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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20480, 2021 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650174

RESUMO

High-Speed Videoendoscopy (HSV) is becoming a robust tool for the assessment of vocal fold vibration in laboratory investigation and clinical practice. We describe the first successful application of flexible High Speed Videoendoscopy with innovative laser light source conducted in clinical settings. The acquired image and simultaneously recorded audio data are compared to the results obtained by means of a rigid endoscope. We demonstrated that the HSV recordings with fiber-optic laryngoscope have enabled obtaining consistently bright, color images suitable for parametrization of vocal fold oscillation similarly as in the case of the HSV data obtained from a rigid laryngoscope. The comparison of period and amplitude perturbation parameters calculated on the basis of image and audio data acquired from flexible and rigid HSV recording objectively confirm that flexible High-Speed Videoendoscopy is a more suitable method for examination of natural phonation. The HSV-based measures generated from this kymographic analysis are arguably a superior representation of the vocal fold vibrations than the acoustic analysis because their quantification is independent of the vocal tract influences. This experimental study has several implications for further research in the field of HSV application in clinical assessment of glottal pathologies nature and its effect on vocal folds vibrations.


Assuntos
Laringoscopia/instrumentação , Laringoscopia/métodos , Fonação , Acústica , Adulto , Feminino , Glote/patologia , Humanos , Quimografia/métodos , Laringoscópios , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Vibração , Gravação em Vídeo , Prega Vocal/fisiologia
2.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(6): e25816, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, high-speed digital imaging (HSDI), especially endoscopic HSDI, is routinely used for the diagnosis of vocal cord disorders. However, endoscopic HSDI devices are usually large and costly, which limits access to patients in underdeveloped countries and in regions with inadequate medical infrastructure. Modern smartphones have sufficient functionality to process the complex calculations that are required for processing high-resolution images and videos with a high frame rate. Recently, several attempts have been made to integrate medical endoscopes with smartphones to make them more accessible to people in underdeveloped countries. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to develop a smartphone adaptor for endoscopes, which enables smartphone-based vocal cord imaging, to demonstrate the feasibility of performing high-speed vocal cord imaging via the high-speed imaging functions of a high-performance smartphone camera, and to determine the acceptability of the smartphone-based high-speed vocal cord imaging system for clinical applications in developing countries. METHODS: A customized smartphone adaptor optical relay was designed for clinical endoscopy using selective laser melting-based 3D printing. A standard laryngoscope was attached to the smartphone adaptor to acquire high-speed vocal cord endoscopic images. Only existing basic functions of the smartphone camera were used for HSDI of the vocal cords. Extracted still frames were observed for qualitative glottal volume and shape. For image processing, segmented glottal and vocal cord areas were calculated from whole HSDI frames to characterize the amplitude of the vibrations on each side of the glottis, including the frequency, edge length, glottal areas, base cord, and lateral phase differences over the acquisition time. The device was incorporated into a preclinical videokymography diagnosis routine to compare functionality. RESULTS: Smartphone-based HSDI with the smartphone-endoscope adaptor could achieve 940 frames per second and a resolution of 1280 by 720 frames, which corresponds to the detection of 3 to 8 frames per vocal cycle at double the spatial resolution of existing devices. The device was used to image the vocal cords of 4 volunteers: 1 healthy individual and 3 patients with vocal cord paralysis, chronic laryngitis, or vocal cord polyps. The resultant image stacks were sufficient for most diagnostic purposes. The cost of the device including the smartphone was lower than that of existing HSDI devices. The image processing and analytics demonstrated the successful calculation of relevant diagnostic variables from the acquired images. Patients with vocal pathologies were easily differentiable in the quantitative data. CONCLUSIONS: A smartphone-based HSDI endoscope system can function as a point-of-care clinical diagnostic device. The resulting analysis is of higher quality than that accessible by videostroboscopy and promises comparable quality and greater accessibility than HSDI. In particular, this system is suitable for use as an accessible diagnostic tool in underdeveloped areas with inadequate medical service infrastructure.


