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1.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 2739685, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35047032

RESUMO

Online marketing refers to the practices of promoting a company's brand to its potential customers. It helps the companies to find new venues and trade worldwide. Numerous online media such as Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, and Instagram are available for marketing to promote and sell a company's product. However, in this study, we use Instagram as a marketing medium to see its impact on sales. To carry out the computational process, the approach of linear regression modeling is adopted. Certain statistical tests are implemented to check the significance of Instagram as a marketing tool. Furthermore, a new statistical model, namely a new generalized inverse Weibull distribution, is introduced. This model is obtained using the inverse Weibull model with the new generalized family approach. Certain mathematical properties of the new generalized inverse Weibull model such as moments, order statistics, and incomplete moments are derived. A complete mathematical treatment of the heavy-tailed characteristics of the new generalized inverse Weibull distribution is also provided. Different estimation methods are discussed to obtain the estimators of the new model. Finally, the applicability of the new generalized inverse Weibull model is established via analyzing Instagram advertising data. The comparison of the new distribution is made with two other models. Based on seven analytical tools, it is observed that the new distribution is a better model to deal with data in the business, finance, and management sectors.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Publicidade , Comércio , Humanos , Marketing , Modelos Estatísticos
2.
Regen Med ; 17(2): 81-90, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34949108

RESUMO

Aim: To attend stem cell (SC) seminars hosted by US-based direct-to-consumer SC businesses either in person or via online 'webinars' to determine accuracy and regulatory oversight of the advertised SC therapies. Methods: The therapeutic claims, costs, risks, scientific evidence in support of a therapy and any regulatory oversight were collated using pre-established checklists. Participation consisted of one live attendance of a seminar, and following COVID-19 restrictions, review of seven recorded presentations available on the internet from SC businesses. Results & conclusion: None of the SC therapies advertised by direct-to-consumer clinics reviewed were supported by proper clinical evidence nor substantiated by peer reviewed literature.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Publicidade , Humanos , Internet , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplante de Células-Tronco
3.
Appetite ; 168: 105791, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774965

RESUMO

The detrimental impact of currently disproportionate amounts of digital food advertising for processed foods high in sugar, salt, and fat (HSSF) on children's food intake and dietary health is well-documented. The potential of digital healthy food advertising to encourage healthy eating in children is much less researched. A pre-test post-test control group design was used to compare the effect of specifically designed, television-style advertisements for healthy food versus toys on 172 three-to seven-year-old children's exclusively healthy food intake (vegetable, fruit, whole-grain) in five nurseries in Germany. Within- and between-group comparisons demonstrated the effectiveness of healthy food advertising exposure to increase children's healthy food intake. Three exposures to a 1-min-advertisement for healthy food were sufficient to increase children's healthy food intake by as much as three portions. Children in the control condition ate less healthy foods following viewing of a control advertisement (a matched toy advertisement). We concluded that digital healthy food advertising is likely to increase children's healthy food intake sufficiently to help children meet daily recommended amounts of vegetables, fruit, or whole-grain bread, and that this encouragement may be required as decreases in healthy food intake were found when healthy foods were merely available.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Berçários para Lactentes , Criança , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fast Foods , Alimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Televisão
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1337, 2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pharmaceutical industry plays a key role in drug discovery and is considered useful regards to informing the health care workers health care workers about new medicines. Investigations concerning health care workers to industry interactions are less common. The objective of this study is to determine levels of knowledge, attitude and perception towards regulation of pharmaceutical promotion among healthcare practitioners in Zimbabwe. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was used and 330 healthcare practitioners were enrolled into the study. Data collection was done through combined face-to-face interviews and web-based online survey. The relative importance index score and used as a measure of knowledge, attitude and perception levels towards pharmaceutical promotion. Univariate and bivariate analysis was performed using STATA software package. RESULTS: Our study estimated that 95%, 67%, and 90% of the healthcare practitioners in Zimbabwe have a favourable (i.e. > 65%) relative importance index score of knowledge, attitudes, and perception, respectively, towards regulation of pharmaceutical promotion. Further exploration of the data indicated that the factors that had an association with the knowledge, attitude and perception levels towards regulation of pharmaceutical regulation at 5% level of significance include health care workers' profession, gender, education level, the nature of the working institution and the number of prescriptions involved per week. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the findings of this study highlighted that in general the health care workers in Zimbabwe have higher levels of knowledge, attitude and perception towards regulation of pharmaceutical promotion, though the attitudes levels weres a  bit lower compared to other domains.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Zimbábue
5.
J Law Med ; 28(4): 1092-1104, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34907688

