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1.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440770

RESUMO

Introns are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes and have long been considered as 'junk RNA' but the huge energy expenditure in their transcription, removal, and degradation indicate that they may have functional significance and can offer evolutionary advantages. In fungi, plants and algae introns make a significant contribution to the size of the organellar genomes. Organellar introns are classified as catalytic self-splicing introns that can be categorized as either Group I or Group II introns. There are some biases, with Group I introns being more frequently encountered in fungal mitochondrial genomes, whereas among plants Group II introns dominate within the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Organellar introns can encode a variety of proteins, such as maturases, homing endonucleases, reverse transcriptases, and, in some cases, ribosomal proteins, along with other novel open reading frames. Although organellar introns are viewed to be ribozymes, they do interact with various intron- or nuclear genome-encoded protein factors that assist in the intron RNA to fold into competent splicing structures, or facilitate the turn-over of intron RNAs to prevent reverse splicing. Organellar introns are also known to be involved in non-canonical splicing, such as backsplicing and trans-splicing which can result in novel splicing products or, in some instances, compensate for the fragmentation of genes by recombination events. In organellar genomes, Group I and II introns may exist in nested intronic arrangements, such as introns within introns, referred to as twintrons, where splicing of the external intron may be dependent on splicing of the internal intron. These nested or complex introns, with two or three-component intron modules, are being explored as platforms for alternative splicing and their possible function as molecular switches for modulating gene expression which could be potentially applied towards heterologous gene expression. This review explores recent findings on organellar Group I and II introns, focusing on splicing and mobility mechanisms aided by associated intron/nuclear encoded proteins and their potential roles in organellar gene expression and cross talk between nuclear and organellar genomes. Potential application for these types of elements in biotechnology are also discussed.


Assuntos
Íntrons , Organelas/genética , RNA de Algas/genética , RNA Fúngico/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA não Traduzido/genética , Evolução Molecular , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma Fúngico , Genoma de Planta , Organelas/metabolismo , Splicing de RNA , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA de Algas/metabolismo , RNA Fúngico/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
2.
J Plant Physiol ; 260: 153394, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676110

RESUMO

Aureochrome, a blue-light receptor specifically found in photosynthetic stramenopiles, plays an important role in algal growth and development. It holds a reversed effector-sensor topology for the reception of blue light, acting as a candidate of optogenetic tool in transcriptional regulation. However, the inner regulatory mechanism of aureochrome is still unclear. In this study, we explored the potential regulatory relationship between microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNAs by small RNA, transcriptome and degradome sequencing in Saccharina japonica. Through screening miRNA-mRNA interaction networks at the whole-genome level, we found that 18 miRNAs perfectly paired with aureochrome. Among these screened miRNAs, miR8181 was negatively correlated with aureochrome5 with high credibility, exhibiting tissue-specific expression in sporophyte of S. japonica. Degradome analysis further revealed the exact cleavage site of miR8181 on aureochrome5, confirming their targeting relationship. For the 54 target genes of miR8181, nine genes that exhibited similar expression to that of aureochrome5 competed for the same binding site, thus establishing a competing endogenous RNA network. Functional enrichment of the target genes revealed that miR8181 was involved in the regulation of cell differentiation and development in S. japonica. Moreover, overexpression of miR8181 resulted in significant decreases in the cell growth rates of Phaeodactylum tricornutum, suggesting negative roles of miR8181 in regulating cell growth. Our study revealed that miR8181, the targeting miRNA of aureochrome5, played negative roles in cell growth and development.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , Feófitas/fisiologia , RNA de Algas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transcriptoma , Diferenciação Celular/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Feófitas/genética , RNA de Algas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1607, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452393