Assuntos
Laringoscópios , Prega Vocal , Humanos , Quimografia , Faringe/diagnóstico por imagem , Smartphone , Prega Vocal/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
Codas ; 33(5): e20200128, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105603

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is heterogenous condition with commonly associated symptoms include irregular menstrual cycle, hirsutism, baldness, adult acne, and weight gain There have been few attempts at profiling the voice characteristics of women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Videokymography enables to detect even subtle variationsin vocal fold vibrations. The aim of the present study was to study the videokymographic characteristics among women with PCOS. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 50 women with and without PCOS diagnosed on ultrasonography. Videokymography was carried out and the characteristics were perceptually analyzed using a vocal fold kymographic rating scale. The analysis of the kymogram was done for the following characteristics; presence of vocal fold vibration,interference of surroundings, Cycle to cycle variability, left-right asymmetry,cycle aberrations and shape of lateral peaks. The kymographic images were obtained for all the participants of both the groups and a subjective consensus evaluation was done by two clinicians. The percentage of participants with the listed kymographic characteristics were tabulated. Chi Square test was also done to decide if there was a significant difference between the two groups for different kymographic features of vocal fold vibration. RESULTS: Six of the 25 women with PCOS were found to have abnormal kymographic features such as surrounding structural interference, presence of cycle to cycle variability and the shape of lateral peaks. CONCLUSION: Early detection of the vocal abnormalities in individuals with PCOS would help in the vocal rehabilitation especially for professional voice users.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Voz , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Quimografia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Prega Vocal/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
Codas ; 33(3): e20200095, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008770

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the parameters of Digital kymography obtained through the High-speed Videolaryngoscopy of women without laryngeal disorders, of women with vocal fold nodules and of women with vocal cysts. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study in which 60 women aged 18 years and 45 years were selected. Three study groups were formed: 20 women without laryngeal disorder forming the control group (Group 1), 20 women with diagnosis of vocal fold nodules forming Group 2 and 20 women with diagnosis of vocal cysts forming Group 3. Subsequently the participants were evaluated by High-speed Videolaryngoscopy for analysis and comparison of laryngeal images using Digital kymography. The laryngeal parameters processed by the program KIPS® were: minimum, maximum and mean opening; dominant amplitude of the left and right vocal folds; dominant frequency of the right and left vocal folds; and close. RESULTS: The analysis of Digital kymography suggests that the presence of the vocal fold nodules and the vocal cysts tend to restrict more to the maximum and minimum opening of the vocal fold and the dominant amplitude of the opening variation in the middle region of the glottis. CONCLUSION: Digital kymography parameters were similar in the presence of vocal fold nodules and vocal cysts lesions.


Assuntos
Cistos , Fonação , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Cistos/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Quimografia , Vibração , Gravação em Vídeo , Prega Vocal/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540966

RESUMO

Objective:To elucidate the value of videostrobokymography in the evaluation of the characteristics of vocal cord vibration after the surgery. Methods:To analyze the spectrum of the voice before and after the microsurgery of the vocal folds. Using the videostrobokymography to reveal the changes of vibration, especially in the cases with poor spectrum elevation but without obvious recurrence. Results:Two patients were with elevated vocal parameters; 2 patients were with partially elevated vocal parameters(one with Jitter decreased while others elevated; one with Shimmer decreased while others elevated); the other 3 patients were with decreased vocal parameters. The videostrobokynmography showed the recurrence in 1 patient, but not in others. In 4 cases with elevated vocal parameters, the videostrobokymography showed cycle-to-cycle variability of the amplitude, absence of vibration of vocal fold, glottal axis shift and phase difference . Conclusion:There are certain value of videostrobokymography in analyzing the minor changes of characteristic of vibration of vocal fold.