RESUMO

Influencers are ordinary people or celebrities who post regularly about their daily lives on social media and have a significant number of followers. They are normally provided with free products or services and are paid to post and tag photographs of the services or products on social media. Studies have found that some influencers provide advice concerning nutrition that is incorrect or could harm people if followed. The Australian Food and Beverages Advertising Code and the Australian Consumer Law are relevant regulatory mechanisms that apply to this situation. However, there are some serious gaps within this framework and it is not being sufficiently implemented. The authors argue that there is currently insufficient protection to the public from influencers providing misleading or deceptive nutrition advice and the consequences are serious to the public's health. This is the first article, to the authors' knowledge, to examine this issue in Australia.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Publicidade , Austrália , Bebidas , Humanos
6.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(6): 1046-1062, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34920823

RESUMO

Sir Erasmus Wilson was a pioneer in dermatology and one of the most famous doctors in Victorian England. He enjoyed a sterling professional reputation, with one exception. During the 1860s, his name appeared in a wide variety of cosmetic advertisements endorsing commercial products such as Pears soap, which is still marketed today, as well as hair washes and pomades. Questions were raised in The Lancet about the propriety of Wilson's involvement with such commercial products. Wilson denied in a letter to The Lancet any connection with these advertisements; nonetheless, some confusion has lingered over the years about whether Wilson received any financial compensation from the Pears Soap Company in return for his product endorsements, and whether he enjoyed a business relationship with cosmetic companies that added to his wealth. This contribution presents a comprehensive review of Erasmus Wilson's relationship with cosmetic companies and his struggle to distance himself from them.


Assuntos
Sabões , Solo , Publicidade , Inglaterra , Cabelo , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948612

RESUMO

Prevalence of smoking and e-cigarette use among teenagers in Poland is high. Polish law bans most advertising and promotion for cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and heated tobacco products (HTPs). This study investigates marketing for these products at points of sale (POS) near secondary schools in Warsaw, Poland, noting if the advertising and promotion were allowed under current Polish laws. All POS within 250 m radii of five selected secondary schools in each of three Warsaw districts were assessed for tobacco and e-cigarette direct advertising, inside and outside; offers of gifts or promotional discounts; tobacco merchandising, and tobacco displays. Of the 112 POS surveyed, 83% exposed customers to some form of advertising or promotion of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, or HTPs; in 76%, advertising or promotion that violated Polish law was present. More than 80% of POS surveyed displayed tobacco products; in 19%, these products were displayed near products of interest to minors. POS density observed here was 30.3 per km2, higher than in other European cities. In Poland, a high proportion of POS near schools violates the law banning the advertisement and promotion of tobacco and nicotine consumer products through a dense tobacco retailer network.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Publicidade , Comércio , Humanos , Marketing , Projetos Piloto , Polônia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948871

RESUMO

Existing tasks assessing substance-related attentional biases are characterized by low internal consistency and test-retest reliability. This study aimed to assess the psychometric properties of a novel dual-probe task to measure alcohol-related attentional bias. Undergraduate students were recruited in June 2019 (N = 63; final N = 57; mean age = 20.88, SD = 2.63, 67% females). In the dual-probe task, participants were presented with simultaneous visual streams of adverts promoting either alcoholic or non-alcoholic drinks, and probes were presented in both streams. The dual-probe task measured the percentage of accurately identified probes that appeared on alcohol adverts in relation to total accuracy. The dual-probe task displayed excellent split-half reliability (M = 0.90, SD = 0.11; α = 0.90; 95% CI [0.84, 0.93]), and the derived attentional bias measure was significantly positively associated with beer drinking in a taste-test (r (57) = 0.33, p = 0.013; 95% CI [0.07, 0.54]), with habitual drinking (r (57) = 0.27, p = 0.045; 95% CI [0.01, 0.49]), and with increased craving (r (57) = 0.29, p = 0.031; 95% CI [0.03, 0.51]). Thus, the dual-probe task assessed attentional bias with excellent internal consistency and was associated with laboratory and habitual drinking measures, demonstrating initial support for the task's utility in addiction research.


