistics and clinical research methods, and the use of cross-language comparison. In recent years, the related research achievements like multiple translated and annotated versions of classical literature in ethnic medicine and their respective terminology standards have been constantly emerging.(3)In textual research of the original plants of drugs, the following two points deserve attention: one is that the same drug is used in different ethnic medical systems, but there are differences in the understanding of drug properties and active parts; the other is that the original plants of the same drug vary in different ethnic medical systems.(4)The derivation of some classic prescriptions in ethnic medicine from foreign classics results in the difference among measurement systems. In addition, the detailed dosage fails to be covered in some ethnic literature, so the dosage standard should be determined depending on clinical practice and expert consensus.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Medicina Tradicional Tibetana , Prescrições , Publicações
4.
J Hist Dent ; 69(2): 131, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734795

RESUMO

We are pleased to publish the following postcard that was submitted by Dr. Robert (Bob) L. Koolkin from Beaufort, South Carolina, one or our long-time members. This is one of his favorite cards that was posted in 1903. He writes, "Please note the 'key' that the 'dentist' holds behind his back as well as both the two sets of initials, as well as the "Before" and "After" captions that the writer added. The brief note on the reverse also gives the reader a feel for the times (Figs. 1 A & B). Fig. B reads: "Am very sorry to hear you have such a bad face, hope you will soon be better. I wonder if you could send me a little green book from the cupboard in the top bedroom called Arnolds Handbook of Africa, also one of the British Isles, paper covers. Much Love, from Hilda".


Assuntos
Publicações , Editoração , Livros , Humanos , Masculino , South Carolina , Redação
5.
J Hist Dent ; 69(2): 132-133, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734796

RESUMO

James Washington Bartlett (1839-1910, FAG Memorial #124715057) was born in Derby Line, Orleans County, Vermont to Nathaniel Bartlett (1791-1866), a harness maker, and Martha Pinkham Bartlett (1798-1847). Little is known about his youth nor his education. He was evidently preceptor trained in dentistry but we were unable to determine with whom.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Publicações , Vermont , Washington
6.
J Glob Health ; 11: 04048, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737857

RESUMO

Background: Maternal deaths remain high in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and their causes of maternal death must be analysed frequently in this region to guide interventions. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of studies published from 2015 to 2020 that reported the causes of maternal deaths in 57 SSA countries. The objective was to identify the leading causes of maternal deaths using the international classification of disease - 10th revision, for maternal mortality (ICD-MM). We searched PubMed, WorldCat Discovery Libraries Worldwide (including Medline, Web of Science, LISTA and CNHAL databases), and Google Scholar databases and citations, using the search words "maternal mortality", "maternal death", "pregnancy-related death", "reproductive age mortality" and "causes" as MeSH terms or keywords. The last date of search from all databases was 21 May 2021. We included original research articles published in English and excluded articles that mentioned SSA country names without study results for those countries, studies that reported death from a single cause or assigned causes of death using computer models or incompletely broke down the causes of death. We exported, de-duplicated and screened the searches electronically in EndNote version 20. We selected the final articles by reading the titles, abstracts and full texts. Two authors searched the articles and assessed the risk of bias using a tool adapted from Montoya and others. Data from the articles were extracted onto an Excel worksheet and the deaths classified into ICD-MM groups. Proportions were calculated with 95% confidence intervals and compared for deaths attributed to each cause and ICD-MM group. We compared the results with WHO and Global Burden of Disease (GDB) estimates. Results: We identified 38 studies that reported 11 427 maternal and four incidental deaths. Twenty-one of the third-eight studies were retrospective record reviews. The leading causes of death (proportions and 95% confidence intervals (CI)) were obstetric hemorrhage: 28.8% (95% CI = 26.5%-31.2%), hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: 22.1% (95% CI = 19.9%-24.2%), non-obstetric complications: 18.8% (95% CI = 16.4%-21.2%) and pregnancy-related infections: 11.5% (95% CI = 9.8%-13.2%). The studies reported few deaths of unknown/undetermined and incidental causes. Conclusions: Limitations of this review were the failure to access more data from government reports, but the study results compared well with WHO and GDB estimates. Obstetric hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, non-obstetric complications, and pregnancy-related infections are the leading causes of maternal deaths in SSA. However, deaths from incidental causes are likely under-reported in this region. SSA countries must continue to invest in health information systems that collect and publishes comprehensive, quality, maternal death causes data. A publicly accessible repository of data sets and government reports for causes of maternal death will be helpful in future reviews. This review received no specific funding and was not registered.


