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Ann Bot ; 123(4): 625-639, 2019 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30403767


BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pyroloids, forest sub-shrubs of the Ericaceae family, are an important model for their mixotrophic nutrition, which mixes carbon from photosynthesis and from their mycorrhizal fungi. They have medical uses but are difficult to cultivate ex situ; in particular, their dust seeds contain undifferentiated, few-celled embryos, whose germination is normally fully supported by fungal partners. Their germination and early ontogenesis thus remain elusive. METHODS: An optimized in vitro cultivation system of five representatives from the subfamily Pyroloideae was developed to study the strength of seed dormancy and the effect of different media and conditions (including light, gibberellins and soluble saccharides) on germination. The obtained plants were analysed for morphological, anatomical and histochemical development. KEY RESULTS: Thanks to this novel cultivation method, which breaks dormancy and achieved up to 100 % germination, leafy shoots were obtained in vitro for representatives of all pyroloid genera (Moneses, Orthilia, Pyrola and Chimaphila). In all cases, the first post-germination stage is an undifferentiated structure, from which a root meristem later emerges, well before formation of an adventive shoot. CONCLUSIONS: This cultivation method can be used for further research or for ex situ conservation of pyroloid species. After strong seed dormancy is broken, the tiny globular embryo of pyroloids germinates into an intermediary zone, which is functionally convergent with the protocorm of other plants with dust seeds such as orchids. Like the orchid protocorm, this intermediary zone produces a single meristem: however, unlike orchids, which produce a shoot meristem, pyroloids first generate a root meristem.

Botânica/métodos , Ericaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Germinação , Ericaceae/anatomia & histologia , Ericaceae/metabolismo , Pyrolaceae/anatomia & histologia , Pyrolaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pyrolaceae/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Mycorrhiza ; 27(8): 733-745, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28707027


Pyroleae species are perennial understory shrubs, many of which are partial mycoheterotrophs. Most fungi colonizing Pyroleae roots are ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and share common mycobionts with their Pyroleae hosts. However, such mycobiont sharing has neither been examined in depth before nor has the interspecific variation in sharing among Pyroleae species. Here, we examined root-associated fungal communities in three co-existing Pyroleae species, including Pyrola alpina, Pyrola incarnata, and Orthilia secunda, with reference to co-existing ECM fungi on the surrounding trees in the same soil blocks in subalpine coniferous forests. We identified 42, 75, and 18 fungal molecular operational taxonomic units in P. alpina, P. incarnata, and O. secunda roots, respectively. Mycobiont sharing with surrounding trees, which was defined as the occurrence of the same mycobiont between Pyroleae and surrounding trees in each soil block, was most frequent among P. incarnata (31 of 44 plants). In P. alpina, sharing was confirmed in 12 of 37 plants, and the fungal community was similar to that of P. incarnata. Mycobiont sharing was least common in O. secunda, found in only 5 of 32 plants. Root-associated fungi of O. secunda were dominated by Wilcoxina species, which were absent from the surrounding ECM roots in the same soil blocks. These results indicate that mycobiont sharing with surrounding trees does not equally occur among Pyroleae plants, some of which may develop independent mycorrhizal associations with ECM fungi, as suggested in O. secunda at our research sites.

Micorrizas/fisiologia , Pyrola/microbiologia , Árvores/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Florestas , Japão , Pyrolaceae/microbiologia , Simpatria
Arch Pharm Res ; 38(11): 2059-65, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25861914


A new naphthalene glycoside was isolated from the leaves and stems of Chimaphila umbellata Barton. Its chemical structure was elucidated to be 2,7-dimethyl-1,4-dihydroxynaphthalene-1-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (DMDHNG), based on spectroscopic evidence. DMDHNG significantly inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity and the formation of multinucleated osteoclasts in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the new glycoside inhibited the RANKL-induced mRNA expression of osteoclast-associated genes that encode TRAP, cathepsin K, and another transcription factor-nuclear factor of activated T-cells c1. We believe that the inhibitory effects of DMDHNG on the osteoclast differentiation may be exploited for a therapeutic benefit.

Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Naftóis/farmacologia , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pyrolaceae/química , Fosfatase Ácida/genética , Fosfatase Ácida/metabolismo , Catepsina K/genética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glucosídeos/administração & dosagem , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/genética , Naftóis/administração & dosagem , Naftóis/isolamento & purificação , Osteoclastos/citologia , Folhas de Planta , Caules de Planta , Ligante RANK/administração & dosagem , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato
Phytochemistry ; 69(3): 738-46, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17950387


Bioassay-guided fractionation of Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W. Bart (Pyrolaceae) ethanol extracts led to the identification of 2,7-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (chimaphilin) as the principal antifungal component. The structure of chimaphilin was confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The antifungal activity of chimaphilin was evaluated using the microdilution method with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (0.05mg/mL) and the dandruff-associated fungi Malassezia globosa (0.39mg/mL) and Malassezia restricta (0.55mg/mL). Pronounced antioxidant activity of C. umbellata crude extract was also identified using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay, suggesting this phytomedicine has an antioxidant function in wound healing. A chemical-genetic profile was completed with chimaphilin using approximately 4700 S. cerevisiae gene deletion mutants. Cellular roles of deleted genes in the most susceptible mutants and secondary assays indicate that the targets for chimaphilin include pathways involved in cell wall biogenesis and transcription.

Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Malassezia/efeitos dos fármacos , Naftoquinonas/farmacologia , Pyrolaceae/química , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hidrazinas/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Malassezia/classificação , Malassezia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Naftoquinonas/química , Naftoquinonas/isolamento & purificação , Picratos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
Oecologia ; 151(2): 206-17, 2007 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17089139


Several forest understorey achlorophyllous plants, termed mycoheterotrophs (MHs), obtain C from their mycorrhizal fungi. The latter in turn form ectomycorrhizas with trees, the ultimate C source of the entire system. A similar nutritional strategy occurs in some green forest orchids, phylogenetically close to MH species, that gain their C via a combination of MH and photosynthesis (mixotrophy). In orchid evolution, mixotrophy evolved in shaded habitats and preceded MH nutrition. By generalizing and applying this to Ericaceae, we hypothesized that green forest species phylogenetically close to MHs are mixotrophic. Using stable C isotope analysis with fungi, autotrophic, mixotrophic and MH plants as comparisons, we found the first quantitative evidence for substantial fungi-mediated mixotrophy in the Pyroleae, common ericaceous shrubs from boreal forests close to the MH Monotropoideae. Orthilia secunda, Pyrola chlorantha, Pyrola rotundifolia and Chimaphila umbellata acquired between 10.3 and 67.5% of their C from fungi. High N and 15N contents also suggest that Pyroleae nutrition partly rely on fungi. Examination of root fungal internal transcribed spacer sequences at one site revealed that 39 species of mostly endophytic or ectomycorrhizal fungi, including abundant Tricholoma spp., were associated with O. secunda, P. chlorantha and C. umbellata. These fungi, particularly ectomycorrhizal associates, could thus link mixotrophic Pyroleae spp. to surrounding trees, allowing the C flows deduced from isotopic evidence. These data suggest that we need to reconsider ecological roles of understorey plants, which could influence the dynamics and composition of forest communities.

Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Ericaceae/fisiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Orchidaceae/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Pyrolaceae/fisiologia , Simbiose , Adaptação Biológica/fisiologia , Basidiomycota/genética , Isótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , DNA Intergênico/genética , Estônia , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo