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1.
Prev Med ; 158: 107015, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35248679

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to examine the frequency and content of messages related to pharmacological and evidence-based, non-pharmaceutical treatments in direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) for prescription drugs treating four chronic diseases in the United States. We used content coding to identify theory-informed categories of messages appearing in a large sample of heart disease, diabetes, depression, and osteoarthritis advertisements, appearing on national and local television between 2003 and 2016 (N = 11,347,070). The data were originally accessed in 2019 and analyzed in 2020-2021. The central message in all pharmaceutical DTCA was drug efficacy. Advertisements for diabetes and heart disease, but not depression or osteoarthritis, contained general (not central) messages about diet and exercise. Advertisements for heart disease primarily portrayed diet and exercise as insufficient for controlling the target health condition. No advertisements in our sample portrayed changes in diet or physical activity as an alternative to drugs. Pharmaceutical DTCA across health conditions employ similar strategies to promote use of the advertised drug but vary widely in whether and how they describe non-pharmaceutical treatments that complement or serve as alternatives to medications. Regulators should consider the potential spillover effects of non-pharmaceutical messages in pharmaceutical DTCA when considering future regulatory endeavors.


Assuntos
Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor , Cardiopatias , Osteoartrite , Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Publicidade , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos
2.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(3): e29422, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35230241

RESUMO

Social media influencers are becoming an increasingly popular strategic communication tactic used across industry verticals, including entertainment, fashion, and beauty, to engage directly with consumers. Pharmaceutical companies have also recently entered the social media marketing arena and-within the bounds of governmental regulations-have found ways to build relationships directly with patients using covert persuasion tactics like partnering with social media influencers. Due to consumers' negative perceptions of pharmaceutical companies, it makes sense that new marketing tactics are being used to establish and improve relationships with consumers. Previous research well documents the ethical dilemmas of direct-to-consumer advertising, and there is recent burgeoning literature on online covert marketing tactics. The academic and medical literature, however, is behind in regard to social media influencers used in health and medicine. This paper highlights and defines terms used in industry practice, and also calls for more investigation and sets forward a research agenda. As consumers spend more time online and patients continue to consult social media for health information, it is important that this new marketing trend does not go unnoticed.


Assuntos
Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor , Mídias Sociais , Indústria Farmacêutica , Humanos , Marketing , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Publicações
4.
J Med Humanit ; 43(1): 159-168, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314137

RESUMO

Direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising (DTCPA) is pervasive in the United States. Beyond its effect on consumer behavior, DTCPA changes the relationship between individuals and physicians. The author provides a brief history of pharmaceutical advertising in the United States. The author then analyzes the current commonly used marketing techniques of pharmaceutical companies and argues that pharmaceutical companies are "irrational authorities" in Erich Fromm's sense of the term since they seek to exploit persons. Using concepts from various philosophers from the Continental tradition, with a particular emphasis on the work of Michel Foucault, the author analyzes the power relations involved in DTCPA and ultimately argues that DTCPA subtly undermines the contemporary paradigm of patient autonomy while simultaneously depending upon it by treating health consumers as "dividuals," that is, as porous entities to be manipulated.


Assuntos
Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Médicos , Publicidade , Indústria Farmacêutica , Humanos , Estados Unidos
5.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9369

RESUMO

Material de apoio para estados e municípios sobre os princípios do Guia Alimentar para população brasileira.


Assuntos
Guias Alimentares , Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor , Alimentos Industrializados
6.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9308

RESUMO

“Compre bombom, compre bombom….”, “Eu tenho, você não tem!” “Mãe, eu quero uma chicória!”. De exemplos, a memória está cheia. Mas a publicidade infantil não mais se restringe ao rádio ou televisão. Quem é pai ou mãe sabe que o assédio é geral, e, na internet, em especial, abundam propagandas para vender alguma tralha. A indústria, especialmente a de alimentos, usa e abusa da propaganda para amolar famílias a comprar de brinquedos a guloseimas que não fazem nada bem à saúde.


