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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249847, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339414

RESUMO

Abstract The Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) is a vertebrate pest of agricultural lands and forest. The study was aimed to report the damage to local crops by the Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) in the Muzaffarabad District. A survey was conducted to identify the porcupine-affected areas and assess the crop damage to the local farmers in district Muzaffarabad Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) from May 2017 to October 2017. Around 19 villages were surveyed, and a sum of 191 semi-structured questionnaires was distributed among farmers. Crop damage was found highest in village Dhanni where a porcupine destroyed 175 Kg/Kanal of the crops. Regarding the total magnitude of crop loss, village Danna and Koomi kot were the most affected areas. More than half (51.8%) of the respondents in the study area suffered the economic loss within the range of 101-200$, and (29.8%) of the people suffered losses in the range of 201-300$ annually. Among all crops, maize (Zea mays) was found to be the most damaged crop ranging between 1-300 Kg annually. In the study area, porcupine also inflicted a lot of damages to some important vegetables, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and onion (Allium cepa). It was estimated that, on average, 511Kg of vegetables are destroyed by porcupine every year in the agricultural land of Muzaffarabad. It was concluded that the Indian crested porcupine has a devastating effect on agriculture which is an important source of income and food for the local community. Developing an effective pest control strategy with the help of the local government and the Wildlife department could help the farmers to overcome this problem.


Resumo O porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) é uma praga vertebrada de terras agrícolas e florestais. No estudo atual, o dano às plantações locais pelo porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) foi relatado pela primeira vez no distrito de Muzaffarabad. O estudo foi projetado para investigar a perda econômica causada pelo porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) nos distritos de Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu e Caxemira (AJK) de maio de 2017 a outubro de 2017. Um estudo baseado em pesquisa foi conduzido para identificar as áreas afetadas por porcos-espinhos e avaliar os danos às colheitas para os agricultores locais. Cerca de 19 aldeias foram pesquisadas e um total de 191 questionários semiestruturados foi distribuído entre os agricultores. Os danos às colheitas foram encontrados mais intensamente na aldeia Dhanni, onde um porco-espinho destruiu 175 kg / Kanal das colheitas. Em relação à magnitude total da perda de safra, as aldeias Danna e Koomi Kot foram as áreas mais afetadas. Mais da metade (51,8%) dos entrevistados na área de estudo sofreu perdas econômicas na faixa de 101-200 $, e 29,8% das pessoas sofreram perdas na faixa de 201-300 $ anualmente. Entre todas as culturas, o milho (Zea mays) foi considerado a cultura mais danificada, variando entre 1-300 kg anualmente. Na área de estudo, o porco-espinho também causou muitos danos a alguns vegetais importantes, incluindo espinafre (Spinacia oleracea), batata (Solanum tuberosum) e cebola (Allium cepa). Estimou-se que, em média, 511 kg de vegetais são destruídos pelo porco-espinho todos os anos nas terras agrícolas de Muzaffarabad. Concluiu-se que o porco-espinho de crista indiano tem um efeito devastador na agricultura, que é importante fonte de renda e alimento para a comunidade local. O desenvolvimento de uma estratégia eficaz de controle de pragas com a ajuda do governo local e do Departamento de Vida Selvagem pode ajudar os agricultores a superar esse problema.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Porcos-Espinhos , Paquistão , Produtos Agrícolas , Agricultura , Animais Selvagens
2.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 51(5): 666-673, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35899393

RESUMO

The complexity of the Sunda porcupine skin has become an important topic due to the unique characteristics of its quill follicles. The structure and chemical composition of the skin has affected many physiological and other conditions. Generally, quills are larger, stronger and stiffer than hair; therefore, the skin structure needs to adapt to support their physiology. The strength of the skin is determined by its collagen composition and arrangement; therefore, this study aims to analyse the composition and distribution of thick and thin fibres based on the specific characteristics of Sunda porcupine skin under polarized light using picrosirius red staining. The skin samples used were from the thoracodorsal and lumbosacral regions of eight Sunda porcupine adults. The histological staining was carried out using the picrosirius red method, while the samples were observed under a polarized light microscope and analysed with software. The results showed that the skin is composed of 36%-65% thick fibres, 20%-35% thin fibres and small amounts of other types with the lumbosacral region having higher compositions of thick and thin fibres than those in the thoracodorsal region. Furthermore, the thoracodorsal and lumbosacral regions have the highest composition of thick fibre in the deeper dermis and quill follicle, respectively. These demonstrated that the complexity of the skin structure of Sunda porcupine due to its quill derivates correlated with its collagen composition and distribution.