Assuntos
Quimografia , Voz , Glote , Humanos , Vibração , Gravação em Vídeo , Prega Vocal/cirurgia
6.
CoDAS ; 33(5): e20200128, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249632

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Purpose Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is heterogenous condition with commonly associated symptoms include irregular menstrual cycle, hirsutism, baldness, adult acne, and weight gain There have been few attempts at profiling the voice characteristics of women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Videokymography enables to detect even subtle variations in vocal fold vibrations. The aim of the present study was to study the videokymographic characteristics among women with PCOS. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 50 women with and without PCOS diagnosed on ultrasonography. Videokymography was carried out and the characteristics were perceptually analyzed using a vocal fold kymographic rating scale. The analysis of the kymogram was done for the following characteristics; presence of vocal fold vibration,interference of surroundings, Cycle to cycle variability, left-right asymmetry,cycle aberrations and shape of lateral peaks. The kymographic images were obtained for all the participants of both the groups and a subjective consensus evaluation was done by two clinicians. The percentage of participants with the listed kymographic characteristics were tabulated. Chi Square test was also done to decide if there was a significant difference between the two groups for different kymographic features of vocal fold vibration. Results Six of the 25 women with PCOS were found to have abnormal kymographic features such as surrounding structural interference, presence of cycle to cycle variability and the shape of lateral peaks. Conclusion Early detection of the vocal abnormalities in individuals with PCOS would help in the vocal rehabilitation especially for professional voice users.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Voz , Prega Vocal/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Quimografia
7.
CoDAS ; 33(3): e20200095, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249625

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Purpose To evaluate and compare the parameters of Digital kymography obtained through the High-speed Videolaryngoscopy of women without laryngeal disorders, of women with vocal fold nodules and of women with vocal cysts. Methods A cross-sectional observational study in which 60 women aged 18 years and 45 years were selected. Three study groups were formed: 20 women without laryngeal disorder forming the control group (Group 1), 20 women with diagnosis of vocal fold nodules forming Group 2 and 20 women with diagnosis of vocal cysts forming Group 3. Subsequently the participants were evaluated by High-speed Videolaryngoscopy for analysis and comparison of laryngeal images using Digital kymography. The laryngeal parameters processed by the program KIPS® were: minimum, maximum and mean opening; dominant amplitude of the left and right vocal folds; dominant frequency of the right and left vocal folds; and close. Results The analysis of Digital kymography suggests that the presence of the vocal fold nodules and the vocal cysts tend to restrict more to the maximum and minimum opening of the vocal fold and the dominant amplitude of the opening variation in the middle region of the glottis. Conclusion Digital kymography parameters were similar in the presence of vocal fold nodules and vocal cysts lesions.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar e comparar os parâmetros da videoquimografia digital obtidos pela videolaringoscopia de alta velocidade de mulheres sem alterações laríngeas, de mulheres com nódulos de prega vocal e de mulheres com cistos vocais. Método Estudo observacional transversal, no qual foram selecionadas 60 mulheres com idade entre 18 e 45 anos. Três grupos foram formados: 20 mulheres sem alterações laríngeas formando o grupo controle (Grupo 1), 20 mulheres com diagnóstico de nódulos nas pregas vocais formando o Grupo 2 e 20 mulheres com diagnóstico de cistos vocais formando o Grupo 3. Posteriormente, os participantes foram avaliados por Videolaringoscopia de alta velocidade para análise e comparação de imagens da laringe usando videoquimografia digital. Os parâmetros videoquimográficos avaliados pelo programa KIPS® foram: aberturas mínima, máxima e média; amplitudes da prega vocal direita e esquerda; frequências da abertura da prega vocal direita e esquerda; e fechamento. Resultados A análise da videoquimografia digital sugere que a presença dos nódulos e dos cistos de pregas vocais tendem a restringir a abertura máxima e média da prega vocal e a amplitude dominante da variação de abertura na região média da glote. Conclusão Os parâmetros da videoquimografia digital foram semelhantes na presença de nódulos nas pregas vocais e lesões de cistos vocais.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Fonação , Cistos/diagnóstico por imagem , Vibração , Gravação em Vídeo , Prega Vocal/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Quimografia
8.
Adv Otorhinolaryngol ; 85: 25-44, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166979