Assuntos
Controle da Publicidade de Produtos , Saúde da Criança , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle ,
7.
Stem Cell Reports ; 16(12): 2852-2860, 2021 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767748

RESUMO

Hundreds of businesses across the United States offer direct-to-consumer stem-cell-based interventions that have not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Here, we characterize the types of evidence used on the websites of 59 stem cell businesses in the Southwest United States to market their services. We identify over a dozen forms of evidence, noting that businesses are less likely to rely on "gold-standard" scientific evidence, like randomized clinical trials, and instead draw substantially on forms of evidence that we identify as being "ambiguous." Ambiguous evidence has some scientific or medical basis, but its interpretation is highly context-dependent. These findings highlight the interpretive responsibility placed on prospective patients. We identify actions for regulators and professional societies to assist with evaluating evidence, but caution that focusing on the (in)validity of particular evidence types is unlikely to eliminate demand for stem-cell-based treatments in this complex marketplace.


Assuntos
Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor , Células-Tronco/citologia , Humanos , Revisão da Pesquisa por Pares , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto
8.
Curr Probl Dermatol ; 55: 385-393, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698041

RESUMO

This chapter is focused on those products that are sold primarily as sun protection products and considers the additional claims made for these that are intended to differentiate and imply additional benefits. It is essentially an overview, as each claim would require an individual chapter to deal with in detail. We do not consider products with another intended primary use, such as moisturizer or colour comments, which are, in themselves "secondary sunscreens," defined specifically in Australia [AS/NZS 2604:2012 Sunscreen products - Evaluation and classification] or Canada. Primarily, the chapter serves as a reference guide. An argument is presented for the potential negative impact on the credibility of the whole product category brought about by the marketing strategy of attempting to segment on the basis of either criticism of competitor products and/or targeting niche groups of consumers. The European Union (EU) Regulation 655/2013 [Commission Regulation (EU) No 655/2013 laying down common criteria for the justification of claims used in relation to cosmetic products] states 6 criteria for representation of products. These are Legal Compliance, Truthfulness, Evidential Support, Honesty, Fairness and Informed Decision Making. More specifically to sunscreens, the EU Synthesis Document makes recommendation on efficacy and related claims [European Union Synthesis Document - Commission recommendation on the efficacy of sunscreen products and claims related thereto]. This chapter does not consider or test these criteria but does include a table of claims and suggested ways to substantiate these.


Assuntos
Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor/normas , Rotulagem de Produtos/normas , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/administração & dosagem , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , União Europeia , Humanos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Protetores Solares/economia , Protetores Solares/normas
9.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003695, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diets with high proportions of foods high in fat, sugar, and/or salt (HFSS) contribute to malnutrition and rising rates of childhood obesity, with effects throughout the life course. Given compelling evidence on the detrimental impact HFSS advertising has on children's diets, the World Health Organization unequivocally supports the adoption of restrictions on HFSS marketing and advertising. In February 2019, the Greater London Authority introduced novel restrictions on HFSS advertising across Transport for London (TfL), one of the most valuable out-of-home advertising estates. In this study, we examined whether and how commercial actors attempted to influence the development of these advertising restrictions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using requests under the Freedom of Information Act, we obtained industry responses to the London Food Strategy consultation, correspondence between officials and key industry actors, and information on meetings. We used an existing model of corporate political activity, the Policy Dystopia Model, to systematically analyse arguments and activities used to counter the policy. The majority of food and advertising industry consultation respondents opposed the proposed advertising restrictions, many promoting voluntary approaches instead. Industry actors who supported the policy were predominantly smaller businesses. To oppose the policy, industry respondents deployed a range of strategies. They exaggerated potential costs and underplayed potential benefits of the policy, for instance, warning of negative economic consequences and questioning the evidence underlying the proposal. Despite challenging the evidence for the policy, they offered little evidence in support of their own claims. Commercial actors had significant access to the policy process and officials through the consultation and numerous meetings, yet attempted to increase access, for example, in applying to join the London Child Obesity Taskforce and inviting its members to events. They also employed coalition management, engaging directly and through business associations to amplify their arguments. Some advertising industry actors also raised the potential of legal challenges. The key limitation of this study is that our data focused on industry-policymaker interactions; thus, our findings are unable to present a comprehensive picture of political activity. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we identified substantial opposition from food and advertising industry actors to the TfL advertising restrictions. We mapped arguments and activities used to oppose the policy, which might help other public authorities anticipate industry efforts to prevent similar restrictions in HFSS advertising. Given the potential consequences of commercial influence in these kinds of policy spaces, public bodies should consider how they engage with industry actors.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria Alimentícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Política , Transportes/legislação & jurisprudência , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Londres , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Formulação de Políticas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Participação dos Interessados
10.
Dermatol Surg ; 47(10): 1384-1386, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising is a prominent type of health care communication. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the impact of DTC advertisements on consumer opinion. METHODS: A total of 203 participants were recruited from dermatology clinics at an urban academic center. Participants viewed 2 cosmetically oriented DTC advertisements, and prequestionnaires and postquestionnaires were administered to assess consumer opinion. RESULTS: Postquestionnaire data highlight a 18.8% and 24.6% increase in participants reporting using commercials as an information source (p < .001) and seeking out additional medical knowledge (p < .001), respectively. After watching the advertisements, there was a 14.4% increase in participants who believed advertisements facilitate better discussions between patients and physicians (p < .001) and a 33% increase in patients reporting they would discuss the procedures with their doctors (p < .001). Of the participants, 60% believed the advertisements did not provide enough information about the possible risks of the product and 39.4% believed a physician was not required to perform cosmetic procedures. CONCLUSION: Direct-to-consumer advertisements instill meaningful information to patients and promote patient-physician communication. They also seem to exaggerate the benefits while making the procedures seem simple and without risks, suggesting trained medical professionals are not needed for administration.


