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1.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 116, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624106

RESUMO

Pemphigus vulgaris is a life-threatening blistering skin disease caused by autoantibodies destabilizing desmosomal adhesion. Current therapies focus on suppression of autoantibody formation and thus treatments directly stabilizing keratinocyte adhesion would fulfill an unmet medical need. We here demonstrate that apremilast, a phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor used in psoriasis, prevents skin blistering in pemphigus vulgaris. Apremilast abrogates pemphigus autoantibody-induced loss of keratinocyte cohesion in ex-vivo human epidermis, cultured keratinocytes in vitro and in vivo in mice. In parallel, apremilast inhibits keratin retraction as well as desmosome splitting, induces phosphorylation of plakoglobin at serine 665 and desmoplakin assembly into desmosomal plaques. We established a plakoglobin phospho-deficient mouse model that reveals fragile epidermis with altered organization of keratin filaments and desmosomal cadherins. In keratinocytes derived from these mice, intercellular adhesion is impaired and not rescued by apremilast. These data identify an unreported mechanism of desmosome regulation and propose that apremilast stabilizes keratinocyte adhesion and is protective in pemphigus.


Assuntos
Pênfigo , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Pênfigo/tratamento farmacológico , gama Catenina , Adesão Celular , Queratinócitos , Epiderme , Vesícula , Autoanticorpos , Queratinas , Desmossomos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246389, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285638

RESUMO

Abstract Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.


Resumo A indústria avícola está se expandindo rapidamente e produzindo milhões de toneladas de resíduos de penas anualmente. A produção massiva de subprodutos queratinosos na forma de resíduos agrícolas e industriais em todo o mundo exige sua utilização justificada. O tratamento químico de resíduos de queratina é proclamado como uma abordagem ecodestrutiva por vários pesquisadores, uma vez que gera poluentes secundários. A queratinase liberada por uma variedade de micróbios (bactérias e fungos) pode ser usada para o tratamento eficaz de resíduos de queratina. A degradação microbiana de resíduos de queratina é uma abordagem emergente e ecológica e oferece benefícios duplos, ou seja, tratamento de poluente recalcitrante (queratina) e obtenção de uma enzima comercialmente importante (queratinase). Este estudo envolve o isolamento, caracterização e utilidade potencial de espécies de fungos para a degradação de resíduos de penas de frango por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O fungo isolado foi identificado e caracterizado como Aspergillus (A.) flavus. Em um ensaio de 30 dias, constatou-se que 74% e 8% do peso das penas foram reduzidos por A. flavus, respectivamente, por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O pH do meio de crescimento em fermentação submersa foi alterado de 4,8 para 8,35. A aplicação explorada de micróbios queratinolíticos é, portanto, recomendada para o tratamento de resíduos ceratinosos para obter benefícios duplos de remediação.


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas , Plumas , Fermentação , Fungos , Resíduos Industriais , Queratinas/metabolismo
4.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 22(1): 643-687, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36527315

RESUMO

The growing global population and lifestyle changes have increased the demand for specialized diets that require protein and other essential nutrients for humans. Recent technological advances have enabled the use of food bioresources treated as waste as additional sources of alternative proteins. Sheep wool is an inexpensive and readily available bioresource containing 95%-98% protein, making it an outstanding potential source of protein for food and biotechnological applications. The strong structure of wool and its indigestibility are the main hurdles to achieving its potential as an edible protein. Although various methods have been investigated for the hydrolysis of wool into keratin, only a few of these, such as sulfitolysis, oxidation, and enzymatic processes, have the potential to generate edible keratin. In vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity studies reported no cytotoxicity effects of extracted keratin, suggesting its potential for use as a high-value protein ingredient that supports normal body functions. Keratin has a high cysteine content that can support healthy epithelia, glutathione synthesis, antioxidant functions, and skeletal muscle functions. With the recent spike in new keratin extraction methods, extensive long-term investigations that examine prolonged exposure of keratin generated from these techniques in animal and human subjects are required to ascertain its safety. Food applications of wool could improve the ecological footprint of sheep farming and unlock the potential of a sustainable protein source that meets demands for ethical production of animal protein.


