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1.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113924, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731947

RESUMO

The present paper aimed to investigate the roles of quinones contained in wastewater and the enhanced effects on microbial fuel cells (MFCs) under different redox conditions. The feasibility of using wastewater rich in quinones to act as co-substrate and redox mediators (RMs) library to strengthen the synergistic removal of azo dye in MFCs was evaluated. The results demonstrated that quinones achieved enhanced effects on electricity generation and COD removal of MFC better at higher current intensity. The addition of pure quinone decreased electron transfer resistance (Rct) of MFCs from 4.76 Ω to 2.13 Ω under 1000 Ω resistance and 1.16 Ω-0.75 Ω under 50 Ω resistance. Meanwhile, higher coulombic efficiency was achieved. Compared with sodium acetate, using quinone-rich traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wastewater as the co-substrate enhanced the synergistic removal of reactive red 2 (RR2) in MFCs from 79.58% to 92.45% during 24 h. RR2 was also degraded more thoroughly due to the accelerated electron transfer process mediated by RMs. Microbial community analysis demonstrated that the presence of quinone in TCM wastewater can enrich different exoelectrogens under varied redox conditions and thus influenced the enhanced effects on MFC. Metagenomic functional prediction results further indicated that the abundance of functional genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, membrane transport metabolism, biofilm formation, and stress tolerance increased significantly in presence of RMs. Redundancy analyses revealed that RMs addition was the more important factor driving the variation of the microorganism community. This study revealed the potential effect of quinones as redox mediators on the bioelectrochemical system for pollutants removal.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Compostos Azo , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Oxirredução , Quinonas , Águas Residuárias
2.
Talanta ; 237: 122912, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736649

RESUMO

Quinones are important components participating in various biological processes as well as hazardous substances to human health. Rapid determination of quinones in environmental samples and biofluids is the basis for assessing their health effect. Here, we presented a rapid, straightforward, highly sensitive and environmental-friendly wooden-tip electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) method for the determination of quinones in PM2.5, urine and serum. An amine group "tag" was introduced to the quinone structure through in situ derivatization with cysteamine to improve ionization efficiency of quinones in wooden-tip ESI-MS. The toothpicks were treated by sharpening and acidification with HNO3. Experimental parameters, including sample volume, spray voltage, and spray solvent composition were optimized to be 1 µL, 3.5 kV, and ACN/CH3COOC2H5 (v/v, 9:1), respectively. The limits of detection for the determination of 1,4-benzoquinone, methyl-p-benzoquinone, 1,4-naphthoquinone and 1,4-anthraquinone in ACN under the optimal conditions were 1.00, 0.96, 0.13, 0.16 ng (1.00, 0.96, 0.13, 0.16 µg/mL, sample volume, 1 µL), respectively. This approach was successfully applied to the determination of 1,4-naphthoquinone and 1,4-anthraquinone in complex matrices, including PM2.5, urine and serum without or with minimal sample preparation (LOD range: 0.22-1.48 ng).


Assuntos
Quinonas , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Humanos
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(46): 13838-13848, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757740

RESUMO

Modulation of fuel selection is critical in skeletal muscle function. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is the major bioactive component in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and, in our previous study, has been demonstrated to promote a shift from fast to slow myofiber. However, the effects of HSYA on fuel selection in skeletal muscle and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, the in vitro experiments found that water extracts of safflower, rich in HSYA, significantly suppressed the expressions of the genes related to glucose utilization and activated the expressions of the lipolysis genes. Furthermore, HSYA resulted in a shift in substrate utilization toward fat relative to carbohydrates in C2C12 myotubes. Animal tests showed HSYA could significantly reduce the respiratory exchange ratio and prolonge endurance performance in mice and also trigger a switch in intramuscular fuel selection preference from carbohydrates to fat at rest and during exercise. Mechanistic studies revealed that HSYA converted this fuel selection by activating peroxisome proliferator activated receptor δ (PPARδ), and these effects of HSYA could be reversed by specific suppression of PPARδ by PPARδ siRNA. Collectively, our study demonstrated that HSYA can switch substrate utilization from glucose to fat in myocytes by activating PPARδ signaling, resulting in prolonged endurance performance. These findings provided direct evidence for the endurance performance enhancement effect of HSYA and explored new perspectives for the innovation and application of HSYA in the health care industry.