Assuntos
Técnicas Cosméticas/psicologia , Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude , Técnicas Cosméticas/economia , Técnicas Cosméticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371876

RESUMO

The present study aimed to provide a descriptive analysis of the nutrient profile of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) marketed in Italy according to three front-of-pack labeling (FOPL) schemes implemented by France, i.e., the Nutriscore; by the United Kingdom, i.e., Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL); and by Italy, i.e., the NutrInform battery. The analysis was made in fourteen food product categories, corresponding to 124 foods. The application of the Nutriscore scheme showed that a significant proportion of foods (23%) were awarded an A or B. Furthermore, the analysis according to the MTL showed that food products that were above the threshold ("red") for fat, saturated fats, sugars, and salt ranged from 13% to 31%. Interestingly, even though all foods considered in the analysis were UPF, they were heterogeneous in nutritional composition, as demonstrated by the FOPL schemes applied, showing that UPF represent a heterogeneous group of foods with different characteristics. Such a finding may have relevant implications for epidemiological studies that analyze the association between UPF consumption and health outcomes, suggesting the need for better characterization of the effects of UPF intake on human health.


Assuntos
Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor , Fast Foods/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Comportamento do Consumidor , Humanos , Itália
12.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 61(6): 795-803, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pharmaceutical companies have rationalized rapid increases in spending on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) by highlighting the educational potential that such efforts have for patients. Others have argued that profits and influence, not educational benefits, are the true motivators for the expansion of DTCA. It is critical that pharmacists be aware of the content of direct-to-consumer advertisements to best counsel patients on proper medication expectations. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the ways in which drug information is being presented to patients and whether such rewards may act as a form of education regarding a greater emphasis on the product or the condition the drug is designed to treat. METHODS: This study conducted a content analysis of 60 broadcast prescription drug advertisements appearing over a 12-week primetime programming period across 4 major news networks to determine which types of educational, relational, and identity rewards were present across the textual, verbal, and visual modalities. RESULTS: Findings indicated a greater overall presence of relational and identity rewards than educational rewards. Most of the educational rewards served to promote a particular drug rather than educate consumers about a condition. There was a statistically significant relationship between reward type and modality, such that there were greater relational and identity rewards within the visual modality and greater educational rewards in the textual modality than expected. CONCLUSION: Findings showed that educational rewards in the service of promoting a particular drug were included more than 2.5 times as often as educational rewards about the condition treated. This lack of information about the condition suggests that DTCA may be aiming to increase profits by encouraging conversation between patients and providers about the advertised medications. As a result, a patient may demonstrate an increased desire to discuss a particular drug with a pharmacist or a provider rather than discussing information about the condition itself.


Assuntos
Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor , Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Publicidade , Indústria Farmacêutica , Humanos , Recompensa
14.
Health Mark Q ; 38(1): 23-34, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219606

RESUMO

The current study observes that while several studies have been conducted on the direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs, none has explicitly evaluated the ethical dimension DTCA of prescriptions, as such a knowledge gap still exists with regard to the ethics of DTCAs. To contribute to filling this gap, the current study evaluates the ethical DTCA of prescription drugs using Pfizer's Lipitor ad, which because of public outcry, was terminated shortly after it was launched. The study concludes that what may be legal may not necessarily be ethical. Thus marketing decision marketers must expand their focus group testing of DTCAs to include assessment of their ethics.