Assuntos
Queratinas , , Animais , Cisteína/análise , Cisteína/química , Queratinas/análise , Queratinas/química , Ovinos , Lã/química
5.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 9(1): 257-268, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36525337

RESUMO

Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the molecular picture of water sorption in gecko keratin and the influence of relative humidity (RH) on the local structure and dynamics in water-swollen keratin. At low RHs, water sorption occurs through hydrogen bonding of water with the hydrophilic groups of keratin. At high RHs (>80%), additional water molecules connect to the first "layer" of amide-connected water molecules (multimolecular sorption) through hydrogen bonds, giving rise to a sigmoidal shape of the sorption isotherm. This causes the formation of large chain-like clusters surrounding the hydrophilic groups of keratin, which upon a further increase of the RH form a percolating water network. An examination of the dynamics of water molecules sorbed in keratin demonstrates that there are two states, bound and free, for water. The dynamics of water in these states depends on the RH. At low RHs, large-scale translational motions of tightly bound water molecules to keratin are needed to remake the entire hydration shell of the keratin. At high RHs (>80%), the water molecules more quickly exchange between the two states. The center-of-mass mean-square displacement of water molecules indicates a hopping motion of water molecules in the keratin solvation shell. The hopping mechanism is more pronounced at RHs < 80%. At higher RHs, water translation through water clusters (water network) dominates. We have observed two regimes for the dependence of dynamical properties on the RH: a regime of gradual increase of the dynamics over 10% < RH < 80% and a regime of drastic dynamic acceleration at RH > 80%. The latter regime begins exactly where the water uptake and the volume swelling also increase much more and where a drastic change in the elastic properties of gecko keratin has been observed. A nearly linear relation between the relaxation times for all dynamical processes and the water content of gecko keratin is observed.


Assuntos
Lagartos , beta-Queratinas , Animais , Estrutura Molecular , beta-Queratinas/metabolismo , Água/química , Água/metabolismo , Queratinas/metabolismo , Lagartos/metabolismo
6.
JCI Insight ; 8(2)2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36512409

RESUMO

Keratin expression dynamically changes in airway basal cells (BCs) after acute and chronic injury, yet the functional consequences of these changes on BC behavior remain unknown. In bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) after lung transplantation, BC clonogenicity declines, which is associated with a switch from keratin15 (Krt15) to keratin14 (Krt14). We investigated these keratins' roles using Crispr-KO in vitro and in vivo and found that Krt14-KO and Krt15-KO produce contrasting phenotypes in terms of differentiation and clonogenicity. Primary mouse Krt14-KO BCs did not differentiate into club and ciliated cells but had enhanced clonogenicity. By contrast, Krt15-KO did not alter BC differentiation but impaired clonogenicity in vitro and reduced the number of label-retaining BCs in vivo after injury. Krt14, but not Krt15, bound the tumor suppressor stratifin (Sfn). Disruption of Krt14, but not of Krt15, reduced Sfn protein abundance and increased expression of the oncogene dNp63a during BC differentiation, whereas dNp63a levels were reduced in Krt15-KO BCs. Overall, the phenotype of Krt15-KO BCs contrasts with Krt14-KO phenotype and resembles the phenotype in BO with decreased clonogenicity, increased Krt14, and decreased dNp63a expression. This work demonstrates that Krt14 and Krt15 functionally regulate BC behavior, which is relevant in chronic disease states like BO.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite Obliterante , Transplante de Pulmão , Animais , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Queratinas , Diferenciação Celular
7.
J Anal Toxicol ; 46(9): e307-e313, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36516229