Assuntos
Chalcona , PPAR delta , Animais , Chalcona/análogos & derivados , Chalcona/farmacologia , Glucose , Camundongos , Células Musculares , Quinonas/farmacologia
4.
Prog Chem Org Nat Prod ; 116: 67-133, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698946

RESUMO

This chapter covers a sesquiterpene quinone, commonly named perezone. This molecule is documented as the first secondary metabolite isolated in crystalline form in the New World in 1852. An introduction, with its structure, the IUPAC nomenclature, and the most recent physical and spectroscopic characterizations are firstly described initially. Alongside this, a timeline and scheme with summarized information of the history of this molecule is given including the "Códice Badiano de la Cruz, 1552, highlighting the year of its isolation culminating with information up to 2005. Subsequently, in a chronological order the most recent advances of the target molecule are included and organized in subsections covering the last 15-year period 2006-2020. Finally, recently submitted contributions from the laboratory of the authors are described. It is important to note that the details provided highlight the importance and relevance of perezone.


Assuntos
Sesquiterpenos , Quinonas
5.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(21-22): 8157-8193, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625822

RESUMO

Quinones represent an important group of highly structurally diverse, mainly polyketide-derived secondary metabolites widely distributed among filamentous fungi. Many quinones have been reported to have important biological functions such as inhibition of bacteria or repression of the immune response in insects. Other quinones, such as ubiquinones are known to be essential molecules in cellular respiration, and many quinones are known to protect their producing organisms from exposure to sunlight. Most recently, quinones have also attracted a lot of industrial interest since their electron-donating and -accepting properties make them good candidates as electrolytes in redox flow batteries, like their often highly conjugated double bond systems make them attractive as pigments. On an industrial level, quinones are mainly synthesized from raw components in coal tar. However, the possibility of producing quinones by fungal cultivation has great prospects since fungi can often be grown in industrially scaled bioreactors, producing valuable metabolites on cheap substrates. In order to give a better overview of the secondary metabolite quinones produced by and shared between various fungi, mainly belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Talaromyces, Fusarium, and Arthrinium, this review categorizes quinones into families such as emodins, fumigatins, sorbicillinoids, yanuthones, and xanthomegnins, depending on structural similarities and information about the biosynthetic pathway from which they are derived, whenever applicable. The production of these quinone families is compared between the different genera, based on recently revised taxonomy. KEY POINTS: • Quinones represent an important group of secondary metabolites widely distributed in important fungal genera such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Talaromyces, Fusarium, and Arthrinium. • Quinones are of industrial interest and can be used in pharmacology, as colorants and pigments, and as electrolytes in redox flow batteries. • Quinones are grouped into families and compared between genera according to the revised taxonomy.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Penicillium , Talaromyces , Aspergillus , Fungos , Humanos , Quinonas
6.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(71): 8957-8960, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486593

RESUMO

A series of polycyclic aromatics, naphthalene, phenanthrene, perylene, pyrene, 1-pyrenebutyric acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (pyrene NHS) and coronene, were immobilized via π stacking on carbon nanotube (CNT) electrodes and electro-oxidized in aqueous solutions. The obtained quinones were characterized and evaluated for the mediated electron transfer with FAD dependent glucose dehydrogenase during catalytic glucose oxidation.


Assuntos
Glucose Desidrogenase/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Quinonas/química , Aspergillus/enzimologia , Biocatálise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Flavina-Adenina Dinucleotídeo/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Glucose/química , Oxirredução , Quinonas/síntese química
7.
Int J Pharm ; 608: 121052, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500056

RESUMO

Nanoparticles have been demonstrated to be effective in targeted drug delivery to tumor due to the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. However, the inhomogeneous distribution of the nanoparticles in the tumor and the slow release of the drug make the therapeutic effect unsatisfied. Here, we present reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive micelles comprising poly (ethylene glycol)-poly(propylene sulfide) (PEG-PPS) for targeted delivery and in situ release of drug. Upon the irradiation of ultrasound, the loaded sonosensitizer hypocrellin (HC) will generate ROS to trigger the disassembly of the micelles and meanwhile realize sonodynamic therapy (SDT) effect of cancer. The in vivo experiment indicates that the HC loaded PEG-PPS are biocompatible and much more efficacious than an equivalent amount of free HC in inhibiting the growth of cancer.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Perileno , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Micelas , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Perileno/análogos & derivados , Fenol , Quinonas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502054