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos , Animais , Compostos Azo , Colágeno/análise , Pele/química , Coloração e Rotulagem/veterinária
3.
J Vet Med Sci ; 84(9): 1230-1236, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35851265

RESUMO

The fatty acid composition in the skin of Sunda porcupine (Hystrix javanica) is an interesting topic due to the special features of quills, especially in the dorsal region. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the composition of fatty acids in the dorsal region of Sunda porcupine skin. It was conducted using skin samples of the thoracodorsal and lumbosacral regions taken by biopsies and from frozen specimens. The skin lipid was extracted and then derivatized into fatty acid methyl ester before analyzing with gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The results showed that the skin is composed of up to 25 fatty acids ranging from C12 to C25 with various types but only 16 were found in both regions and sexes. Fatty acids with an antibacterial effect were found abundantly, such as oleic, palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids. The total abundance in the thoracodorsal region was higher than lumbosacral, while the composition in male was higher than in female. Based on the results, the fatty acid composition in the dorsal skin region of Sunda porcupine consists of at least 16 types ranging from C12-C25. Additionally, the region and sex were observed to contribute significantly to the variation in skin fatty acid composition.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Porcos-Espinhos , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/veterinária , Masculino , Pele
4.
Can Vet J ; 63(7): 747-750, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35784768

RESUMO

A 22-year-old miniature horse gelding was brought to a veterinary clinic with multiple porcupine quills embedded in the face. One quill had perforated through the left caudoventral cornea but did not extend beyond the anterior chamber. The horse was referred to a specialist clinic for removal of the intraocular quill and subsequent primary surgical repair of the corneal wound. Following aggressive medical treatment, the horse retained vision.


Piquants de porc-épic oculaires et faciaux chez un cheval miniature. Un cheval hongre miniature de 22 ans a été amené à une clinique vétérinaire avec plusieurs piquants de porc-épic incrustés dans le visage. Un piquant avait perforé la cornée en partie caudo-ventrale gauche mais ne s'étendait pas au-delà de la chambre antérieure de l'oeil. Le cheval a été référé à une clinique spécialisée pour le retrait du piquant intraoculaire et la réparation chirurgicale primaire de la plaie cornéenne. Après un traitement médical agressif, le cheval était toujours capable de voir.(Traduit par Dr Serge Messier).


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos , Animais , Cavalos , Hospitais Veterinários , Masculino
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12293, 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35853976

RESUMO

Mammals are generally brown in colour, but recent publications are showing that they may not be as uniform as once assumed. Monotremes, marsupials, and a handful of eutherians reflect various colours when lit with UV light, mostly purple. Because of these still scarce records, we aimed to explore UV reflectance among rodent genera, the most diverse mammalian group, and the group of eutherians with the most common records of biofluorescence. Here we report structures like nails and quills reflected green, but for most genera, it was faded. However, Hystrix, Erethizon, and Ctenomys showed intense and contrasting green glow, while Chaetomys presented a vivid orange anogenital. The main available explanation of fluorescence in mammals relies on porphyrin. This explanation applies to the cases like Chaetomys, where specimens showed anogenital orange biofluorescence, but does not apply to the green biofluorescence we observed. In our sample, because the structures that reflected green were all keratinized, we have reasons to believe that biofluorescence results from keratinization and is a structurally-based colouration. However, not all spines/quills equally biofluoresced, so we cannot rule out other explanations. Since Rodentia is the most common mammalian group with reports on biofluorescence, this trait likely serves various functions that match the species diversity of this group.


Assuntos
Marsupiais , Monotremados , Porcos-Espinhos , Animais , Fluorescência , Mamíferos , Roedores
6.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 51(4): 549-556, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35748654

RESUMO

Although there have been morphological and morphometric studies on the porcupine skull, three-dimensional modelling of the skull is performed for the first time with the present study. In this study, it was aimed to model the skull and mandible of Hystrix cristata in 3D to reveal its morphometric values and the differences between the sexes. Morphometric analyses were performed on a total of eight (four male and four female) adult porcupine skulls and mandibles. Skulls and mandibles of porcupines were scanned usinf a 64-detector MDCT (General Electric Revolution) device at 80 kV, 200 MA, 639 mGY and 0.625 mm slice thickness. Skull and mandible reconstructions were made with the help of MIMICS 20.1 (Materialize) software program and the surface area and volume values of the skull and mandible were calculated. Statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS 22.0 software. The longest measurement in the skulls, based on the metric measurement points, was the total length (TL), and it was measured as 135.4750 ± 0.54976 mm in males and 134.4725 ± 0.86681 mm in females (p < 0.5). The highest value was the foramen magnum index (p < 0.5), and the lowest value the was skull index (p < 0.1). While the total volume ratio of the mandibles was 29901.64 mm3 in males, it was 27296.20 mm3 in females (p > 0.5). Statistical differences in the morphometric values of skulls and mandibles of male and female porcupines were demonstrated for the first time using CT and three-dimensional modelling software.