RESUMO

A 29-year-old man with no previous medical history was found dead at home. Anabolic products (tablets and oily solutions) and syringes were found at the scene. The man was known to train regularly at a fitness club and to use anabolic drugs. Following an unremarkable autopsy with normal histology, toxicological analyses were requested by the local prosecutor to provide further information. Blood, head hair (5 cm, black), body hair (axillary and leg) and toe and finger nail clippings were submitted to liquid and gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC and GC-MS-MS) methods to test for anabolic steroids. Blood tested positive for testosterone (4 ng/mL), boldenone (26 ng/mL), stanozolol (3 ng/mL) and trenbolone (<1 ng/mL). Segmental head hair tests (2 × 2.5 cm) revealed a repeated consumption of testosterone (65-72 pg/mg), testosterone propionate (930-691 pg/mg), testosterone isocaproate (79 pg/mg to <5 pg/mg), nandrolone decanoate (202-64 pg/mg), boldenone (16 pg/mg), stanozolol (575-670 pg/mg), trenbolone (4 pg/mg-not detected), drostanolone (112-30 pg/mg), drostanolone enanthate (26-5 pg/mg) and drostanolone propionate (15-4 pg/mg). In addition to the substances identified in head hair, testosterone decanoate, testosterone cypionate and nandrolone were identified in both body hair and nails. The experts concluded that the manner of death can be listed as toxic due to massive repetitive use of anabolic steroids during the previous months. For anabolic agents, blood does not seem to be the best matrix to document a fatal intoxication. Indeed, these products are toxics when abused long term and are known to cause cardiac, hepatic and renal diseases. When compared to blood, hair and nails have a much larger window of detection. Therefore, keratinous matrices seem to be the best approach to test for anabolic steroids when a sudden death is observed in the context of possible abuse of steroids.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes , Humanos , Adulto , Anabolizantes/análise , Estanozolol/análise , Queratinas/análise , Acetato de Trembolona/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Testosterona , Congêneres da Testosterona/análise , Cabelo/química
8.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 48(6): 1737-1749, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36478317

RESUMO

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a laboratory method widely used to characterize tissue and cell origin, both in human and veterinary medicine. In fish, however, little is known about staining characteristics of most tissue types, and especially for less studied chondrostean fish. The aim of this study was to examine the specificity of various immunohistochemical markers in tissues of chondrostean and teleostean fish and to validate diagnostic tests. Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.), shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were examined. Markers were chosen as representatives of epithelial (cytokeratin AE1/AE3), mesenchymal (vimentin), neuroectodermal (S-100 protein), lymphoid (leukocyte common antigen, LCA) and endocrine (thyroglobulin, thyroxin) tissues and organs. Applied antibodies were of monoclonal or polyclonal mammalian origin and primarily intended for human medicine research or diagnostic application. No species differences were obvious while examining sterlet, shortnose sturgeon and carp. Cytokeratin AE1/AE3, vimentin, S-100 protein and thyroxin were positive on targeted tissues and structures. Leukocyte common antigen (LCA) and thyroglobulin were negative on targeted structures, however, and with clear cross-reactivity on non-targeted tissues (vascular wall, granulocytes). Conclusive results were obtained when using polyclonal antibodies with dilution adjusted to laboratory practice, while application of ready-to-use (RTU) kits with pre-diluted antibodies or monoclonal antibodies often showed conflicting or inconclusive results.


Assuntos
Carpas , Animais , Peixes , Queratinas , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito , Tireoglobulina , Tiroxina , Vimentina
9.
Methods Appl Fluoresc ; 11(1)2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36541527

RESUMO

We have studied the evolution of keratin intrinsic fluorescence as an indicator of its glycation. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence of free keratin and keratin-glucose samples were detected in PBS solutionsin vitro. The changes in the fluorescence response demonstrate that the effect of glucose is manifest in the accelerated formation of fluorescent cross-links with an emission peak at 460 nm and formation of new cross-links with emission peaks at 525 nm and 575 nm. The fluorescence kinetics of these structures is studied and their potential application for the detection of long-term complications of diabetes discussed.