RESUMO

Equol (7-hydroxy-3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-chroman, EQ), one of the major intestinally derived metabolites of daidzein, the principal isoflavane found in soybeans and most soy foods, has recently attracted increased interest as a health-beneficial compound for estrogen-dependent diseases. However, based on its structure with two p-substituted phenols, this study aimed to examine whether EQ is a substrate for tyrosinase and whether it produces o-quinone metabolites that are highly cytotoxic to melanocyte. First, the tyrosinase-catalyzed oxidation of EQ was performed, which yielded three EQ-quinones. They were identified after being reduced to their corresponding catechols with NaBH4 or L-ascorbic acid. The binding of the EQ-quinones to N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), glutathione (GSH), and bovine serum albumin via their cysteine residues was then examined. NAC and GSH afforded two mono-adducts and one di-adduct, which were identified by NMR and MS analysis. It was also found that EQ was oxidized to EQ-di-quinone in cells expressing human tyrosinase. Finally, it was confirmed that the EQ-oligomer, the EQ oxidation product, exerted potent pro-oxidant activity by oxidizing GSH to the oxidized GSSG and concomitantly producing H2O2. These results suggest that EQ-quinones could be cytotoxic to melanocytes due to their binding to cellular proteins.


Assuntos
Equol/metabolismo , Melanócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxidantes/toxicidade , Quinonas/toxicidade , Cisteína/análogos & derivados , Cisteína/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Oxidantes/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Quinonas/metabolismo , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo
9.
Redox Biol ; 46: 102112, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537677

RESUMO

The multifunctional nature of human flavoproteins is critically linked to their ability to populate multiple conformational states. Ligand binding, post-translational modifications and disease-associated mutations can reshape this functional landscape, although the structure-function relationships of these effects are not well understood. Herein, we characterized the structural and functional consequences of two mutations (the cancer-associated P187S and the phosphomimetic S82D) on different ligation states which are relevant to flavin binding, intracellular stability and catalysis of the disease-associated NQO1 flavoprotein. We found that these mutations affected the stability locally and their effects propagated differently through the protein structure depending both on the nature of the mutation and the ligand bound, showing directional preference from the mutated site and leading to specific phenotypic manifestations in different functional traits (FAD binding, catalysis and inhibition, intracellular stability and pharmacological response to ligands). Our study thus supports that pleitropic effects of disease-causing mutations and phosphorylation events on human flavoproteins may be caused by long-range structural propagation of stability effects to different functional sites that depend on the ligation-state and site-specific perturbations. Our approach can be of general application to investigate these pleiotropic effects at the flavoproteome scale in the absence of high-resolution structural models.


Assuntos
Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona) , Flavina-Adenina Dinucleotídeo/metabolismo , Humanos , NAD , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona)/genética , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona)/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Quinonas
10.
J Biotechnol ; 341: 21-29, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536456

RESUMO

Rubia yunnanensis is an important medicinal plant with various bioactive secondary metabolites. In order to reduce the dependence on wild populations of the species, we aim to establish in vitro culture system that can produce Rubiaceae-type cyclopeptides (RAs) and quinones. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of stem segments of in vitro grown R. yunnanensis plants using four A. rhizogenes strains was studied and transformation conditions were optimized. Hairy roots appeared with the highest frequency (68.89%) when stem segments (with leaves) without pre-culture were immersed in A. rhizogenes A4 strain bacterial suspension for 30 min, co-cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) solid medium in the dark for three days, and afterwards incubated in darkness. PCR analysis of rolB and rolC genes confirmed transformed nature of six hairy root clones. The hairy roots grew rapidly, especially showing the highest accumulation of biomass in MS liquid medium compared to in vitro grown plants and calli. Histological observation of hairy root revealed anatomical difference in vascular cylinder, where the cells exhibited high mitotic activity characterized by vigorous growth. The UPLC-MS/MS analysis revealed that the amount of RAs in the hairy roots grown in ½MS liquid medium (4.611 µg g-1 DW) was higher than that in in vitro grown plants (0.331 and 4.096 µg g-1 DW for shoots and roots respectively) and calli (1.082 µg g-1 DW), but still far lower than that in the roots of seed-borne plants (80.296 µg g-1 DW). However, the hairy roots accumulated high level of quinones (2320.923 and 5067.801 µg g-1 DW for MS and ½MS liquid media respectively), of the same order of magnitude as the roots of seed-borne plants (7409.973 µg g-1 DW). Hairy root culture of R. yunnanensis, with high accumulation of biomass and production of quinones, may offer an attractive perspective for the production of the RAs and quinones that could be further optimized for pharmaceutical use.