RESUMO

Despite responses to salinity stress in Dunaliella salina, a unicellular halotolerant green alga, being subject to extensive study, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here, Empirical Bayes method was applied to identify the common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between hypersaline and normal conditions. Then, using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), which takes advantage of a graph theoretical approach, highly correlated genes were clustered as a module. Subsequently, connectivity patterns of the identified modules in two conditions were surveyed to define preserved and non-preserved modules by combining the Zsummary and medianRank measures. Finally, common and specific hub genes in non-preserved modules were determined using Eigengene-based module connectivity or module membership (kME) measures and validation was performed by using leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV). In this study, the power of beta = 12 (scale-free R2 = 0.8) was selected as the soft-thresholding to ensure a scale-free network, which led to the identification of 15 co-expression modules. Results also indicate that green, blue, brown, and yellow modules are non-preserved in salinity stress conditions. Examples of enriched Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways in non-preserved modules are Sulfur metabolism, Oxidative phosphorylation, Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, Vitamin B6 metabolism. Moreover, the systems biology approach was applied here, proposed some salinity specific hub genes, such as radical-induced cell death1 protein (RCD1), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 13 (MAP3K13), long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL), acetyl-CoA carboxylase, biotin carboxylase subunit (AccC), and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (ALDO), for the development of metabolites accumulating strains in D. salina.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Microalgas/genética , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Algas/genética , Proteínas de Algas/metabolismo , Análise por Conglomerados , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA de Algas/química , RNA de Algas/metabolismo , Estresse Salino , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/genética
4.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(1): 156-161, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272142

RESUMO

Protothecosis is an uncommon disease caused by algae of the genus Prototheca. In dogs, the infection is usually first localized to the colon but has the propensity to later disseminate hematogenously to many other organs, with marked tropism for the eyes and central nervous system. Diagnosis is established by culture and/or evidence of Prototheca organisms in cytologic or histologic preparations. Species characterization, however, requires molecular investigations. Our laboratory set up a real-time PCR targeting portion D1/D2 of the 28S rRNA for identification of Prototheca species from both positive cultures (of rectal swabs and urine) and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Prototheca bovis, P. ciferrii, and P. wickerhamii were characterized in 11 dogs with systemic or cutaneous protothecosis. Prototheca identifications were phylogenetically consistent with the new taxonomy proposed for this genus based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. As a pilot study, we screened feces and rectal scrapes from 200 asymptomatic dogs, using 2 cohorts of stray and owned animals, to determine the prevalence of intestinal carriage of Prototheca spp. The Prototheca-negative results from both cohorts of healthy dogs suggest that predisposing factors related to the host probably contribute more to the acquisition of clinical disease than exposure to contaminated environments.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Prototheca/isolamento & purificação , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Fezes , Itália/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto , Prototheca/classificação , Prototheca/genética , RNA de Algas/análise , RNA Ribossômico 28S/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/epidemiologia
5.
J Eukaryot Microbiol ; 68(1): e12825, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875679

RESUMO

The stramenopiles are a large and diverse group of eukaryotes that possess various lifestyles required to thrive in a broad array of environments. The stramenopiles branch with the alveolates, rhizarians, and telonemids, forming the supergroup TSAR. Here, we present a new genus and species of aquatic nanoflagellated stramenopile: Mediocremonas mediterraneus, a free-swimming heterotrophic predator. M. mediterraneus cell bodies measure between 2.0-4.0 µm in length and 1.2-3.7 µm in width, possessing two flagella and an oval body morphology. The growth and grazing rate of M. mediterraneus in batch cultures ranges from 0.68 to 1.83 d-1 and 1.99 to 5.38 bacteria/h, respectively. M. mediterraneus was found to be 93.9% phylogenetically similar with Developayella elegans and 94.7% with Develorapax marinus, two members within the class Developea. The phylogenetic position of the Developea and the ability of M. mediterraneus to remain in culture make it a good candidate for further genomic studies that could help us to better understand phagotrophy in marine systems as well as the transition from heterotrophy to phototrophy within the stramenopiles.