Assuntos
Queratinas , Reação de Maillard , Fluorescência , Glucose/química
10.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 1270, 2022 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36402892

RESUMO

Here we show that intradermal injection of keratin promotes hair growth in mice, which results from extracellular interaction of keratin with hair forming cells. Extracellular application of keratin induces condensation of dermal papilla cells and the generation of a P-cadherin-expressing cell population (hair germ) from outer root sheath cells via keratin-mediated microenvironmental changes. Exogenous keratin-mediated hair growth is reflected by the finding that keratin exposure from transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGFß2)-induced apoptotic outer root sheath cells appears to be critical for dermal papilla cell condensation and P-cadherin-expressing hair germ formation. Immunodepletion or downregulation of keratin released from or expressed in TGFß2-induced apoptotic outer root sheath cells negatively influences dermal papilla cell condensation and hair germ formation. Our pilot study provides an evidence on initiating hair regeneration and insight into the biological function of keratin exposed from apoptotic epithelial cells in tissue regeneration and development.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Citoesqueleto , Queratinas , Camundongos , Animais , Projetos Piloto , Cabelo , Caderinas
11.
Nano Lett ; 22(22): 8835-8844, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375092

RESUMO

Although keratins are robust in nature, hydrogels producing their extracts exhibit poor mechanical properties due to the complicated composition and ineffective self-assembly. Here we report a bioinspired strategy to fabricate robust keratin hydrogels based on mechanism study through recombinant proteins. Homotypic and heterotypic self-assembly of selected type I and type II keratins in different combinations was conducted to identify crucial domain structures for the process, their kinetics, and relationship with the mechanical strength of hydrogels. Segments with best performance were isolated and used to construct novel assembling units. The new design outperformed combinations of native proteins in mechanical properties and in biomedical applications such as controlled drug release and skin regeneration. Our approach not only elucidated the critical structural domains and underlying mechanisms for keratin self-assembly but also opens an avenue toward the rational design of robust keratin hydrogels for biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis , Queratinas , Hidrogéis/química , Queratinas/química , Queratinas/farmacologia , Pele , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos
12.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(12): 591, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376494

RESUMO

Mechanoreceptors are implicated as functional afferents within mucosa of the airways and the recent discovery of mechanosensitive channels Piezo1 and Piezo2 has proved essential for cells of various mechanically sensitive tissues. However, the role for Piezo1/2 in vocal fold (VF) mucosal epithelia, a cell that withstands excessive biomechanical insult, remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Piezo1 is required for VF mucosal repair pathways of epithelial cell injury. Utilizing a sonic hedgehog (shh) Cre line for epithelial-specific ablation of Piezo1/2 mechanoreceptors, we investigated 6wk adult VF mucosa following naphthalene exposure for repair strategies at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days post-injury (dpi). PIEZO1 localized to differentiated apical epithelia and was paramount for epithelial remodeling events. Injury to wildtype epithelium was most appreciated at 3 dpi. Shhcre/+; Piezo1loxP/loxP, Piezo2 loxP/+ mutant epithelium exhibited severe cell/nuclear defects compared to injured controls. Conditional ablation of Piezo1 and/or Piezo2 to uninjured VF epithelium did not result in abnormal phenotypes across P0, P15 and 6wk postnatal stages compared to heterozygote and control tissue. Results demonstrate a role for Piezo1-expressing VF epithelia in regulating self-renewal via effects on p63 transcription and YAP subcellular translocation-altering cytokeratin differentiation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Hedgehog , Queratinas , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Queratinas/genética , Prega Vocal/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360819

RESUMO

The high demand for keratinolytic enzymes and the modest presentation of fungal keratinase diversity studies in scientific sources cause a significant interest in identifying new fungal strains of keratinase producers, isolating new enzymes and studying their properties. Four out of the 32 cultures showed a promising target activity on protein-containing agar plates-Aspergillus amstelodami A6, A. clavatus VKPM F-1593, A. ochraceus 247, and Cladosporium sphaerospermum 1779. The highest values of keratinolytic activity were demonstrated by extracellular proteins synthesized by Aspergillus clavatus VKPM F-1593 cultivated under submerged conditions on a medium containing milled chicken feathers. The enzyme complex preparation was obtained by protein precipitation from the culture liquid with ammonium sulfate, subsequent dialysis, and lyophilization. The fraction of a pure enzyme with keratinolytic activity (pI 9.3) was isolated by separating the extracellular proteins of A. clavatus VKPM F-1593 via isoelectric focusing. The studied keratinase was an alkaline subtilisin-like non-glycosylated protease active over a wide pH range with optimum keratinolysis at pH 8 and 50 °C.