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos , Animais , Feminino , Cabeça , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/veterinária , Masculino , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
7.
Clin Transl Sci ; 15(7): 1713-1722, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35620969

RESUMO

WNT974 is a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable first-in-class inhibitor of Porcupine, a membrane-bound O-acyltransferase required for Wnt secretion, currently under clinical development in oncology. A phase I clinical trial is being conducted in patients with advanced solid tumors. During the dose-escalation part, various dosing regimens, including once or twice daily continuous and intermittent dosing at a dose range of 5-45 mg WNT974 were studied, however, the protocol-defined maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was not established based on dose-limiting toxicity. To assist in the selection of the recommended dose for expansion (RDE), a model-based approach was utilized. It integrated population pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling and exposure-response analyses of a target-inhibition biomarker, skin AXIN2 mRNA expression, and the occurrence of the adverse event, dysgeusia. The target exposure range of WNT974 that would provide a balance between target inhibition and tolerability was estimated based on exposure-response analyses. The dose that was predicted to yield an exposure within the target exposure range was selected as RDE. This model-based approach integrated PK, biomarker, and safety data to determine the RDE and represented an alternative as opposed to the conventional MTD approach for selecting an optimal biological dose. The strategy can be broadly applied to select doses in early oncology trials and inform translational clinical oncology drug development.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias , Porcos-Espinhos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Oncologia , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Pirazinas , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 834: 155150, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35417727

RESUMO

Microplastic occurrence in marine biota has been reported in a wide range of animals, from marine mammals and seabirds to invertebrates. Commercial and shallow-water fish have been the subject of numerous works on microplastic ingestion, given their importance in human diet and accessibility. However, little is known about microlitter occurrence in fish species inhabiting the dark ocean, in the bathyal zone and there is a high degree of uncertainty about microplastic distribution in offshore areas and the deep sea. In this study, bathydemersal species Alepocephalus bairdii and Coryphaenoides rupestris from the Porcupine Bank caught between 985 and 1037 m depth were inspected for microdebris. The stomach contents were digested by the alkaline method plus ethanol addition to avoid clogging. A filament of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) was found in the stomach of a specimen of A. bairdii, representing 4% of the total sampled specimens of this species (i.e. prevalence in n = 25). However, when considering potential microplastics, the prevalence increased to 28% in both, A. bairdii and C. rupestris. This work provides the first baseline study of microplastic items in fish from such depths in the Atlantic and suggests these species might be used as biomonitors in future research.


Assuntos
Gadiformes , Porcos-Espinhos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 40(4): 359-368, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35445405

RESUMO

Porcupine (Porcn) enzyme plays an essential role in Wnt signaling activation. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) is required to provide Porcn substrates. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a novel Porcn inhibitor on the fate of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and the reliance of Porcn on SCD1 activity. hESCs were cultured on a feeder layer or Matrigel-coated plates. Small molecules WNT974 (LGK-974) and CAY10566 were used to inhibit Porcn and SCD1 activity, respectively. We assessed the effect of Porcn inhibition on viability, expression of Wnt signaling targets, pluripotency markers, proliferation, differentiation, and protein fatty acylation. hESCs' conditioned medium (CM) containing secreted Wnt proteins were applied in rescue experiments. To examine the catalytic dependency of Porcn on SCD1, the results of combined inhibitor treatment were compared with the SCD1 inhibitor alone. LGK-974 at the selected concentrations showed mild effects on hESCs viability, but significantly reduced messenger RNA and protein expression of Wnt signaling targets (Axin-2 and c-Myc) and pluripotency markers (OCT-4 and SOX-2) (p < .05). Adding 1 µM of Porcn inhibitor reduced proliferation (p = .03) and enhanced differentiation capacity into ectodermal progenitors (p = .02), which were reverted by CM. Click chemistry reaction did not show significant alteration in protein fatty acylation upon LGK-974 treatment. Moreover, combined inhibitor treatment caused no further substantial reduction in Wnt signaling targets, pluripotency markers, and protein fatty acylation relative to CAY10566-treated cultures. The substrate availability for Porcn activity is regulated by SCD1 and targeting Porcn by LGK-974 prompts the transition of hESCs from self-renewal state to ectodermal lineage.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas , Porcos-Espinhos , Aciltransferases/química , Aciltransferases/genética , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Animais , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Porcos-Espinhos/metabolismo , Pirazinas , Piridinas , Via de Sinalização Wnt
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5426, 2022 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361851