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção , Adulto , Publicidade , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Hist Dent ; 69(2): 138-145, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734799

RESUMO

Quackery in medicine is as old as medicine. In times of crisis desperate patients believe in extraordinary claims. In the annals of pain killer quack medicine, elixirs, nostrums and liniments hold a special position. The College of Dentistry at NYU received a collection of 234 bottles of quack medicine dating from approximately 1850 through 1940.In this paper, the THIRD in a series of articles featuring "Elixirs of the Past", we focus on five particularly notable samples claiming to have "electric" properties: Electric Brand Oil Compound, Hunt's Lightening Oil, Electric Indian Liniment, Regent's Electric Liniment and Haven's Electro-magnetic Liniment. Needless to say, none of these contained electricity or even electrolytes for that matter. In 1906, Congress enacted The Pure Food and Drug Act to prohibit exaggerated or unsubstantiated claims in the marketing and labeling of household products and to control the use of potentially harmful ingredients. The modern-day use of internet advertisements to make unsupported claims is in some ways even more brazen than the advertisements from a century ago.


Assuntos
Panaceia , Charlatanismo , Publicidade , Analgésicos , Eletricidade , Humanos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769790

RESUMO

The relationship between alcohol advertising and drinking has been demonstrated in many studies. Most studies were conducted on adolescents or young adults. Thailand has strict regulations on alcohol advertisements. This study aimed to examine associations between exposure to alcohol advertisements and drinking behaviors, i.e., past-year drinking and past-year heavy drinking, using data from a population-based survey in Thailand. The survey participants were Thai citizens aged 15 or older. Logistic regression was used to investigate the associations. The primary explanatory variable was self-reported exposure to alcohol advertisements. Covariates in the regression models included sex, age, and education. Self-reported exposure to alcohol advertisements was associated with past-year drinking (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.07-1.27), past-year heavy drinking (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.28-1.41), and past-year heavy drinking among drinkers (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.43-1.60). Male sex, working age, and secondary education or a diploma were associated with higher odds of past-year drinking and past-year heavy drinking. In this study, self-reported exposure to alcohol advertisements was shown to be associated with past-year drinking and past-year heavy drinking among a population aged 15 years or older.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770078

RESUMO

Food and beverage marketing is a major driver of childhood obesity, and companies target their least nutritious products to Black youth. However, little is known about adolescents' perceptions of and responses to racially targeted food marketing. In this qualitative study, we investigated how Black and White adolescents perceived and responded to racially targeted television commercials for food and beverages. We recruited 39 adolescents aged 12-17 years in New York City to watch a series of commercials and then participate in an in-depth interview using a semi-structured interview guide. The research team recorded, transcribed, and analyzed interviews using ATLAS.ti. Overall, participants responded positively to commercials that featured celebrities. They were also able to recognize the commercials and reported they had been exposed to marketing from these companies on social media and in subways/buses. Many participants considered the advertised brands as healthy or able to enhance athletic performance because of their endorsement by or association with athletes. Participants also understood that marketers were using racial targeting in their ads but that targeting did not translate into improved perceptions or responses towards advertised products. These findings suggest the need to empirically evaluate and further explore Black and White adolescents' responses to racially targeted food marketing.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Adolescente , Publicidade , Bebidas , Criança , Alimentos , Humanos , Percepção , Televisão
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770180