Assuntos
Plumas , Queratinas , Animais , Queratinas/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Fungos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Temperatura
14.
J Comp Pathol ; 199: 81-85, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335863

RESUMO

A 10-year-old peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis) was evaluated for an ulcerated and painful mass at the location of a fracture 2 years previously. Whole body radiographs showed a humeral fracture with a presumptive neoplastic proliferation in the distal diaphysis. Right wing amputation was elected but the animal died during recovery from surgery. Histopathological examination of the amputated wing revealed an infiltrative sarcomatous neoplastic proliferation. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was carried out to characterize the tumour using antibodies against vimentin, desmin, smooth muscle actin (SMA), S-100, ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 (IBA-1), CD18, cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). The mesenchymal component of the mass was immunolabelled for vimentin and SMA and sparse epithelial cells were immunopositive for cytokeratin. Very few scattered cells were immunopositive for CD18 and IBA-1. The final diagnosis was consistent with an undifferentiated sarcoma with intralesional hyperplastic epithelium. According to the location, the history of a previous fracture and the histological pattern and IHC profile, the tumour was classified as an undifferentiated sarcoma with entrapped air sac epithelium.


Assuntos
Agapornis , Doenças das Aves , Sarcoma , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles , Animais , Vimentina , Doenças das Aves/patologia , Sarcoma/veterinária , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/veterinária , Queratinas
15.
J Comp Pathol ; 199: 109-113, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36423522

RESUMO

A 10-year-old female rabbit developed an unencapsulated and asymmetrical superficial dermal mass on the neck. The tumour was invasive with central ulceration and contained three different histological components, namely trichoblastomatous, basal cell carcinoma (BCC)-like and undifferentiated carcinomatous. In the trichoblastomatous component, which occupied most of the tumour, epithelial neoplastic cells formed ribbon-like cellular trabeculae with a palisaded appearance and stromal giant cells. The BCC-like component was a unique lesion composed of epithelial foci and sarcomatous stroma. The sarcomatous stroma consisted of pleomorphic mesenchymal cells with collagen fibres and frequent giant cells with one or more bizarre nuclei. In the undifferentiated carcinomatous component, neoplastic cells had a sheet-like growth pattern without trichoblastic or squamous differentiation. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic epithelial cells were positive for p63 and cytokeratin (CK) while the stromal and giant cells were immunopositive for vimentin but negative for CK and p63. This is the first report of a malignant trichoblastoma with a sarcomatous stroma in animals.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular , Sarcoma , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles , Animais , Feminino , Coelhos , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/veterinária , Sarcoma/veterinária , Neoplasias Cutâneas/veterinária , Carcinoma Basocelular/veterinária , Células Epiteliais , Queratinas
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430474

RESUMO

Onychomycosis is the most common nail fungal infection worldwide. There are several therapy options available for onychomycosis, such as oral antifungals, topicals, and physical treatments. Terbinafine is in the frontline for the treatment of onychomycosis; however, several adverse effects are associated to its oral administration. In this work, innovative keratin-based carriers encapsulating terbinafine were designed to overcome the drawbacks related to the use this drug. Therapeutic textiles functionalized with keratin-based particles (100% keratin; 80% keratin/20% keratin-PEG) encapsulating terbinafine were developed. The controlled release of terbinafine from the functionalized textiles was evaluated against different mimetic biologic solutions (PBS buffer-pH = 7.4, micellar solution and acidic sweat solution-pH = 4.3). The modification of keratin with polyethylene glycol (PEG) moieties favored the release of terbinafine at the end of 48 h for all the solution conditions. When the activity of functionalized textiles was tested against Trichophyton rubrum, a differentiated inhibition was observed. Textiles functionalized with 80% keratin/20% keratin-PEG encapsulating terbinafine showed a 2-fold inhibition halo compared with the textiles containing 100% keratin-encapsulating terbinafine. No activity was observed for the textiles functionalized with keratin-based particles without terbinafine. The systems herein developed revealed therapeutic potential towards nail fungal infections, taking advantage of keratin-based particles affinity to keratin structures and of the keratinase activity of T. rubrum.