RESUMO

Videostroboscopy and high-speed imaging is now an accepted way to evaluate laryngeal function in patients with voice disorders. In patients with neurolaryngological diseases such as tremor, laryngeal spasm, and paralysis, having an objective way to evaluate vocal function is desirable. Using digital imaging and analysis, both the videostroboscopy and the high-speed video can be analyzed to obtain relevant measures of vocal function. From the videostroboscopy, the montage of the glottal cycle derived from steady of vocal vibration can be analyzed by using edge tracking software to obtain the glottal area waveform. The waveform is an indication of the efficiency of the vocal folds in acting as an oscillator and gives direct information as to the open and closed phase, the symmetry of vocal fold vibration and the degree of amplitude contribution from each fold. High-speed video overcomes the deficiencies of stroboscopy by allowing for all voice gestures to be studies. Using digital kymography and analysis of the vibrogram, analysis of the onset of vocal fold oscillation, evaluation of diplophonia, tremor, and voice breaks becomes possible. Furthermore, analysis of the high-speed video kymograph tracing using signal analysis allow the investigator to evaluate the frequency and power relationships of vocal fold vibratory function in the normal and disordered state.


Assuntos
Quimografia , Doenças da Laringe/diagnóstico , Estroboscopia , Prega Vocal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Doenças da Laringe/etiologia , Doenças da Laringe/fisiopatologia , Gravação em Vídeo
9.
Methods Cell Biol ; 160: 281-293, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896322

RESUMO

The plant cortical microtubule array is a dynamic structure that confers cell shape and enables plants to alter their growth and development in response to internal and external cues. Cells use a variety of microtubule regulatory proteins to spatially and temporally modulate the intrinsic polymerization dynamics of cortical microtubules to arrange them into specific configurations and to reshape arrays to adapt to changing conditions. To obtain mechanistic insight into how particular microtubule regulatory proteins mediate the dynamic (re)structuring of cortical microtubule arrays, we need to measure their effect on the dynamics of cortical microtubules. In this chapter, we describe new ImageJ plugins to generate kymographs from time-lapse images and to analyze them to measure the parameters that quantitatively describe cortical microtubule dynamics.


Assuntos
Quimografia/métodos , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Polimerização , Interface Usuário-Computador
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2143: 293-300, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524488

RESUMO

Identifying moving synaptic vesicle complexes and isolating specific proteins present within such complexes in vivo is challenging. Here we detail a protocol that we have developed that is designed to simultaneously visualize the axonal transport of two fluorescently tagged synaptic vesicle proteins in living Drosophila larval segmental nerves in real time. Using a beam-splitter and split view software, larvae expressing GFP-tagged Synaptobrevin (Syb) and mRFP-tagged Rab4-GTPase or YFP-tagged Amyloid Precursor protein (APP) and mRFP-tagged Rab4-GTPase are imaged simultaneously using separate wavelengths. Merged kymographs from the two wavelengths are evaluated for colocalization analysis. Vesicle velocity analysis can also be done. Such analysis enables us to visualize the motility behaviors of two synaptic proteins present on a single vesicle complex and identify candidate proteins moving on synaptic vesicles in vivo, under physiological conditions.


Assuntos
Transporte Axonal , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Microscopia Intravital/métodos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Vesículas Sinápticas/ultraestrutura , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/análise , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/genética , Animais , Axônios/metabolismo , Sistemas Computacionais , Proteínas de Drosophila/análise , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Corantes Fluorescentes/análise , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/análise , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Quimografia , Larva , Proteínas Luminescentes/análise , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas R-SNARE/análise , Proteínas R-SNARE/genética , Software , Vesículas Sinápticas/fisiologia
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2160: 201-210, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529438

RESUMO

Conspicuous intracellular gradients manifest and/or drive intracellular polarity in pollen tubes. However, quantifying these gradients raises multiple technical challenges. Here we present a sensible computational protocol to analyze gradients in growing pollen tubes and to filter nonrepresentative time points. As an example, we use imaging data from pollen tubes expressing a genetically encoded ratiometric Ca2+ probe, Yellow CaMeleon 3.6, from which a kymograph is extracted. The tip of the pollen tube is detected with CHUKNORRIS, our previously published methodology, allowing the reconstruction of the intracellular gradient through time. Statistically confounding time points, such as growth arrest where gradients are highly oscillatory, are filtered out and a mean spatial profile is estimated with a local polynomial regression method. Finally, we estimate the gradient slope by the linear portion of the decay in mean fluorescence, offering a quantitative method to detect phenotypes of gradient steepness, location, intensity, and variability. The data manipulation protocol proposed can be achieved in a simple and efficient manner using the statistical programming language R, opening paths to perform high-throughput spatiotemporal phenotyping of intracellular gradients in apically growing cells.