Assuntos
Estramenópilas/classificação , Estramenópilas/citologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Filogenia , RNA de Algas/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Estramenópilas/genética , Estramenópilas/ultraestrutura
6.
BMC Biol ; 18(1): 139, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some dinoflagellates cause harmful algal blooms, releasing toxic secondary metabolites, to the detriment of marine ecosystems and human health. Our understanding of dinoflagellate toxin biosynthesis has been hampered by their unusually large genomes. To overcome this challenge, for the first time, we sequenced the genome, microRNAs, and mRNA isoforms of a basal dinoflagellate, Amphidinium gibbosum, and employed an integrated omics approach to understand its secondary metabolite biosynthesis. RESULTS: We assembled the ~ 6.4-Gb A. gibbosum genome, and by probing decoded dinoflagellate genomes and transcriptomes, we identified the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase adenylation domain as essential for generation of specialized metabolites. Upon starving the cells of phosphate and nitrogen, we observed pronounced shifts in metabolite biosynthesis, suggestive of post-transcriptional regulation by microRNAs. Using Iso-Seq and RNA-seq data, we found that alternative splicing and polycistronic expression generate different transcripts for secondary metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: Our genomic findings suggest intricate integration of various metabolic enzymes that function iteratively to synthesize metabolites, providing mechanistic insights into how dinoflagellates synthesize secondary metabolites, depending upon nutrient availability. This study provides insights into toxin production associated with dinoflagellate blooms. The genome of this basal dinoflagellate provides important clues about dinoflagellate evolution and overcomes the large genome size, which has been a challenge previously.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Genoma de Protozoário , MicroRNAs/análise , Isoformas de RNA/análise , RNA de Protozoário/análise , Metabolismo Secundário , Dinoflagelados/genética , RNA de Algas/análise
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14269, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868853

RESUMO

Plant-pathogen interactions follow spatial and temporal developmental dynamics where gene expression in pathogen and host undergo crucial changes. Therefore, it is of great interest to detect, quantify and localise where and when key genes are active to understand these processes. Many pathosystems are not accessible for genetic amendments or other spatially-resolved gene expression monitoring methods. Here, we adapt single molecule FISH techniques to demonstrate the presence and activity of mRNAs at the single-cell level using phytomyxids in their plant and algal host in lab and field material. This allowed us to monitor and quantify the expression of genes from the clubroot pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae, several species of its Brassica hosts, and of several brown algae, including the genome model Ectocarpus siliculosus, infected with the phytomyxid Maullinia ectocarpii. We show that mRNAs are localised along a spatiotemporal gradient, thus providing a proof-of-concept of the usefulness of single-molecule FISH to increase knowledge about the interactions between plants, algae and phytomyxids. The methods used are easily applicable to any interaction between microbes and their algal or plant host, and have therefore the potential to rapidly increase our understanding of key, spatially- and temporally-resolved processes underpinning complex plant-microbe interactions.


Assuntos
Cercozoários/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Feófitas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Brassica/parasitologia , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Feófitas/metabolismo , Feófitas/parasitologia , RNA de Algas/genética , RNA de Algas/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo
8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10559, 2019 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332253

RESUMO

Light is a key environmental regulator in all photosynthetic organisms. Many studies focused on the physiologic response to changes in light availability of species from the Zygnematophyceae, but the impact of the absence of light and the molecular acclimation process on the other side have been poorly understood. Here we present transcriptomic analyses of Cosmarium crenatum from a polar habitat exposed to darkness. The algae were cultured in dark for one week; cell number and quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) were monitored. Cell number was stable, but the Fv/Fm decreased in both groups, darkness-treated and control. Gene expression analysis revealed a strong repression of transcripts associated with photosynthesis, photorespiration and cell wall development. General carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were differentially regulated, but starch is shown to be the primary energy source in these conditions. Additionally, C. crenatum induced mRNA responsible for epigenetic modifications which may be a specific response to an adaption and acclimation to polar conditions. Our study sheds light on the molecular acclimation process to darkness and provides ecological implications for new perspectives in this specialized group of green algae.