Assuntos
Onicomicose , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Onicomicose/microbiologia , Terbinafina/farmacologia , Terbinafina/uso terapêutico , Queratinas/química , Trichophyton , Têxteis
17.
Molecules ; 27(22)2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36431803

RESUMO

Chemical treatments of hair such as dyeing, perming and bleaching could cause mechanical damage to the hair, which weakens the hair fibers and makes the hair break more easily. In this work, hyaluronate (HA) with different molecular weight (MW) was investigated for its effects on restoring the mechanical properties of damaged hair. It was found that low-MW HA (average MW~42 k) could significantly improve the mechanical properties, specifically the elastic modulus, of overbleached hair. The fluorescent-labeling experiments verified that the low-MW HA was able to penetrate into the cortex of the hair fiber, while high-MW HA was hindered. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) results implied the formation of additional intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the HA-treated hair. Thermos gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that the HA-treated hair exhibited decreased content of loosely bonded water, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) characterizations suggested stronger water bonding inside the HA-treated hair, which could alleviate the weakening effect of loosely bonded water on the hydrogen bond networks within keratin. Therefore, the improved elastic modulus and mechanical strength of the HA-treated hair could be attributed to the enhanced formation of hydrogen bond networks within keratin. This study illustrates the capability of low-MW HA in hair damage repair, implying an enormous potential for other moisturizers to be used in hair care products.


Assuntos
Cabelo , Queratinas , Humanos , Peso Molecular , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Cabelo/química , Queratinas/química , Glicosaminoglicanos/farmacologia , Água/análise
18.
Actas urol. esp ; 46(9): 521-530, nov. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-211493

RESUMO

Introducción: La displasia urotelial y el carcinoma in situ (CIS) están relacionados con la recurrencia y la progresión del carcinoma urotelial. Diferenciar el CIS y la displasia de la atipia reactiva suele ser difícil sobre la base de las características histológicas. La integración de los hallazgos histológicos con la inmunohistoquímica se utiliza en la práctica habitual para realizar el diagnóstico del CIS y, para ello, se utilizan los marcadores inmunohistoquímicos CK20, CD44, Ki67 y p53 como complemento al estudio histológico.En este trabajo, nos propusimos evaluar CK20, CD44, Ki67 y p53 como marcadores inmunohistoquímicos en pacientes con CIS, mediante una revisión sistemática y un metaanálisis.Materiales y métodosSe realizó una revisión sistemática con búsqueda en bases de datos electrónicas de estudios en inglés publicados desde enero de 2010 hasta abril de 2021. Se consideraron elegibles los estudios que evaluaban la expresión de CK20, CD44, Ki67 y p53 en el CIS.ResultadosEn total, 15 referencias fueron aptas para la revisión cuantitativa. La tasa global de expresión de CK20, CD44, Ki67 y p53 en el CIS fue del 43%, 31%, 44% y 38%, respectivamente.ConclusionesNuestro estudio apoya el consenso de la Sociedad Internacional de Patología Urológica de 2014 sobre la evaluación histológica como método de referencia para diagnosticar el CIS urotelial, y sugiere que una correlación muy estrecha entre los datos morfológicos, inmunohistoquímicos y clínicos es esencial para proporcionar el mejor manejo de los pacientes con carcinoma vesical. (AU)