Assuntos
Análise do Fluxo Metabólico/instrumentação , Tubo Polínico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis , Cálcio/metabolismo , Polaridade Celular , Quimografia/métodos , Análise do Fluxo Metabólico/métodos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Tubo Polínico/citologia , Software
12.
Curr Protoc Cell Biol ; 87(1): e107, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530579

RESUMO

The movement of intracellular cargo, such as transcripts, proteins, and organelles, is fundamental to cellular function. Neurons, due to their long axons and dendrites, are particularly dependent on proper intracellular trafficking and vulnerable to defects in the movement of intracellular cargo that are noted in neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders. Accurate quantification of intracellular transport is therefore needed for studying the mechanisms of cargo trafficking, the influence of mutations, and the effects of potentially therapeutic pharmaceuticals. In this article, we introduce an algorithm called "Kymolyzer." The algorithm can quantify intracellular trafficking along a defined path, such as that formed by the aligned microtubules of axons and dendrites. Kymolyzer works as a semi-autonomous kymography software application. It constructs and analyzes kymographs to measure the movement and distribution of fluorescently tagged objects along a user-defined path. The algorithm can be used under a wide variety of experimental conditions and can extract a diverse array of motility parameters describing intracellular movement, including time spent in motion, percentage of objects in motion, percentage of objects that are stationary, and velocities of motile objects. This article serves as a user manual describing the design of Kymolyzer, providing a stepwise protocol for its use and illustrating its functions with common examples. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals LLC Basic Protocol: Kymolyzer, a semi-autonomous kymography tool to analyze intracellular motility.


Assuntos
Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Quimografia , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Organelas/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Animais , Axônios/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Quimografia/métodos , Transporte Proteico/fisiologia , Software
14.
Mol Microbiol ; 114(1): 140-150, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32190923

RESUMO

Prokaryotic cells display a striking subcellular organization. Studies of the underlying mechanisms in different species have greatly enhanced our understanding of the morphological and physiological adaptation of bacteria to different environmental niches. The image analysis software tool BacStalk is designed to extract comprehensive quantitative information from the images of morphologically complex bacteria with stalks, flagella, or other appendages. The resulting data can be visualized in interactive demographs, kymographs, cell lineage plots, and scatter plots to enable fast and thorough data analysis and representation. Notably, BacStalk can generate demographs and kymographs that display fluorescence signals within the two-dimensional cellular outlines, to accurately represent their subcellular location. Beyond organisms with visible appendages, BacStalk is also suitable for established, non-stalked model organisms with common or uncommon cell shapes. BacStalk, therefore, contributes to the advancement of prokaryotic cell biology and physiology, as it widens the spectrum of easily accessible model organisms and enables highly intuitive and interactive data analysis and visualization.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Técnicas Citológicas/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Software , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Análise de Dados , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Quimografia/métodos
15.
J Voice ; 34(2): 170-178, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30314931

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The sharpness of lateral peaks is a visually helpful clinical feature in high-speed videokymographic (VKG) images indicating vertical phase differences and mucosal waves on the vibrating vocal folds and giving insights into the health and pliability of vocal fold mucosa. This study aims at investigating parameters that can be helpful in objectively quantifying the lateral peak sharpness from the VKG images. METHOD: Forty-five clinical VKG images with different degrees of sharpness of lateral peaks were independently evaluated visually by three raters. The ratings were compared to parameters obtained by automatic image analysis of the vocal fold contours: Open Time Percentage Quotients (OTQ) and Plateau Quotients (PQ). The OTQ parameters were derived as fractions of the period during which the vocal fold displacement exceeds a predetermined percentage of the vibratory amplitude. The PQ parameters were derived similarly but as a fraction of the open phase instead of a period. RESULTS: The best correspondence between the visual ratings and the automatically derived quotients were found for the OTQ and PQ parameters derived at 95% and 80% of the amplitude, named OTQ95, PQ95, OTQ80 and PQ80. Their Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were in the range of 0.73 to 0.77 (P < 0.001) indicating strong relationships with the visual ratings. The strengths of these correlations were similar to those found from inter-rater comparisons of visual evaluations of peak sharpness. CONCLUSION: The Open time percentage and Plateau quotients at 95% and 80% of the amplitude stood out as the possible candidates for capturing the sharpness of the lateral peaks with their reliability comparable to that of visual ratings.