Assuntos
Morte Materna , Mortalidade Materna , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Publicações , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
RECIIS (Online) ; 15(4): 855-868, out.-dez. 2021. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343989

RESUMO

Covid-19's worldwide research effort was reflected in the increase in scientific publications. To investigate and describe how Brazil's international scientific collaboration on the subject has been taking place, a bibliometric analysis was carried out, using the Scopus database as a data source, with a search strategy that included terms referring to the virus and the disease. 3,255 publications were recovered, between 1989 and 2020, of which 1,310 are in international scientific collaboration that was described in terms of nationality, institutional affiliation, journals that published the works, and their thematic area. These co-authored publications on covid-19 involved 148 countries, 104 of which are new partners. Over the period analyzed, new areas of knowledge were incorporated into the discussion on the topic.


O esforço mundial de pesquisa sobre covid-19 tem refletido no aumento de publicações científicas. A fim de investigar e descrever como vem se dando a colaboração científica internacional do Brasil no tema, foi realizada análise bibliométrica, que utilizou a base de dados Scopus como fonte de dados, com uma estratégia de busca que incluiu termos referentes ao vírus e à doença. Foram recuperadas 3.255 publicações, entre 1989 e 2020, das quais 1.310 são em colaboração científica internacional, que foram descritas em relação à nacionalidade, afiliação institucional, periódicos que publicaram os trabalhos e sua área temática. Essas publicações em coautoria sobre covid-19, envolveram 148 países, sendo que 104 deles são novos parceiros. Ao longo do período analisado, novas áreas de conhecimento foram incorporadas na discussão sobre o tema.


El esfuerzo de investigación mundial sobre covid-19 se ha reflejado en el aumento de publicaciones científicas. Para investigar y describir cómo se ha venido desarrollando la colaboración científica internacional de Brasil en el tema, se realizó un análisis bibliométrico, que utilizó como fuente de datos la base de datos Scopus, con una estrategia de búsqueda que incluyó términos referentes al virus y la enfermedad. Se recuperaron 3.255 publicaciones, entre 1989 y 2020, de las cuales 1.310 se encuentran en colaboración científica internacional, las cuales fueron descritas en relación a nacionalidad, filiación institucional, revistas que publicaron los trabajos y su área temática. Estas publicaciones en coautoría sobre covid-19 involucraron a 148 países, 104 de los cuales son nuevos socios. Durante el período analizado, se incorporaron nuevas áreas de conocimiento a la discusión sobre el tema.


Assuntos
Humanos , Brasil , Coronavirus , Pandemias , COVID-19 , Publicações , Bibliometria , Ciência da Informação , Publicação Periódica
9.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; 43(11): 1234-1237, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758901

Assuntos
Publicações , Humanos
10.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; 43(11): 1238-1241, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758902

Assuntos
Publicações , Humanos
11.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(5): 904-906, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785020

RESUMO

Historic medical texts in China focused on schematic representations of external pathologies for the most part, but Imperially Commissioned Golden Mirror of the Orthodox Lineage of Medicine (, Yuzuan yizong jinjian), published in 1742, stands out for its illustrations of disease states. This contribution explores depictions of smallpox and breast abscesses, as they appeared in The Golden Mirror.


Assuntos
Ilustração Médica , Medicina , China , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Publicações
12.
Daru ; 29(2): 449-467, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762250

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Due to the rapid spread of COVID-19 worldwide, many countries have designed clinical trials to find efficient treatments. We aimed to critically report the characteristics of all the registered and published randomized clinical trials (RCTs) conducted on COVID-19, and summarize the evaluation of potential therapies developed in various regions. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We comprehensively searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, and Clinicaltrial.gov databases to retrieve all the relevant studies up to July 19, 2021, in conformity with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) flowchart. We included all English-language published/registered RCTs on COVID-19, and excluded non-RCT, in-vitro/in-vivo, editorials, and review studies. Two reviewers independently evaluated all the records, and then analyzed by using SPSS 17. RESULTS: Within 3018 included studies, 2801 (92.8%) and 217 (7.2%) were registered or published RCTs consisting of about 600 synthetic drugs. Herbal medicines have been studied in 23 trials (10.6%) among the published RCTs and in 357 registered RCTs (12.7%). Hydroxychloroquine 23 (10.6%) and convalescent plasma 194 (6.9%) alone or in combination with other agents were the most frequently used interventions in published and registered RCTs, respectively. Most published RCTs have been conducted in Western Pacific Region (WPRO) (50 trials, 23.0%) including 45 trials from China. Also, a greater proportion of registered RCTs have been conducted in the Region of the Americas (PAHO) (885 trials, 31.6%) including 596 RCTs from the United States (U.S). Globally, 283 registered trials have been conducted to assess new developed vaccines for COVID or previously established for other disorders. CONCLUSION: The present study highlighted the wide range of potential therapeutic agents in published and registered COVID-19 clinical trials across a wide range of regions. However, it is urgently required to global coordination in order to conduct more well-designed trials and progress in discovering safe and effective treatments.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos Sintéticos/classificação , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Medicamentos Sintéticos/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 248, 2021 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Not all research findings are translated to clinical practice. Reasons for lack of applicability are varied, and multiple frameworks and criteria exist to appraise the general applicability of epidemiological and clinical research. In this two-part study, we identify, map, and synthesize frameworks and criteria; we develop a framework to assist clinicians to appraise applicability specifically from a clinical perspective. METHODS: We conducted a literature search in PubMed and Embase to identify frameworks appraising applicability of study results. Conceptual thematic analysis was used to synthesize frameworks and criteria. We carried out a framework development process integrating contemporary debates in epidemiology, findings from the literature search and synthesis, iterative pilot-testing, and brainstorming and consensus discussions to propose a concise framework to appraise clinical applicability. RESULTS: Of the 4622 references retrieved, we identified 26 unique frameworks featuring 21 criteria. Frameworks and criteria varied by scope and level of aggregation of the evidence appraised, target user, and specific area of applicability (internal validity, clinical applicability, external validity, and system applicability). Our proposed Framework Appraising the Clinical Applicability of Studies (FrACAS) classifies studies in three domains (research, practice informing, and practice changing) by examining six criteria sequentially: Validity, Indication-informativeness, Clinical relevance, Originality, Risk-benefit comprehensiveness, and Transposability (VICORT checklist). CONCLUSIONS: Existing frameworks to applicability vary by scope, target user, and area of applicability. We introduce FrACAS to specifically assess applicability from a clinical perspective. Our framework can be used as a tool for the design, appraisal, and interpretation of epidemiological and clinical studies.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Publicações , Humanos
16.
Br J Nurs ; 30(21): 1260-1262, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839687