RESUMO

Settlements are usually shared at different times by semi-fossorial mammals. Porcupine reproductive pair shows high den-site fidelity, but no data are available on the spatio-temporal inhabitation of settlements. In this investigation, the spatio-temporal inhabitation of settlements by crested porcupine families was investigated using camera-trapping as well as the ethological factors affecting the settlements selection. The crested porcupine resulted to be the main inhabitant of settlements surveyed in the present study. Each settlement was inhabited exclusively by one porcupine family. Five out of six porcupine families, each alternatively and complementarily inhabited the same two settlements. In all the five monitored families, settlements selection doesn't follow a seasonal pattern. Settlement inhabitation of porcupines resulted positively affected by cohabitation with badger, while presence of porcupettes did not affect settlements selection. Long periods of settlement inhabitation were positively affected both by the presence of porcupettes and cohabitation with badger. The pattern of settlements inhabitation in relation to their availability and porcupine population density as well as factors promoting porcupine-badger cohabitation should be further investigated. New ethological knowledge obtained in this investigation could be involved in the evaluation of the ecological epidemiology of infectious diseases between porcupine and badger within a one health approach and may be a useful tool for a sustainable management of semi-fossorial mammals.


Assuntos
Mustelidae , Porcos-Espinhos , Animais , Humanos
11.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 21(6): 936-947, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35313331

RESUMO

WNT signaling promotes pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) through diverse effects on proliferation, differentiation, survival, and stemness. A subset of PDAC with inactivating mutations in ring finger protein 43 (RNF43) show growth dependency on autocrine WNT ligand signaling and are susceptible to agents that block WNT ligand acylation by Porcupine O-acyltransferase, which is required for proper WNT ligand processing and secretion. For this study, global transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic analyses were performed to explore the therapeutic response of RNF43-mutant PDAC to the Porcupine inhibitor (PORCNi) LGK974. LGK974 disrupted cellular bioenergetics and mitochondrial function through actions that included rapid mitochondrial depolarization, reduced mitochondrial content, and inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation and tricarboxylic acid cycle. LGK974 also broadly altered transcriptional activity, downregulating genes involved in cell cycle, nucleotide metabolism, and ribosomal biogenesis and upregulating genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, hypoxia, endocytosis, and lysosomes. Autophagy and lysosomal activity were augmented in response to LGK974, which synergistically inhibited tumor cell viability in combination with chloroquine. Autocrine WNT ligand signaling dictates metabolic dependencies in RNF43-mutant PDAC through a combination of transcription dependent and independent effects linked to mitochondrial health and function. Metabolic adaptations to mitochondrial damage and bioenergetic stress represent potential targetable liabilities in combination with PORCNi for the treatment of WNT ligand-addicted PDAC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Porcos-Espinhos , Aciltransferases/genética , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Homeostase , Humanos , Ligantes , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Porcos-Espinhos/metabolismo , Proteômica , Via de Sinalização Wnt
12.
J Wildl Dis ; 58(2): 356-367, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35104340

RESUMO

Skunk adenovirus-1 (SkAdV-1) has been reported infecting several North American wildlife species; however, lesions associated with disease have not yet been completely characterized, particularly in porcupines. We describe and characterize the tissue distribution and lesions associated with SkAdV-1 infection in 24 wildlife diagnostic cases submitted between 2015 and 2020, including 16 North American porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum), three striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and five raccoons (Procyon lotor), which constitute a new host species. The most common lesion in all species was severe necrotizing bronchopneumonia with (n=12) or without (n=10) interstitial involvement. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were common in respiratory epithelium (n=21) and less often in renal tubular (n=6) and biliary epithelium (n=1). Several cases (n=4) had secondary bacterial infections, including Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pasteurella multocida, and Streptococcus zooepidemicus. In situ hybridization in porcupine (n=6), raccoon (n=1), and skunk (n=1) revealed SkAdV-1 DNA in multiple tissue types, including lung, trachea, turbinates, liver, kidney, lymph node, and brain, and multiple cell types including epithelial, endothelial, and mesothelial cells. These findings were consistent across species. Comparison of viral genomes from a porcupine and a raccoon with that originally isolated from a skunk demonstrated DNA point mutations affecting several viral genes, including the fiber protein gene. Our findings show the spectrum of disease associated with SkAdV-1 infection in a broad host range of wildlife species.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae , Porcos-Espinhos , Doenças dos Roedores , Adenoviridae , Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Hibridização In Situ/veterinária , Mephitidae , América do Norte , Guaxinins
13.
Acta Trop ; 228: 106276, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973955