Assuntos
Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor , Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Publicidade , Atorvastatina , Indústria Farmacêutica , Humanos , Marketing , Estados Unidos
16.
RECIIS (Online) ; 15(2): 294-300, abr.-jun. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254582

RESUMO

Esta nota discute a ausência dos quesitos cor/raça e gênero nos boletins epidemiológicos da Covid-19 e como essa omissão está articulada ao modo como se operacionaliza o racismo no Brasil. Coloca-se em evidência a apropriação da identidade racial e de gênero por alguns estados brasileiros que ganharam visibilidade midiática, como sendo solidários, ao iniciarem a campanha de vacinação com mulheres negras, grupo social mais vulnerável. É o jogo da dissimulação, em que se evidencia a raça/gênero na aparência, embora essas variáveis não sejam consideradas no enfrentamento da pandemia.


This note discusses the non-inclusion of information about color/race and gender in Covid-19 epidemiological reports and how this omission is related to the way that the racism is operated in Brazil. It highlights the racial and gender identity appropriation by some Brazilian states, which have gained media visibility as sympathetic governments to Black women, by starting the vaccination campaign with them, an extremely vulnerable social group. It is like a confidence trick, in which race and gender are in the spotlight, although these features are not considered in the fight against the pandemic.


Esta nota discute la ausencia de las informaciones sobre cor/raza y género en los boletines epidemiológicos de la Covid-19 y como esa omisión se encuentra articulada al modo en que se opera el racismo en Brasil. Destaca la apropiación de la identidad racial y de género por parte de algunos estados brasileños que han ganado visibilidad mediática, vistos como solidarios, puesto que han iniciado la campaña de vacunación con algunas mujeres negras, el grupo social más vulnerable. Es el juego del disimulo, por lo cual es evidenciada la raza/género en la apariencia, sin embargo esas variables no sean tenidas en cuenta en el enfrentamiento a la pandemia.


Assuntos
Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Cor , Infecções por Coronavirus , Racismo , Identidade de Gênero , Brasil , Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor , Saúde das Minorias Étnicas
17.
Aust Health Rev ; 45(4): 507-515, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952390

RESUMO

Objective This paper provides an update and overview of the law governing direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of autologous stem cell interventions (ASCIs) in Australia. It follows significant changes to the advertising regulations made in 2018. Methods The paper reviews the three primary sources or 'centres' of law regulating ASCIs in Australia, together with the relevant guidance documents that supplement these sources. It provides analysis of how the post-2018 advertising regulations, contained in the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 (Cwlth), apply to all 'biologicals', including ASCIs. It demonstrates how these three sources of law interact with one another and outlines the new tiered offence regime that applies to contraventions of these prohibitions. Results The analysis demonstrates that DTC advertising of ASCIs in Australia is strictly controlled, with primary legislation prohibiting the advertising of biologicals altogether. Conclusions The polycentric legal regime regulating biologicals in Australia clearly makes DTC advertising of ASCIs unlawful. Health practitioners who promote ASCIs, either online, in print or in other media forms, may be penalised in different ways and by different authorities. What is known about the topic? Although several analyses have examined the regulation of ASCIs in Australia, no analysis has studied the reforms made in 2018 relating to the advertising of biologicals. As such, this analysis contributes a fresh examination of these relatively recent reforms. What does this paper add? This analysis clarifies the effects of these new advertising regulations, providing clear guidance on the relevant legal provisions for the benefit of health practitioners and health professionals more generally. What are the implications for practitioners? Health practitioners, especially those who offer ASCIs, should be aware that civil and criminal penalties are likely to be imposed on individuals who promote biologicals in Australia by any means.