Assuntos
Rubia , Rubiaceae , Agrobacterium , Cromatografia Líquida , Meios de Cultura , Peptídeos Cíclicos , Raízes de Plantas , Quinonas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Extremophiles ; 25(5-6): 413-424, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480656

RESUMO

Acetogenic bacteria are a polyphyletic group of organisms that fix carbon dioxide under anaerobic, non-phototrophic conditions by reduction of two mol of CO2 to acetyl-CoA via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. This pathway also allows for lithotrophic growth with H2 as electron donor and this pathway is considered to be one of the oldest, if not the oldest metabolic pathway on Earth for CO2 reduction, since it is coupled to the synthesis of ATP. How ATP is synthesized has been an enigma for decades, but in the last decade two ferredoxin-dependent respiratory chains were discovered. Those respiratory chains comprise of a cytochrome-free, ferredoxin-dependent respiratory enzyme complex, which is either the Rnf or Ech complex. However, it was discovered already 50 years ago that some acetogens contain cytochromes and quinones, but their role had only a shadowy existence. Here, we review the literature on the characterization of cytochromes and quinones in acetogens and present a hypothesis that they may function in electron transport chains in addition to Rnf and Ech.


Assuntos
Ferredoxinas , Quinonas , Bactérias/metabolismo , Citocromos , Transporte de Elétrons , Ferredoxinas/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361004

RESUMO

This article reviews evidence suggesting that a common mechanism of initiation leads to the development of many prevalent types of cancer. Endogenous estrogens, in the form of catechol estrogen-3,4-quinones, play a central role in this pathway of cancer initiation. The catechol estrogen-3,4-quinones react with specific purine bases in DNA to form depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts that generate apurinic sites. The apurinic sites can then lead to cancer-causing mutations. The process of cancer initiation has been demonstrated using results from test tube reactions, cultured mammalian cells, and human subjects. Increased amounts of estrogen-DNA adducts are found not only in people with several different types of cancer but also in women at high risk for breast cancer, indicating that the formation of adducts is on the pathway to cancer initiation. Two compounds, resveratrol, and N-acetylcysteine, are particularly good at preventing the formation of estrogen-DNA adducts in humans and are, thus, potential cancer-prevention compounds.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Estradiol/farmacologia , Estrona/farmacologia , Quinonas/farmacologia , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carcinogênese/genética , Adutos de DNA , Estradiol/toxicidade , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Estrogênios/toxicidade , Estrona/toxicidade , Humanos , Quinonas/toxicidade
13.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443298

RESUMO

Naphthodianthrones such as fagopyrin and hypericin found mainly in buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.) and St. John's wort (SJW) (Hypericum perforatum L.) are natural photosensitizers inside the cell. The effect of photosensitizers was studied under dark conditions on growth, morphogenesis and induction of death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fagopyrin and hypericin induced a biphasic and triphasic dose response in cellular growth, respectively, over a 10-fold concentration change. In fagopyrin-treated cells, disruptions in the normal cell cycle progression were evident by microscopy. DAPI staining revealed several cells that underwent premature mitosis without budding, a striking morphological abnormality. Flow Cytometric (FC) analysis using a concentration of 100 µM showed reduced cell viability by 41% in fagopyrin-treated cells and by 15% in hypericin-treated cells. FC revealed the development of a secondary population of G1 cells in photosensitizer-treated cultures characterized by small size and dense structures. Further, we show that fagopyrin and the closely related hypericin altered the shape and the associated fluorescence of biofilm-like structures. Colonies grown on solid medium containing photosensitizer had restricted growth, while cell-to-cell adherence within the colony was also affected. In conclusion, the photosensitizers under dark conditions affected culture growth, caused toxicity, and disrupted multicellular growth, albeit with different efficiencies.


Assuntos
Antracenos/farmacologia , Corantes/farmacologia , Perileno/análogos & derivados , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Plâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quinonas/farmacologia , Saccharomycetales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluorescência , Morfogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Perileno/farmacologia , Plâncton/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomycetales/citologia , Saccharomycetales/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356614

RESUMO

Neutral cannabinoids are oxidatively unstable and are converted into quinone derivatives by atmospheric- and/or chemical oxidative dearomatization. The study of cannabinoquinones has long been plagued by their lability toward additional oxidative degradation, but full substitution of the quinone ring, as well as the introduction of steric hindrance on the alkyl substituent, have provided sufficient stability for a systematic investigation of their bioactivity and for further clinical development. These studies culminated in the discovery of the aminocannabinoquinone VCE-004.8 (5), a compound under phase 2 clinical development with orphan drug status by EMA and FDA for the management of scleroderma. The synthesis and rich chemistry of these compounds will be described, summarizing their biological profile and clinical potential.