Assuntos
Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Quimografia , Mucosa Laríngea/diagnóstico por imagem , Fonação , Gravação em Vídeo , Percepção Visual , Prega Vocal/diagnóstico por imagem , Distúrbios da Voz/diagnóstico por imagem , Qualidade da Voz , Automação , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Julgamento , Mucosa Laríngea/fisiopatologia , Laringoscopia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Vibração , Prega Vocal/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios da Voz/fisiopatologia
16.
J Voice ; 34(4): 598-603, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595236

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD) is a challenging voice disorder to diagnose, often erroneously diagnosed as muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) or vocal tremor, due to its similarity in auditory and perceptual presentation. Assessments using laryngoscopy or strobolaryngoscopy procedures have demonstrated limited utility in the diagnosis of spasmodic dysphonia. High-speed videoendoscopy (HSV) provides visualization of the precise vibratory pattern of phonatory onset and thus, offers an alternative to previous diagnostic strategies for visual diagnosis of AdSD. The purpose of this study was to examine vibratory onset of patients with AdSD and patients with MTD using HSV methodology. METHODS: HSV of six adults with AdSD and five adults with MTD were captured during sustained phonation. Digital kymography was used to obtain precise vibrogram data at the mid-membranous region of the vocal fold prior to and at the onset of phonation. Voice onset delay was examined by (1) quantifying timing of prephonatory delay and steady state delay and (2) describing vocal fold onset movements qualitatively in each diagnosis. RESULTS: HSV adequately captured the phonatory onset of the vocal folds. Voice onset delay was not significantly different between AdSD and MTD. However, there were distinct differences in voice onset gestures. Both AdSD and MTD patients presented with vocal hyperfunction during the onset of phonation. In a subset of AdSD patients, a rapid sustained adduction occurred following the initial vibratory motion. Vocal fold vibration then continued until steady phonation was achieved. This oscillatory break pattern was not observed in patients with MTD. Therefore, there appears to be differences in vocal fold vibratory onset motion between MTD and AdSD. CONCLUSION: HSV captures the precise vibratory onset in patients with MTD and AdSD. Differences were most notable after vibratory onset as opposed to vibratory delay measurements. Examination of voice onset gesture may offer an additional laryngeal parameter to assist in the differential diagnosis of spasmodic dysphonia.


Assuntos
Disfonia/diagnóstico , Quimografia , Músculos Laríngeos/fisiopatologia , Laringismo/diagnóstico , Laringoscopia , Fonação , Gravação em Vídeo , Prega Vocal/fisiopatologia , Voz , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Disfonia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Laringismo/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Vibração
17.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 62(10): 3643-3654, 2019 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577518

RESUMO

Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of diplophonia using an auditory perception and multimodal simultaneous examination, which included sound waveform analysis, electroglottography (EGG), digital kymography (DKG), and 2-dimensional scanning digital kymography (2D DKG). Additionally, we compared the diagnostic accuracy of each method using a binary classifier in confusion matrix and convenience of discrimination, based on the time required for interpretation. Method One normophonic male, 12 patients with diplophonia, and 12 dysphonia patients without diplophonia were enrolled. A multimodal simultaneous evaluation was used to analyze the vibration pattern of diplophonia. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, area under the curve, and interpretation time were used to compare the various diagnostic methods. Discrimination was determined by 3 raters. Results There are 3 types of asymmetric vibratory patterns in diplophonia. The types are based on the oscillators vibrating at different frequencies: asymmetry of the left and right cords (6 subjects with unilateral palsy and 1 subject with vocal polyps), asymmetry of anterior and posterior cords (2 subjects with vocal polyps), and asymmetry of true and false cords (3 subjects with muscle tension dysphonia). All evaluation methods were useful as diagnostic tools, with all areas under the curve > .70. The diagnostic accuracy was highest with DKG (95.83%), followed by 2D DKG (83.33%), EGG (81.94%), auditory-perceptual evaluation (80.56%), and sound waveform (77.78%). The interpretation time was the shortest for auditory-perceptual evaluation (6.07 ± 1.34 s), followed by 2D DKG (10.04 ± 3.00 s), EGG (12.49 ± 2.76 s), and DKG (13.53 ± 2.60 s). Conclusions Auditory-perceptual judgment was the easiest and fastest method for experienced raters, but its diagnostic accuracy was lower than that of DKG or 2D DKG. The diagnostic accuracy of DKG was the highest, but 2D DKG allowed rapid interpretation and showed relatively high diagnostic accuracy, except in cases with space-occupying lesions. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.9911786.