Introduction: Urothelial dysplasia and carcinoma in situ (CIS) are related to recurrence and progression of urothelial carcinoma. Differentiating CIS and dysplasia from reactive atypia is often difficult based only on histological features. The integration of histological findings with immunohistochemistry is used in routine practice to make a diagnosis of CIS and, for this purpose, the immunohistochemical markers CK20, CD44, Ki67 and p53 are used to supplement histology.In this work, we aimed to assess CK20, CD44, Ki67 and p53 as immunohistochemical markers in patients with CIS through a systematic review and meta-analysis.Materials and methodsA systematic review was performed by searching electronic databases for English-language studies published from January 2010 to April 2021. Studies were considered eligible if they evaluated the CK20, CD44, Ki67 and p53 expression in CIS.ResultsIn total, 15 references were suitable for quantitative review. The overall rate of CK20, CD44, Ki67 and p53 expression in CIS was 43%, 31%, 44%, 38%, respectively.ConclusionsOur study supports the 2014 International Society of Urologic Pathology consensus that histological assessment remains the gold standard to diagnose urothelial CIS and suggests that a very close correlation between morphological, immunohistochemical and clinical data is essential to provide the best management for patients with bladder carcinoma. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Carcinoma in Situ/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Receptores de Hialuronatos/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Imuno-Histoquímica , Queratinas/sangue , Queratina-20/sangue , Antígeno Ki-67/sangue , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/sangue
19.
J Cell Sci ; 135(20)2022 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36285538

RESUMO

A large group of keratin genes (n=54 in the human genome) code for intermediate filament (IF)-forming proteins and show differential regulation in epithelial cells and tissues. Keratin expression can be highly informative about the type of epithelial tissue, differentiation status of constituent cells and biological context (e.g. normal versus diseased settings). The foundational principles underlying the use of keratin expression to gain insight about epithelial cells and tissues primarily originated in pioneering studies conducted in the 1980s. The recent emergence of single cell transcriptomics provides an opportunity to revisit these principles and gain new insight into epithelial biology. Re-analysis of single-cell RNAseq data collected from human and mouse skin has confirmed long-held views regarding the quantitative importance and pairwise regulation of specific keratin genes in keratinocytes of surface epithelia. Furthermore, such analyses confirm and extend the notion that changes in keratin gene expression occur gradually as progenitor keratinocytes commit to and undergo differentiation, and challenge the prevailing assumption that specific keratin combinations reflect a mitotic versus a post-mitotic differentiating state. Our findings provide a blueprint for similar analyses in other tissues, and warrant a more nuanced approach in the use of keratin genes as biomarkers in epithelia.


Assuntos
Queratinócitos , Queratinas , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Queratinas/genética , Queratinas/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(58): 86913-86932, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36271998

RESUMO

Since the dawn of century, tons of keratin bio-waste is generated by the poultry industry annually, and they end up causing environmental havoc. Keratins are highly flexible fibrous proteins which exist in α- and ß- forms and provide mechanical strength and stability to structural appendages. The finding of broad-spectrum protease, keratinase, from thermophilic bacteria and fungi, has provided an eco-friendly solution to hydrolyze the peptide bonds in highly recalcitrant keratinous substances such as nails, feathers, claws, and horns into valuable amino acids. Microorganisms produce these proteolytic enzymes by techniques of solid-state and submerged fermentation. However, solid-state fermentation is considered as a yielding approach for the production of thermostable keratinases. This review prioritized the molecular and biochemical properties of microbial keratinases, and the role of keratinases in bringing prodigious impact for the sustainable progress of the economy. It also emphasizes on the current development in keratinase production with the focus to improve the biochemical properties related to enzyme's catalytic activity and stability, and production of mutant and cloned microbial strains to improve the yield of keratinases. Recently, multitude molecular approaches have been employed to enhance enzyme's productivity, activity, and thermostability which makes them suitable for pharmaceutical industry and for the production of animal feed, organic fertilizers, biogas, clearing of animal hides, and detergent formulation. Hence, it can be surmised that microbial keratinolytic enzymes are the conceivable candidates for numerous commercial and industrial applications.


Assuntos
Queratinas , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Animais , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Queratinas/metabolismo , Biotecnologia/métodos , Plumas/metabolismo , Responsabilidade Social , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
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