Assuntos
Desmidiales/genética , Desmidiales/efeitos da radiação , Aclimatação/genética , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Aclimatação/efeitos da radiação , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clima Frio , Escuridão , Desmidiales/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Epigênese Genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fotossíntese/genética , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , RNA de Algas/genética , RNA de Algas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
9.
Protist ; 170(1): 82-103, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797136

RESUMO

Perkinsozoa is an exclusively parasitic group within the alveolates and infections have been reported from various organisms, including marine shellfish, marine dinoflagellates, freshwater cryptophytes, and tadpoles. Despite its high abundance and great genetic diversity revealed by recent environmental rDNA sequencing studies, Perkinsozoa biodiversity remains poorly understood. During the intensive samplings in Korean coastal waters during June 2017, a new parasitoid of dinoflagellates was detected and was successfully established in culture. The new parasitoid was most characterized by the presence of two to four dome-shaped, short germ tubes in the sporangium. The opened germ tubes were biconvex lens-shaped in the top view and were characterized by numerous wrinkles around their openings. Phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated SSU and LSU rDNA sequences revealed that the new parasitoid was included in the family Parviluciferaceae, in which all members were comprised of two separate clades, one containing Parvilucifera species (P. infectans, P. corolla, and P. rostrata), and the other containing Dinovorax pyriformis, Snorkelia spp., and the new parasitoid from this study. Based on morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular data, we propose to erect a new genus and species, Tuberlatum coatsi gen. n., sp. n., from the new parasitoid found in this study. Further, we examined and discussed the validity of some diagnostic characteristics reported for parasitoids in the family Parviluciferaceae at both the genus and species levels.


Assuntos
Alveolados/classificação , Alveolados/fisiologia , Dinoflagelados/parasitologia , Alveolados/citologia , Alveolados/ultraestrutura , Dinoflagelados/citologia , Dinoflagelados/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Filogenia , RNA de Algas/análise , RNA de Protozoário/análise , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de RNA
10.
Harmful Algae ; 78: 1-8, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30196917

RESUMO

Three strains of the toxic benthic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum hoffmannianum were isolated in the Canary Islands (north-east Atlantic Ocean, Spain). The identity of the strains was determined by phylogenetic analyses of partial LSU rDNA (D1-D2 regions) but their morphology based on SEM images corresponded to P. maculosum. Their toxin profiles were analyzed by liquid chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry analysis (LC-HRMS) on cell extracts and culture media. Okadaic acid and three analogs were detected in all strains. Rather, in culture media the detected compounds were variable among strains, two of them being okadaic acid analogs not found on cell extracts. As a result, the taxonomy of the species was revised and P. maculosum is proposed as a junior synonym of P. hoffmannianum whose description is emended.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/química , Dinoflagelados/classificação , Toxinas Marinhas/química , Ácido Okadáico/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Dinoflagelados/citologia , Dinoflagelados/genética , Espectrometria de Massas , Filogenia , RNA de Algas/análise , RNA de Protozoário/análise , RNA Ribossômico/análise , Espanha
11.
J Phycol ; 54(6): 811-817, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137670

RESUMO

Light/scanning electron/transmission microscopy-based morphological analyses and multiple nucleotide sequences-based molecular phylogenetic analyses are used to identify and assess the phylogenetic position of a new unidentified green alga isolated from bleached corals living in the South China Sea. This new unidentified green alga is a unicellular marine alga and has uninucleate vegetative cells and multiple chloroplasts with a pyrenoid. It can form aplanosporangium covered by cell walls and reproduces by releasing autospore. These features differ substantially from those of the two genera Ignatius and Pseudocharacium. Those two genera have been accommodated in the Ignatius clade. Nucleotide sequences of the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rRNA), internal transcribed spacer 2 of ribosomal RNA gene (ITS2) and ribulose-1,5 bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit gene (rbcL, partial) are obtained and compared with published green algal sequences. The results from the morphology, ultrastructure, and multiple nucleotide sequences data support the placement of the new unidentified green alga in Ulvophyceae. This new unidentified isolate is described as Symbiochlorum hainanensis gen. et sp. nov., a new sister lineage to the Ignatius clade, Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta.