RESUMO

Population of Trichuris sp. isolated from Hystrix cristata was analyzed based on morphological, biometrical characteristics and mitochondrial (cox1, cob, rrnL) and ribosomal (ITS1) (rDNA) region sequences. Morphological and biometrical results revealed that Trichuris sp. from H. cristata present a high similarity with Trichuris landak from Hystrix javanica and less similarity with other Trichuris species from porcupine species (Trichuris hystricis, Trichuris lenkorani and Trichuris mettami). The lack of molecular data corresponding to Trichuris species that parasitize the porcupine (genus Hystrix and Atelerix) has not allowed a comparative molecular or phylogenetic study. Molecular analyses revealed the existence of two different haplotypes that did not correspond to different morphospecies. Relationships among Trichuris sp. from H. cristata and other Trichuris spp. have been resolved by molecular sequence data in this study. Thus, the combined analysis of one ribosomal and three mitochondrial markers revealed a sister relationship between whipworms parasitizing porcupine and other Trichuris spp. from rodents and canids and separated from the rest of Trichuris spp. from other hosts species. It is necessary accurate information on the possible zoonotic behavior of different Trichuris species for health workers to improve existing control measures. Thus, it is necessary to increase the studies of integrative taxonomy on Trichuris spp. based on morphological, biometrical and molecular data, which will inevitably contribute to our knowledge on the etiology of trichuriasis.


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos , Tricuríase , Animais , Filogenia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Trichuris
14.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 106(2): 387-394, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288168

RESUMO

Mammal's saliva contains a variety of electrolytes and proteins. They carry out an important role in the digestion process, in the antibacterial and antiviral activity, in lubrication and maintenance of oral general health status. It may also contain several enzymes according to dietary habits and general wellness. Sialochemistry is a valid alternative to the haematochemical analysis for the evaluation of animal health and nutritional status. At present, very little knowledge is available on health status and pathology of crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata) and no data are yet available on salivary enzymes. Between 2018 and 2020, a preliminary investigation of enzymatic activity on saliva samples was carried out from captured porcupines. In crested porcupine saliva, enzymatic activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, N-Aminopeptidase, amylase, lignin peroxidise, cellulase and chitinase were recorded. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and alkaline phosphatase activity was also detected. The superoxide dismutase activity resulted higher (3.13 SD 3.58 U/mg proteins) than those of catalase (130.80 SD 110.65 mU/mg proteins) and glutathione S-transferase (20.21 SD 16.62 mM/mg proteins). Alkaline phosphatase activity resulted lower (5.91 SD 6.12 mU/mg proteins) than acidic phosphatase (19.00 SD 16.16 U/mg proteins) with the highest values of saliva alkaline phosphatases recorded in young individuals. These preliminary data bring new knowledge on crested porcupine saliva enzymes and may provide a useful tool for further investigation on the adaptive response of crested porcupine to different environmental condition and diet. Additional investigation concerning a possible alternative use of saliva enzymes as indicator of health and nutritional status of this rodent are desirable.


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Porcos-Espinhos/microbiologia , Porcos-Espinhos/fisiologia , Saliva
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242635, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278477