RESUMO

Exposure to tobacco advertisements is associated with initiation of tobacco use among youth. The mechanisms underlying this association are less clear. We estimated longitudinal associations between youths' cognitive and affective responses to advertisements for cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco (SLT) and initiation of these products. N = 1220 Ohio-residing boys of ages 11-16 were recruited into a cohort in 2015 and 2016. Participants completed surveys every six months for four years. Surveys assessed cognitive and affective responses to tobacco advertisements (which included health warnings) and tobacco use after an advertisement viewing activity. We used mixed-effects Poisson regression models with robust standard errors to estimate risk of initiating use of each tobacco product according to participants' cognitive (i.e., memorability of health risks) and affective (i.e., likability of advertisement) responses to advertisements for that product. No associations between affective responses to advertisements and tobacco use outcomes were detected in adjusted models. However, finding health risks memorable was associated with reduced risk of ever smoking initiation (aRR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.95) and a reduced risk of ever SLT initiation that approached statistical significance (aRR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.36, 1.05). Measures to increase saliency of health risks on cigarette and SLT advertisements might reduce use among youth.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Publicidade , Criança , Cognição , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(10): e28689, 2021 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide obesity rates have prompted 16 countries to enact policies to reduce children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing, but few policies address online advertising practices or protect adolescents from being targeted. Given adolescents spend so much time online, it is critical to understand how persuasive Instagram food advertisements (ads) are compared with traditional food ads. To strengthen online food marketing policies, more evidence is needed on whether social media ads are more persuasive than other types of ads in shaping adolescents' preferences. OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether adolescents could identify food companies' Instagram posts as ads, and the extent to which Instagram versus traditional food ads shape adolescents' preferences. METHODS: In Part 1, participants aged 13-17 years (N=832) viewed 8 pairs of ads and were asked to identify which ads originated from Instagram. One ad in each pair was selected from traditional sources (eg, print; online banner ad), and the other ad was selected from Instagram, but we removed the Instagram frame-which includes the logo, comments, and "likes." In Part 2, participants were randomized to rate food ads that ostensibly originated from (1) Instagram (ie, we photoshopped the Instagram frame onto ads); or (2) traditional sources. Unbeknownst to participants, half of the ads in their condition originated from Instagram and half originated from traditional sources. RESULTS: In Part 1, adolescents performed worse than chance when asked to identify Instagram ads (P<.001). In Part 2, there were no differences on 4 of 5 outcomes in the "labeled ad condition." In the "unlabeled ad condition," however, they preferred Instagram ads to traditional ads on 3 of 5 outcomes (ie, trendiness, P=.001; artistic appeal, P=.001; likeability, P=.001). CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents incorrectly identified traditional ads as Instagram posts, suggesting the artistic appearance of social media ads may not be perceived as marketing. Further, the mere presence of Instagram features caused adolescents to rate food ads more positively than ads without Instagram features.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Publicidade , Criança , Alimentos , Humanos , Marketing
15.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 238, 2021 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disparities in exposure to and density of tobacco advertising are well established; however, it is still unclear how e-cigarette and heated tobacco product (HTP) advertising vary by age, education, sex, gender identity, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status (SES), and/or urban/rural area. Through a scoping review, we sought to identify potential disparities in exposure to e-cigarette and HTP advertising and promotion across populations. METHODS: In January 2020, a systematic literature search was conducted in five databases: PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. The search was updated in October 2020. Articles reporting on exposure to e-cigarette and/or HTP advertising and promotion across age, education, sex, gender identity, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, SES, and/or urban/rural areas were included for full-text review (n = 25). Of those, 15 were deemed relevant for data extraction. RESULTS: The majority of the studies were from the U.S. (n = 12) and cross-sectional (n = 14). Studies were published between 2014 and 2020 and focused on determining causal relationships that underlie disparities; only one study assessed HTP advertising and promotion. Exposure to e-cigarette and HTP advertising was assessed at the individual-level (e.g., recall seeing ads on television) and at the neighborhood-level (e.g., ad density at the point-of-sale). Studies addressed differences across age (n = 6), education (n = 2), sex (n = 6), gender identity and sexual orientation (n = 3), race/ethnicity (n = 11), SES (n = 5), and urban/rural (n = 2). The following populations were more likely to be exposed to e-cigarette advertising: youth, those with more than a high school diploma, males, sexual and gender minorities, Whites, and urban residents. At the neighborhood-level, e-cigarette advertisements were more prevalent in non-White neighborhoods. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to e-cigarette/HTP advertising varies based on sociodemographic characteristics, although the literature is limited especially regarding HTPs. Higher exposure among youth might increase tobacco-related disparities since it can lead to nicotine/tobacco use. Research should incorporate and apply a health equity lens from its inception to obtain data to inform the elimination of those disparities.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Equidade em Saúde , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Publicidade , Estudos Transversais , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino
16.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 402, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717738