Assuntos
Disfonia/diagnóstico por imagem , Quimografia/métodos , Doenças da Laringe/diagnóstico por imagem , Pólipos/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Feminino , Glote/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Fonação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Vibração , Análise de Ondaletas
18.
J Cell Sci ; 132(19)2019 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519810

RESUMO

During animal development, cells need to sense and adapt to mechanical forces from their environment. Ultimately, these forces are transduced through the actomyosin cortex. How the cortex simultaneously responds to and creates forces during cytokinesis is not well understood. Here we show that, under mechanical stress, cortical actomyosin flow can switch polarization during cytokinesis in the C. elegans embryo. In unstressed embryos, longitudinal cortical flow contributes to contractile ring formation, while rotational cortical flow is additionally induced in uniaxially loaded embryos, i.e. embryos compressed between two plates. Rotational flow depends on astral microtubule signals and is required for the redistribution of the actomyosin cortex in loaded embryos. Rupture of longitudinally aligned cortical fibers during cortex rotation releases tension, initiates orthogonal longitudinal flow and, thereby, contributes to furrowing in loaded embryos. Moreover, actomyosin regulators involved in RhoA regulation, cortical polarity and chirality are all required for rotational flow, and become essential for cytokinesis under mechanical stress. In sum, our findings extend the current framework of mechanical stress response during cell division and show scaling of orthogonal cortical flows to the amount of mechanical stress.


Assuntos
Citocinese/fisiologia , Estresse Mecânico , Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Actomiosina/metabolismo , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Divisão Celular/fisiologia , Citocinese/genética , Quimografia , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Fuso Acromático/metabolismo
19.
Elife ; 82019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405451

RESUMO

Kymographs are graphical representations of spatial position over time, which are often used in biology to visualise the motion of fluorescent particles, molecules, vesicles, or organelles moving along a predictable path. Although in kymographs tracks of individual particles are qualitatively easily distinguished, their automated quantitative analysis is much more challenging. Kymographs often exhibit low signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs), and available tools that automate their analysis usually require manual supervision. Here we developed KymoButler, a Deep Learning-based software to automatically track dynamic processes in kymographs. We demonstrate that KymoButler performs as well as expert manual data analysis on kymographs with complex particle trajectories from a variety of different biological systems. The software was packaged in a web-based 'one-click' application for use by the wider scientific community (http://kymobutler.deepmirror.ai). Our approach significantly speeds up data analysis, avoids unconscious bias, and represents another step towards the widespread adaptation of Machine Learning techniques in biological data analysis.


Assuntos
Automação Laboratorial/métodos , Quimografia/métodos , Software , Aprendizado Profundo
20.
J Voice ; 33(3): 258-262, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092361

RESUMO

Normative data for vocal attack time (VAT) have previously been presented, but descriptive statistics and assessments of statistical significance of differences have previously been based on a data corpus that included both negative- and positive-valued VATs. Negative VAT values denote a glottal vocal attack, but, at the present time, the signification of the magnitude of a negative VAT value is unknown. The magnitude of a positive VAT value, on the other hand, conveys useful information about glottal behavior at the time of voice onset and is much more likely to be of use, especially in the clinical domain. We present descriptive statistics for the set of positive-valued VATs and demonstrate that the VAT differences between genders and among tone categories in Cantonese remain valid.


Assuntos
Fonação , Acústica da Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala , Prega Vocal/fisiologia , Qualidade da Voz , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Quimografia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Espectrografia do Som , Medida da Produção da Fala/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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