RESUMO

Abstract Indian crested porcupine is the largest rodent pest that damages a wide variety of crops, vegetables, and tree species which ultimately causes huge economic loss in Pakistan, which is an agricultural country. It prefers to live in hilly terrain but common in temperate and tropical forests, shrublands, and grasslands. This study focused on the identification and assessment of crops damaged along with the main precautionary measures used by the local farmers. The data was collected from twenty-four villages of two union councils i.e. Chamhad and Slahad of district Abbottabad. Two types of data (primary and secondary) were collected from the study area. Primary data was collected for identification and estimation calculation of total crop damaged through direct field observation by taking random quadrates in each village of the study area. The damage in the crop was assessed by randomly selecting a quadrate of 1x1 m2 for the wheat, pearl millet, and Sorghum fields. While 4x4 m2 quadrates were taken for maize and vegetables. At least three quadrate samples were taken from each field including one quadrate taken from the center of the field area. In union council Chamhad, damage to maize (11.31%) and wheat (0.73%) by the Indian crested porcupine while in union council Salhad, damage of maize (6.95%) and wheat (1.6%) was observed. In the entire study area, overall damage to maize crop (8.01%) and wheat (0.88%) was calculated. Based on information obtained from the farmers, the Indian porcupine inflicted damage to potato, tomato, cauliflower, chili pepper, turnip, radish, pea, and onion, etc. Secondary data obtained through a questionnaire survey to explore the human porcupine conflict and precautionary measures used by the farmers and landowners. Open and close-ended questionnaires (159) highlighted the presence of Indian crested porcupine in the study area and 96% of the respondents have seen porcupine directly. Many types of precautionary measures were used by the farmers such as fencing, night stay, night firing, and dogs to decrease the crop damage, respondents (63.91%) use guns for hunting. however, due to the largely agricultural area and nocturnal behavior of Indian crested porcupine majority of the respondents (51.57%) did not use any precautionary measure. Biological control of Indian porcupine is recommended in the study area. Farmers should be encouraged and provide incentives and killing through current should be banned while proper hunting license should be issued to overcome overhunting. Scientific studies are required to control the reproduction of porcupine specifically in the more damaged areas.


Resumo O porco-espinho indiano é a maior praga de roedores que danifica uma grande variedade de culturas, vegetais e espécies de árvores, o que acaba por causar enormes perdas econômicas no Paquistão, que é um país agrícola. Prefere viver em terrenos montanhosos, mas comuns em florestas temperadas e tropicais, arbustos e pastagens. Este estudo concentrou-se na identificação e avaliação das lavouras danificadas, juntamente com as principais medidas de precaução utilizadas pelos agricultores locais. Os dados foram coletados de 24 aldeias de dois conselhos sindicais, ou seja, Chamhad e Slahad, do distrito de Abbottabad. Dois tipos de dados (primário e secundário) foram coletados da área de estudo. Foram coletados dados primários para identificação e cálculo de estimativa do total da cultura danificada por meio da observação direta do campo, tomando quadrantes aleatórios em cada aldeia da área de estudo. O dano na cultura foi avaliado pela seleção aleatória de um quadrante de 1x1 m2 para os campos de trigo, milheto pérola e sorgo, enquanto quadrantes de 4x4 m2 foram tomados para milho e legumes. Pelo menos três amostras de quadrante foram colhidas de cada campo, incluindo um quadrante retirado do centro da área do campo. No Conselho Sindical de Chamhad, houve danos ao milho (11,31%) e ao trigo (0,73%) pelo porco-espinho indiano, enquanto no Conselho Sindical de Salhad, danos ao milho (6,95%) e ao trigo (1,6%) foram observados. Em toda a área do estudo, danos gerais à cultura do milho (8,01%) e ao trigo (0,88%) foram calculados. Com base em informações obtidas dos agricultores, o porco-espinho indiano infligiu danos à batata, tomate, couve-flor, pimenta, nabo, rabanete, ervilha, cebola, etc. Dados secundários foram obtidos por meio de um questionário para explorar o conflito suíno humano e as medidas de precaução utilizadas pelos agricultores e proprietários de terras. Questionários abertos e fechados (159) destacaram a presença de porco-espinho indiano na área de estudo e 96% dos entrevistados viram o porco-espinho diretamente. Muitos tipos de medidas de precaução foram utilizados pelos agricultores, como esgrima, estadia noturna, fogo noturno e cães para diminuir os danos na lavoura. Dos entrevistados, 63,91% usaram armas para caçar. No entanto, devido à área ser em grande parte agrícola e ao comportamento noturno da maioria dos porcos-espinhos indianos, 51,57% não usaram nenhuma medida de precaução. O controle biológico do porco-espinho indiano é recomendado na área de estudo. Os agricultores devem ser encorajados e fornecer incentivos, e o uso da corrente para matar os animais deve ser banido, assim como deve ser emitida a licença de caça adequada para superar a caça excessiva. Estudos científicos são necessários para controlar a reprodução de porco-espinho, especificamente nas áreas mais danificadas.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Porcos-Espinhos , Paquistão , Árvores , Produtos Agrícolas , Agricultura
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243063, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285598