Assuntos
Clorófitas/classificação , Microalgas/classificação , Filogenia , RNA de Algas/análise , Animais , Antozoários , China , Clorófitas/citologia , Clorófitas/enzimologia , Clorófitas/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/análise , Microalgas/citologia , Microalgas/enzimologia , Microalgas/genética , Oceano Pacífico , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/análise , Simbiose
12.
J Phycol ; 54(5): 638-652, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055049

RESUMO

Two untapered, heterocytous species were observed and collected from the intertidal and supratidal zones of the Mexican coastline of the Pacific Ocean near Oaxaca and from the Gulf of Mexico. These populations were highly similar in morphology to the freshwater taxon Petalonema incrustans in the Scytonemataceae. However, 16S rRNA sequence data and phylogenetic analysis indicated that they were sister taxa to the epiphyllic, Brazilian species Phyllonema aveceniicola in the Rivulariaceae, described from culture material. While genetic identity between the two new species was high, they differed significantly in morphology, 16S rRNA gene sequence identity, and sequence and structure of the 16S-23S ITS region. Their morphology differed markedly from the generitype of the previously monotypic Phyllonema, which has tapered, heteropolar, single-false branched trichomes with very thin or absent sheath. The two new species, Phyllonema ansata and Phyllonema tangolundensis, described from both culture and environmental material, have untapered, isopolar, geminately false branched trichomes with thick, lamellated sheaths, differences so significant that the species would not be placed in Phyllonema without molecular corroboration. The morphological differences are so significant that a formal emendation of the genus is required. These taxa provide a challenge to algal taxonomy because the morphological differences are such that one would logically conclude that they represent different genera, but the phylogenetic evidence for including them all in the same genus is conclusive. This conclusion is counter to the current trend in algal taxonomy in which taxa with minor morphological differences have been repeatedly placed in separate genera based primarily upon DNA sequence evidence.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/classificação , Cianobactérias/citologia , Proteínas de Algas/análise , Cianobactérias/genética , Cianobactérias/ultraestrutura , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/análise , México , Filogenia , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , RNA de Algas/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Análise de Sequência de RNA
13.
J Phycol ; 54(5): 653-664, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981525

RESUMO

While macroalgal microbiomes are the focus of many recent studies, there is little information about microbial spatial diversity across the thallus. Reliance on field material makes it difficult to discern whether recovered microbiomes belong to the host or its epiphytes, and technical comparisons of macroalgal samples for microbial studies are needed. Here, we use a common garden approach that avoids the problem of epiphytes, particularly at holdfasts, to examine the microbiome of Porphyra umbilicalis (strain Pum1). We used the V6 hypervariable region of the 16S rDNA with Illumina HiSeq sequencing and developed PNA clamps to block recovery of organelle V6 sequences. The common garden approach allowed us to determine differences in the microbiome at the holdfast versus blade margin. We found a notable increase in the relative abundance of Planctomycetes and Alphaproteobacteria at the holdfast, particularly of the possible symbiont Sulfitobacter sp. Nonadjacent 1.5 cm2 samples of blade margin had microbiomes that were not statistically different. The most abundant phylum in the overall microbiome was Proteobacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes. Because phycologists often work in remote sites, we compared three stabilization and preparation techniques and found silica gel desiccation/bead-beating and flash-freezing/lyophilization/bead-beating to be interchangeable. Core taxa (≥0.1% of sequences) across treatments were similar and accounted for ≥95% of all sequences. Finally, statistical conclusions for all comparisons were the same, regardless of which microbial community analysis tool was used: mothur or minimum entropy decomposition.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Microbiota , Porphyra/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , RNA de Algas/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
14.
J Phycol ; 54(4): 483-493, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29679512

RESUMO

Dunaliella, a commercially important chlorophyte, is globally distributed in saline habitats. Morphological species have not been definitively reconciled with phylogenetic analyses. Considerable genetic diversity continues to be discovered in new isolates, especially from soil and benthic habitats. Twenty-nine new isolates from Great Salt Lake, Utah, many from benthic or supralittoral habitats, were phylogenetically analyzed using ITS1+5.8S+ITS2 in comparison to a broad sampling of available sequences. A few new isolates align in one branch of a bifurcated monophyletic Dunaliella salina clade and several cluster within monophyletic D. viridis. Several others align with relatively few unnamed strains from other locations, comprising a diverse clade that may represent two or more new species. The overall Dunaliella clade is relatively robust, but the nearest outgroups are ambiguously placed with extremely long branches. About half of the isolates, all from benthic or supralittoral habitats, have been persistently sarcinoid in liquid media since isolation. This trait is spread across the Dunaliella phylogeny. The morphology of two sarcinoid strains was documented with light microscopy, revealing an extensive glycocalyx. Clumping behavior of unicellular and sarcinoid strains was unaffected by presence or absence of Mg2+ or Ca2+ , addition of lectin-inhibiting monosaccharides, or water-soluble factors from morphologically opposite strains. Results from this investigation have significantly expanded our current understanding of Dunaliella diversity, but it seems likely that much remains to be discovered with additional sampling.