Assuntos
Canabinoides/química , Quinonas/química , Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Oxirredução , Quinonas/uso terapêutico
15.
Water Res ; 202: 117415, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348209

RESUMO

Substituted para-benzoquinones and hydroquinones are ubiquitous transformation products that arise during oxidative water treatment of phenolic precursors, for example through ozonation or chlorination. The benzoquinone structural motive is associated with mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, and also with induction of the oxidative stress response through the Nrf2 pathway. For either endpoint, toxicological data for differently substituted compounds are scarce. In this study, oxidative stress response, as indicated by the AREc32 in vitro bioassay, was induced by differently substituted para-benzoquinones, but also by the corresponding hydroquinones. Bioassays that indicate defense against genotoxicity (p53RE-bla) and DNA repair activity (UmuC) were not activated by these compounds. Stability tests conducted under incubation conditions, but in the absence of cell lines, showed that tested para-benzoquinones reacted rapidly with constituents of the incubation medium. Compounds were abated already in phosphate buffer, but even faster in biological media, with reactions attributed to amino- and thiol-groups of peptides, proteins, and free amino acids. The products of these reactions were often the corresponding substituted hydroquinones. Conversely, differently substituted hydroquinones were quantitatively oxidized to p-benzoquinones over the course of the incubation. The observed induction of the oxidative stress response was attributed to hydroquinones that are presumably oxidized to benzoquinones inside the cells. Despite the instability of the tested compounds in the incubation medium, the AREc32 in vitro bioassay could be used as an unspecific sum parameter to detect para-benzoquinones and hydroquinones in oxidatively treated waters.


Assuntos
Benzoquinonas , Hidroquinonas , Benzoquinonas/toxicidade , Bioensaio , Oxirredução , Fenóis , Quinonas
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360846

RESUMO

ATC is a very rare, but extremely aggressive form of thyroid malignancy, responsible for the highest mortality rate registered for thyroid cancer. In patients without known genetic aberrations, the current treatment is still represented by palliative surgery and systemic mono- or combined chemotherapy, which is often not fully effective for the appearance of drug resistance. Comprehension of the mechanisms involved in the development of the resistance is therefore an urgent issue to suggest novel therapeutic approaches for this very aggressive malignancy. In this study, we created a model of anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) cells resistant to paclitaxel and investigated the characteristics of these cells by analyzing the profile of gene expression and comparing it with that of paclitaxel-sensitive original ATC cell lines. In addition, we evaluated the effects of Dihydrotanshinone I (DHT) on the viability and invasiveness of paclitaxel-resistant cells. ATC paclitaxel-resistant cells highlighted an overexpression of ABCB1 and a hyper-activation of the NF-κB compared to sensitive cells. DHT treatment resulted in a reduction of viability and clonogenic ability of resistant cells. Moreover, DHT induces a decrement of NF-κB activity in SW1736-PTX and 8505C-PTX cells. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, the results of the present study are the first to demonstrate the antitumor effects of DHT on ATC cells resistant to Paclitaxel in vitro.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Furanos/farmacologia , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Quinonas/farmacologia , Carcinoma Anaplásico da Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Paclitaxel/farmacologia
17.
Phytochemistry ; 191: 112902, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384921