RESUMO

Abstract The Indian Crested Porcupine (Hystrix indica) is classified as an agricultural pest species. It feeds on plants and crops; hence, it is responsible for massive financial losses worldwide. The current study was conducted to assess the diet composition of Indian Crested Porcupine in District Bagh, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ&K). Thus, fecal samples were collected and examined from different sampling sites. Reference slides of the material collected from the study area were prepared for identification of dietary components in fecal pellets. A total of 80 fecal samples were collected and processed. Percent relative frequencies (P.R.F.) were calculated for each plant species recovered from pellets. Data revealed that Indian Crested Porcupine consumed 31 plant species in its diet, among them Zea mays (34.31±7.76) was the most frequently selected species followed by Rumex obtusifolius (15.32±2.57) and Melia azedarach (12.83±4.79). The study revealed that the greatest diversity of (n=20) plant species were consumed in summer season while minimum (n=13) species were used during winter. Among the parts of plants, stem was highly consumed in spring (57.2%) as compared to seed in fall (36.7%) while spikes and leaf were the least recovered parts from the fecal matter. The Berger-Parker diversity index showed highly diversified food (10.92) in the summer time of the year as compared to the autumn season (2.95). This study provides a baseline for the diet preference of this pest in the study area. Based on current findings, a detailed investigation on damage assessment, exploration, habitat use and management of Indian Crested Porcupine in AJ&K has been recommended.


Resumo O porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) é classificado como uma espécie de praga agrícola. Alimenta-se de plantas e colheitas; portanto, é responsável por enormes perdas financeiras em todo o mundo. O estudo atual foi realizado para avaliar a composição da dieta do porco-espinho de crista indiano nos distritos de Bagh, Azad Jammu e Caxemira (AJ&K). Assim, amostras fecais foram coletadas e examinadas em diferentes locais de amostragem. Lâminas de referência do material coletado na área de estudo foram preparadas para identificação dos componentes da dieta em pellets fecais. Um total de 80 amostras fecais foi coletado e processado. As frequências relativas percentuais (P.R.F.) foram calculadas para cada espécie de planta recuperada de pelotas. Os dados revelaram que o porco-espinho indiano consumiu 31 espécies de plantas em sua dieta, entre elas Zea mays (34,31 ± 7,76) foi a espécie mais selecionada, seguida por Rumex obtusifolius (15,32 ± 2,57) e Melia azedarach (12,83 ± 4,79). O estudo revelou que a maior diversidade de (n = 20) espécies de plantas foi consumida no verão, enquanto o mínimo (n = 13) espécies foi utilizado durante o inverno. Entre as partes das plantas, o caule foi muito consumido na primavera (57,2%) em relação à semente no outono (36,7%), enquanto a espiga e a folha foram as partes menos recuperadas da matéria fecal., O índice de diversidade de Berger-Parker mostrou alimentos altamente diversificados (10,92) no verão do ano em comparação com o outono (2,95). Este estudo fornece uma linha de base para a preferência alimentar dessa praga na área de estudo. Com base nas descobertas atuais, uma investigação detalhada sobre avaliação de danos, exploração, uso de habitat e gerenciamento de porco-espinho de crista indiano em AJ&K foi recomendada.


Assuntos
Animais , Porcos-Espinhos , Ecossistema , Produtos Agrícolas , Agricultura , Comportamento Alimentar
17.
Dokl Biol Sci ; 500(1): 113-122, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731374

RESUMO

The remains of large porcupines (an incomplete skull, cranial and mandibular fragments, isolated teeth and postcranial bones) from the Early Pleistocene Taurida cave locality in central Crimea (Belogorsk district, Zuya village) are referred to the species Hystrix (Hystrix) refossa Gervais, 1852, which has not been reported from Crimea previously. Based on the stages of eruption, replacement and attrition of the lower dentition, the presence of individuals of six age categories, from juvenile to senile, was established. One dentary shows an intravital loss of cheek teeth, presumably caused by abnormal development of their roots and sockets.