Assuntos
Clorofíceas/classificação , Filogenia , Clorofíceas/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/análise , Lagos , RNA de Algas/análise , RNA de Plantas/análise , RNA Ribossômico 5,8S/análise , Utah
15.
J Phycol ; 54(3): 342-357, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29603234

RESUMO

The biodiversity of terrestrial algae is still grossly understudied, and African deserts in particular are barely touched in this respect. Here, four coccoid green algae from oases in the Western Desert of Egypt were characterized using a combination of morphotaxonomic, ecological and 18S rDNA data, with additional carotenoid and lipid analyses for two of the strains. Three strains were identified as affiliated with known taxa: Mychonastes sp., Asterarcys sp. (first report of this genus from a desert soil), and Stichococcus cf. deasonii. The fourth strain is proposed to represent a new cryptic genus Pharao gen. nov., with the type species P. desertorum sp. nov. The new taxon is sister to the clade of uncharacterized North American desert strains of Radiococcaceae (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta). The pigment profile of P. desertorum gen. et sp. nov. revealed carotenoids and chlorophylls typical of green algae. Bioorganic analysis showed a complex lipidome based on phospho- (PC), galacto- (MGDG and DGDG), betaine- (DGTS), and sulfoquinovosyl- (SQDG) membrane lipids, besides significant amounts of storage neutral lipids such as diacyl- (DAG) and triacylglycerols (TAG). The presence of saturated alkyl chains within all the membrane lipid classes in P. desertorum and Asterarcys sp. appears to reflect the need to maintain membrane fluidity and viscosity. In summary, African deserts likely still harbor new taxa to be described, and lipidomic analyses of such taxa may provide clues about their ability to survive in the extremely harsh desert habitats.


Assuntos
Clorofíceas/classificação , Traços de História de Vida , Clorofíceas/citologia , Clorofíceas/genética , Clorofíceas/fisiologia , Cromatografia Líquida , Clima Desértico , Egito , Filogenia , RNA de Algas/análise , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
16.
J Phycol ; 54(4): 571-576, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29676790

RESUMO

Recently radiated dinoflagellates Apocalathium aciculiferum (collected in Lake Erken, Sweden), Apocalathium malmogiense (Baltic Sea) and Apocalathium aff. malmogiense (Highway Lake, Antarctica) represent a lineage with an unresolved phylogeny. We determined their phylogenetic relationships using phylotranscriptomics based on 792 amino acid sequences. Our results showed that A. aciculiferum diverged from the other two closely related lineages, consistent with their different morphologies in cell size, relative cell length and presence of spines. We hypothesized that A. aff. malmogiense and A. malmogiense, which inhabit different hemispheres, are evolutionarily more closely related because they diverged from a marine common ancestor, adapting to a wide salinity range, while A. aciculiferum colonized a freshwater habitat, by acquiring adaptations to this environment, in particular, salinity intolerance. We show that phylotranscriptomics can resolve the phylogeny of recently diverged protists. This has broad relevance, given that many phytoplankton species are morphologically very similar, and single genes sometimes lack the information to determine species' relationships.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/classificação , Filogenia , Transcriptoma , Dinoflagelados/genética , RNA de Algas/análise , RNA de Protozoário/análise , RNA Ribossômico/análise
17.
J Phycol ; 54(2): 234-248, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29377161