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess gender representation in food and beverage print advertisements. RESULTS: The study follows a quantitative descriptive approach. Using a content analysis technique, we assessed the gender representation in 200 food and beverage print advertisements found in corner stores located in four areas around schools in Lima, Peru, and Guatemala City, Guatemala (100 advertisements per country). A total of 36% of the print advertisements exhibited a male main character for the case of Guatemala, while in Peru 14% of the print advertisements presented a male main character. Furthermore, in Guatemala, 22% of the main characters were male animated characters. Moreover, 27% of the print advertisements in Guatemala and 17%, in Peru were visually male-oriented. Overall, male characters appeared alongside sports references and in varied settings, whereas female characters were usually holding or consuming the product. In conclusion, although the majority of variables used to assess the representation of gender in food and beverage print advertisements were gender-neutral, those showing gender representation were mostly male-oriented. Despite its limited findings, the study provides evidence for the formulation of public policies and educational content aimed to protect children's and adolescents' health from the effects of food marketing.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Bebidas , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Guatemala , Humanos , Masculino , Peru , Instituições Acadêmicas
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(10): e23312, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited regulatory guidance surrounding the use of social media channels for participant recruitment is an interdisciplinary challenge. Establishing stakeholder-informed procedures is essential for ethical and effective use of social media for participant recruitment. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide replicable procedures for developing and implementing guidelines for using social media to recruit participants in research studies. METHODS: Social media use cases at the university were used to identify institutional stakeholders for the initiative. After establishing workflow procedures, a scoping review of web-based materials about recruitment and research on the internet and social media from 19 peer institutions and 2 federal agencies was conducted to inform the structure of the policies and procedures. End users (investigators and study coordinators; N=14) also provided feedback on the policies and procedures and implementation. RESULTS: Representatives (n=7) from 5 institutional offices and 15 subject-matter experts from 5 areas were identified as stakeholders in the development of policies and procedures. Peers with web-based materials (n=16) identified in the scoping review revealed 4 themes that served as a basis for developing our policies and procedures. End user feedback further informed the policies and procedures and implementation. A centrally managed social media account for communicating with participants and hosting advertising campaigns on social media was also established and, when combined with the policies and procedures, resulted in 39 advertising campaigns, and 2846 participants were enrolled in health and clinical research studies. CONCLUSIONS: Our policies and procedures allow research teams to harness the potential of social media to increase study recruitment and participation; the transparent, stakeholder-informed process can be replicated by institutional administrators to establish policies and procedures that meet the interests and needs of their research community.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Publicidade , Humanos , Estudos Interdisciplinares , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
18.
N Engl J Med ; 385(20): 1829-1831, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644490
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682585

RESUMO

The current study aims to reveal whether using COVID-19 as the threatening message in anti-smoking ads will influence smokers differently than other threat appeals. All ads that were chosen for this study were created by the Israel Cancer Association/the Israeli Ministry of Health. Since the coronavirus has proven to have far-reaching effects on the human respiratory system, it is directly connected to smoking. The present study included semi-structured in-depth interviews with experts, a pre-test (n = 106) and an online questionnaire including 721 participants (adults aged 18-30 versus 55+). The findings indicated that when using the COVID-19 symbol as the threatening message in an anti-smoking ad for the older participants, smoking cessation intentions were higher than when using a cigarette simulating a 'gunpoint' threat (p < 0.08). Additionally, when using the COVID-19 symbol, there was a positive relation between participants' age and smoking cessation intentions. The average smoking cessation intention for the participants from the older age group (M = 3.05, SD = 1.07) was higher than the average for the participants from the young age group (M = 2.80, SD = 1.13). Finally, when using impotence (for men) and pregnancy risks (for women) as the threatening message in the ads for young respondents, smoking cessation intentions were higher than when using COVID-19 (p < 0.05). The results may help decision-makers and public health officials in choosing the marketing communication suited for conveying messages aimed to encourage people to reduce/quit smoking.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adulto , Publicidade , Idoso , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Fumantes
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