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos , Animais , Cavernas , Fósseis , Humanos , Roedores , Crânio
18.
Zootaxa ; 5047(5): 501-519, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810828

RESUMO

Taxonomy is a mistreated matter, but its role in ecology, behaviour and conservation studies is pivotal. Disentangling amongst different subspecies is challenging given the high arbitrariness level in determining thresholds of genetic and morphological distances. Splitting frenzy trends have increased the number of animal taxa and for most of them a critical redefinition is required. In this work, we reviewed knowledge and validity of subspecific taxa identified for African crested porcupines Hystrix cristata and Hystrix africaeaustralis. In the past, several subspecies were recognized for both the species, but successive works suggested H. cristata and H. africaeaustralis as monotypic species with no clear explanation. Recently, the validity of the taxon H. cristata senegalica has been claimed again. We analysed all available data and discussed all the subspecific taxa in light of both genetic and morphological data. We revalidated here the synonymy Hystrix senegalica Cuvier, 1823 = Hystrix cristata Linnaeus, 1758. Syn. rev. Two names are treated as nomina dubia: Acanthion daubentonii Cuvier, 1823 (formalization) and Hystrix capensis Gr.. Hystrix cristata var. alba de Slys-Longchamps, 1839 has been deleted from the synonymic list of H. cristata. Neither mitochondrial nor nuclear DNA data militate for the existence of any subspecific taxon, although further data are required for H. cristata from East Africa (e.g., Kenya and Tanzania). Similarly, morphology seems to play for a clinal variation in both species. For available data, we thus strongly recommend to keep both H. cristata and H. africaeaustralis as monotypic species.


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos , Animais
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20142, 2021 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635774

RESUMO

Previous data on crested porcupine reproduction biology were mostly collected in captivity or semi-captivity due to its elusive, burrowing and mainly nocturnal habits. Between 2017 and 2019 the reproductive behaviour (i.e., intrapair mounting and copulation, birth and parental care) of free-ranging crested porcupine was documented and described. Nightly rhythms of single and multiple mounting occurred throughout the year while only two copulation events were recorded. Three months after both copulation events, the birth of porcupettes (porcupine < 5 kg) was recorded. A stochastic phase characterized by an articulate courtship with distinct behavioural patterns always preceded each mounting event. After the stochastic phase, the presenting of the female evoked by Nose-Quill contact behaviour, occurred in 83.8% (n = 182) of mounting events, while in 16.1% (n = 35) a spontaneous presenting of the female occurred. The average duration of copulation lasted 24 s (SD = 7 s) with 17 thrusting (SD = 5.5 thrusting). Births of porcupettes occurred throughout the year from 1 to 3 times per pair per year and the litter size observed ranged from 1 to 2 porcupettes. The first emerging of porcupettes from burrow occurred at 10-15 days after birth. Parents and sub-adults of the family actively perform parental care and the permanence of sub-adults within the family (i.e., from birth to dispersal) resulted to be at least 1 year. This investigation provides new useful insights on porcupine reproductive behaviour in the wild. Such new knowledge may be useful to the management of porcupines in wild, semiwild and captive condition as well as to delineate the key habitat desiderata of this rodent.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Ritmo Circadiano , Ecossistema , Porcos-Espinhos/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino
20.
Gene Expr Patterns ; 42: 119214, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547456

RESUMO

The mammalian organ of Corti is a highly specialized sensory organ of the cochlea with a fine-grained pattern that is essential for auditory function. The sensory epithelium, the organ of Corti consists of a single row of inner hair cells and three rows of outer hair cells that are intercalated by support cells in a mosaic pattern. Previous studies show that the Wnt pathway regulates proliferation, promotes medial compartment formation in the cochlea, differentiation of the mechanosensory hair cells and axon guidance of Type II afferent neurons. WNT ligand expressions are highly dynamic throughout development but are insufficient to explain the roles of the Wnt pathway. We address a potential way for how WNTs specify the medial compartment by characterizing the expression of Porcupine (PORCN), an O-acyltransferase that is required for WNT secretion. We show PORCN expression across embryonic ages (E)12.5 - E14.5, E16.5, and postnatal day (P)1. Our results showed enriched PORCN in the medial domains during early stages of development, indicating that WNTs have a stronger influence on patterning of the medial compartment. PORCN was rapidly downregulated after E14.5, following the onset of sensory cell differentiation; residual expression remained in some hair cells and supporting cells. On E14.5 and E16.5, we also examined the spatial expression of Gsk3ß, an inhibitor of canonical Wnt signaling to determine its potential role in radial patterning of the cochlea. Gsk3ß was broadly expressed across the radial axis of the epithelium; therefore, unlikely to control WNT-mediated medial specification. In conclusion, the spatial expression of PORCN enriches WNT secretion from the medial domains of the cochlea to influence the specification of cell fates in the medial sensory domain.


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Cóclea/metabolismo , Células Ciliadas Auditivas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana , Camundongos , Porcos-Espinhos/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt
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