Assuntos
Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor , Publicidade , Austrália , Humanos , Células-Tronco
18.
Pediatrics ; 147(6)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fast-food intake is a modifiable obesity risk factor in early childhood, and child-directed fast-food marketing is common. Per self-regulatory guidelines regarding deception, premiums (ie, incentives or toy giveaways) in child-directed advertisements must be secondary to the advertised product. METHODS: Content analyses were performed of all child-directed fast-food television (TV) advertisements aired on four national US children's TV networks, February 1, 2019, through January 31, 2020, to assess the emphasis of premiums relative to food. We quantified the percent of the audio transcript (word count) and visual airtime (seconds) that included premiums or food and the on-screen size of premiums relative to food in randomly selected frames from each advertisement. RESULTS: There were 28 unique child-directed advertisements for children's fast-food meals in the study year; 27 advertisements were from one restaurant and accounted for nearly all (99.8%) of the total airtime for the 28 advertisements. Premiums were present in 27 of the 28 unique advertisements. On average, premiums (versus food) accounted for 53.0% (vs 16.0%) of words in the audio transcript and 59.2% (vs 54.3%) of the visual airtime per advertisement. In the random subset of frames that includes both premiums and food imagery, imagery of premiums accounted for 9.7% (95% CI: 6.4%-13.0%) of the on-screen area, whereas imagery of food accounted for 5.7% (95% CI: 4.4%-7.0%), an average ratio of 1.9:1 within each frame when excluding one large outlier. CONCLUSIONS: Child-directed fast-food TV advertisements emphasize premiums over food in violation of self-regulatory guidelines, counter to childhood obesity prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor/métodos , Fast Foods , Televisão , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Estados Unidos
19.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 81(3): 1169-1179, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: US direct-to-consumer advertising spending for medicine has soared in recent decades. Advertising has been shown to impact drug utilization. Most Alzheimer's disease patients are above age 65 and may take a range of prescription medications for various disease states. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how direct-to-consumer advertising is associated with the drug utilization of patients ≥65 years old. METHODS: Using advertising expenditure data and Medicare Part D drug purchase claims, we performed regression analyses for each of the highest-spending drugs and age group, with cumulative monthly spending as the predictor variable and drug utilization as the response variable. For each drug, we ran a second set of regression analyses to determine if the spending-utilization correlation showed a significant difference between the two patient age groups (older than 65, younger than 65). RESULTS: For all 14 drugs in our study, advertising spending is positively correlated with utilization (p < 0.01) in both age groups. For seven of the 14 drugs studied, the difference in the utilization of patients older than 65 and the utilization of patients younger than 65 is statistically significant at a p < 0.01 level. The 65-and-older age bracket exhibits significantly greater utilization for all seven of these drugs. CONCLUSION: We find televised advertising for certain drugs to be associated with significantly stronger drug utilization among seniors, as compared to younger patients. Alzheimer's disease physicians should be aware of this result, in light of the medications that patients may take for other disease states, particularly mood and mental health medications.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor , Médicos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Idoso , Conscientização , Uso de Medicamentos , Humanos , Estados Unidos
20.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 17(10): 1770-1779, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) surveys with healthcare providers (HCPs) have focused on attitudes toward direct-to-consumer advertising and have not specifically examined professionally-targeted prescription drug promotion. Similarly, there are no recent national surveys of HCPs examining their interactions with the pharmaceutical industry. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to use a national sample of HCPs to examine exposure to professionally-targeted prescription drug promotions and interactions with industry, and knowledge, attitudes and practices related to FDA approval of prescription drugs. METHODS: An online national survey was conducted with 2000 HCPs representing primary care physicians (PCPs), specialists (SPs), physician assistants (PAs), and nurse practitioners (NPs). The sample was randomly drawn from WebMD's Medscape subscriber network, stratified by HCP group, and designed to yield target numbers of completed surveys in each group. Weights were computed to correct for unequal selection probabilities, differential response rates, and differential coverage and used to generalize completed surveys to a national population of PCPs, SPs, NPs, and PAs. RESULTS: Exposure and attention to pharmaceutical promotions and contact with industry were significantly associated with reported increase in pharmaceutical industry influence on decisions about prescription drugs. SPs were significantly more likely to prescribe off-label and serve as opinion leaders for the pharmaceutical industry compared to other provider groups. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate pharmaceutical promotions directed at HCPs occur in many forms and are disseminated through multiple channels. By using a nationally representative sample of HCPs, this study provides population-level estimates for exposure and attention to prescription drug promotion and contact with industry and evidence for their influence on prescriber decisions. Findings from this study will help to inform FDA of HCP responses to and impacts of prescription drug promotion.


Assuntos
Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor , Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Indústria Farmacêutica , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
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