RESUMO

John Tingle, Lecturer in Law, Birmingham Law School, University of Birmingham, discusses some recently published patient safety reports.


Assuntos
Segurança do Paciente , Medicina Estatal , Humanos , Publicações , Reino Unido
17.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(10): 1161-5, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628751

RESUMO

Based on literature research and Delphi expert consensus method, the important acupoints for cancer pain was summarized to provide evidence basis for the formulation of Clinical Practice Guide of Acupuncture in the Treatment of Cancer Pain. Through systematic search of Chinese and English databases, 28 clinical studies regarding acupuncture for cancer pain were included. The acupoint selection methods and high-frequency acupoints were summarized and analyzed. Based on this, a Delphi questionnaire was designed and two rounds of questionnaire survey on 30 experts in acupuncture and tumor related fields in China and abroad were conducted. As a result, it was suggested that the individualized acupoint selection should be adopted for acupuncture treatment of cancer pain, with Zusanli (ST 36), Hegu (LI 4), Taichong (LR 3), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Yanglingquan (GB 34) and ashi points as the main acupoints. Combined with clinical research evidence and expert consensus, the important acupoints for cancer pain were identified. However, clinical acupoint selection still needed further research and refinement.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Dor do Câncer , Meridianos , Neoplasias , Pontos de Acupuntura , Dor do Câncer/terapia , Humanos , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/terapia , Publicações
19.
F1000Res ; 10: 491, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631024

RESUMO

Numerous studies have demonstrated low but increasing rates of data and code sharing within medical and health research disciplines. However it remains unclear how commonly data and code are shared across all fields of medical and health research, as well as whether sharing rates are positively associated with implementation of progressive policies by publishers and funders, or growing expectations from the medical and health research community at large. Therefore this systematic review aims to synthesise the findings of medical and health science studies that have empirically investigated the prevalence of data or code sharing, or both. Objectives include the investigation of: (i) the prevalence of public sharing of research data and code alongside published articles (including preprints), (ii) the prevalence of private sharing of research data and code in response to reasonable requests, and (iii) factors associated with the sharing of either research output (e.g., the year published, the publisher's policy on sharing, the presence of a data or code availability statement). It is hoped that the results will provide some insight into how often research data and code are shared publicly and privately, how this has changed over time, and how effective some measures such as the institution of data sharing policies and data availability statements have been in motivating researchers to share their underlying data and code.


Assuntos
Disseminação de Informação , Publicações , Análise de Dados , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Pesquisadores , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
20.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(Suppl 11): 337, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concept recognition is a term that corresponds to the two sequential steps of named entity recognition and named entity normalization, and plays an essential role in the field of bioinformatics. However, the conventional dictionary-based methods did not sufficiently addressed the variation of the concepts in actual use in literature, resulting in the particularly degraded performances in recognition of multi-token concepts. RESULTS: In this paper, we propose a concept recognition method of multi-token biological entities using neural models combined with literature contexts. The key aspect of our method is utilizing the contextual information from the biological knowledge-bases for concept normalization, which is followed by named entity recognition procedure. The model showed improved performances over conventional methods, particularly for multi-token concepts with higher variations. CONCLUSIONS: We expect that our model can be utilized for effective concept recognition and variety of natural language processing tasks on bioinformatics.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Publicações
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