RESUMO

Thirteen undescribed diterpenoid quinones were isolated from the dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Their structures were determined by extensive analysis, including NMR, HRESIMS, and IR. Their absolute configurations were determined by X-ray diffraction, calculated and experimental circular dichroism spectroscopy, and optical rotation. In the evaluation of bioactivities, salviadionether obviously inhibited the proliferation of HCT-116 cells. R-(+)-salmiltiorin E and R-(+)-grandifolia D both showed inhibitory activities on a variety of tumor cells. Salvianone ester A showed strong cytotoxicity to tumor-repopulating cells (TRCs) with an IC50 value of 2.19 µM.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Salvia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Raízes de Plantas , Quinonas/farmacologia , Rizoma
18.
Phytomedicine ; 91: 153694, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a chronic vascular inflammatory disease with complex pathogenesis. Its serious consequence is insufficient blood supply to heart and brain, which eventually leads to myocardial ischemia, infarction and stroke. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), a single chalcone glycoside compound with a variety of pharmacological effects, which has shown a potential biological activity for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. PURPOSE: The main purpose of this review is to comprehensively elucidate the mechanism of HSYA on atherosclerosis and its risk factors (hyperlipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus). METHOD: The literatures on HSYA in the treatment of atherosclerosis and its risk factors were searched in PubMed, Google Scholar, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, including in vitro (cell), in vivo (animal) and clinical (human) studies, and summarized reasonably. RESULTS: HSYA is a promising natural product for treating atherosclerosis. It can suppress foam cell formation, vascular endothelial cell dysfunction, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, and platelet activation. The mechanisms are achieved by regulating the reverse cholesterol transport process, fatty acid synthesis, oxidative stress, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, NLRP3 inflammasome, TNFR1/NF-κB, NO-cGMP, Bax/Bcl-2, MAPKs, CDK/CyclinD and TLR4/Rac1/Akt signaling pathways. Besides, HSYA is devoted to lowering blood lipids, regulating ion channels, reducing vascular inflammation, and protecting pancreatic beta cells, which is conducive to reducing the harm of independent risk factors of atherosclerosis. CONCLUSIONS: HSYA exhibits the preventive and therapeutic effects on atherosclerosis and its risk factors in vivo and in vitro, which is relevant to multiple mechanisms. The clinical trials of HSYA need to be further investigated to provide a solid foundation for its clinical application.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Carthamus tinctorius , Chalcona , Quinonas , Animais , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Carthamus tinctorius/química , Chalcona/análogos & derivados , Chalcona/farmacologia , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Quinonas/farmacologia
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 801: 149637, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416610

RESUMO

In natural anoxic subsurface environments, the geochemical cycles of iron are largely associated with the migration and transformation of organic matter. Intensive attention has been paid to the redox interaction of organic matter with aqueous Fe and iron (hydr)oxides. Whereas, the abiotic redox cycling of structural Fe in clay minerals induced by quinones has not been well understood. In this study, we selected nontronite (NAu-2) as a model Fe-bearing phyllosilicate clay mineral and 1,4-hydroquinone (H2Q)/1,4-benquinone (BQ) as a model quinone couple. Our results show that the structural Fe(III) in NAu-2, with tetrahedral Fe(III) priority, can oxidize H2Q into BQ, and octahedral Fe(II) in NAu-2 can reduce BQ to H2Q, with semiquinone radicals (SQ-) as intermediate. The extent of the redox reactions depends on the reduction potential difference between NAu-2 and H2Q/BQ. However, a fraction of Fe(II)-Fe(III)-OH and Fe(II)-Fe(II)-OH groups in the octahedral sheet are difficult to be oxidized by BQ, because the reduction potential gradient decreases to a low level as the reaction proceeds. And the structure of NAu-2 can only partially restored upon re-oxidation with tetrahedral Fe(III) irreversibility. Output of this study replenishes the understanding regarding redox cycling of structural Fe in clay minerals induced by quinones.


Assuntos
Ferro , Quinonas , Argila , Compostos Férricos , Minerais , Oxirredução
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201389

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by fagopyrin F-rich fraction (FFF) separated from Tartary buckwheat flower extract exposed to lights and to investigate its antibacterial photodynamic inactivation (PDI) against Streptococcus mutans and its biofilm. ROS producing mechanisms involving FFF with light exposure were determined using a spectrophotometer and a fluorometer. S. mutans and its biofilm inactivation after PDI treatment of FFF using blue light (BL; 450 nm) were determined by plate count method and crystal violet assay, respectively. The biofilm destruction by ROS produced from FFF after exposure to BL was visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). BL among 3 light sources produced type 1 ROS the most when applying FFF as a photosensitizer. FFF exposed to BL (5 and 10 J/cm2) significantly more inhibited S. mutans viability and biofilm formation than FFF without the light exposure (p < 0.05). In the PDI of FFF exposed to BL (10 J/cm2), an apparent destruction of S. mutans and its biofilm were observed by the CLSM and FE-SEM. Antibacterial PDI effect of FFF was determined for the first time in this study.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fagopyrum/química , Flores/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Quinonas/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Luz , Fotoquimioterapia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos
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