RESUMO

Analyses of the mitochondrial cox1, the nuclear-encoded large subunit (LSU), and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) RNA coding region of Pseudo-nitzschia revealed that the P. pseudodelicatissima complex can be phylogenetically grouped into three distinct clades (Groups I-III), while the P. delicatissima complex forms another distinct clade (Group IV) in both the LSU and ITS2 phylogenetic trees. It was elucidated that comprehensive taxon sampling (sampling of sequences), selection of appropriate target genes and outgroup, and alignment strategies influenced the phylogenetic accuracy. Based on the genetic divergence, ITS2 resulted in the most resolved trees, followed by cox1 and LSU. The morphological characters available for Pseudo-nitzschia, although limited in number, were overall in agreement with the phylogenies when mapped onto the ITS2 tree. Information on the presence/absence of a central nodule, number of rows of poroids in each stria, and of sectors dividing the poroids mapped onto the ITS2 tree revealed the evolution of the recently diverged species. The morphologically based species complexes showed evolutionary relevance in agreement with molecular phylogeny inferred from ITS2 sequence-structure data. The data set of the hypervariable region of ITS2 improved the phylogenetic inference compared to the cox1 and LSU data sets. The taxonomic status of P. cuspidata and P. pseudodelicatissima requires further elucidation.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/classificação , Filogenia , Proteínas de Algas/análise , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/análise , Diatomáceas/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/análise , Genes de RNAr , RNA de Algas/análise , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Sequência de RNA
18.
J Phycol ; 54(1): 105-113, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29120060

RESUMO

Although hypotheses have been proposed and developed to interpret the origins and functions of introns, substantial controversies remain about the mechanism of intron evolution. The availability of introns in the intermediate state is quite helpful for resolving this debate. In this study, a new strain of diatom (denominated as DB21-1) was isolated and identified as Olifantiella sp., which possesses multiple types of 18S rDNAs (obtained from genomic DNA; lengths ranged from 2,056 bp to 2,988 bp). Based on alignments between 18S rDNAs and 18S rRNA (obtained from cDNA; 1,783 bp), seven intron insertion sites (IISs) located in the 18S rDNA were identified, each of which displayed the polymorphism of intron presence/absence. Specific primers around each IIS were designed to amplify the introns and the results indicated that introns in the same IIS varied in lengths, while terminal sequences were conserved. Our study showed that the process of intron loss happens via a series of successive steps, and each step could derive corresponding introns under intermediate states. Moreover, these results indicate that the mechanism of genomic deletion that occurs at DNA level can also lead to exact intron loss.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/genética , Íntrons/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , DNA de Algas/análise , Filogenia , RNA de Algas/análise , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise , Alinhamento de Sequência
19.
J Phycol ; 54(2): 198-214, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29278416

RESUMO

In the present study, three new strains of the rare volvocalean green alga Lobomonas were isolated from field-collected samples, one from Sardinia (Italy) and two from Argentina, and comparatively studied. The Sardinian and one of the Argentinian strains were identified as Lobomonas francei, the type species of the genus, whereas the second Argentinian strain corresponded to L. panduriformis. Two additional nominal species of Lobomonas from culture collections (L. rostrata and L. sphaerica) were included in the analysis and shown to be morphologically and molecularly identical to the L. francei strains. The presence, number, and shapes of cell wall lobes, the diagnostic criterion of Lobomonas, were shown to be highly variable depending on the chemical composition of the culture medium used. The analyses by SEM gave evidence that the cell wall lobes in Lobomonas originate at the junctions of adjacent cell wall plates by extrusion of gelatinous material. The four L. francei strains had identical nrRNA gene sequences and differed by only one or two substitutions in the ITS1 + ITS2 sequences. In the phylogenetic analyses, L. francei and L. panduriformis were sister taxa; however, another nominal Lobomonas species (L. monstruosa) did not belong to this genus. Lobomonas, together with taxa designated as Vitreochlamys, Tetraspora, and Paulschulzia, formed a monophyletic group that in the combined analyses was sister to the "Chlamydomonas/Volvox-clade." Based on these results, Lobomonas was revised, the diagnosis of the type species emended, a lectotype and an epitype designated, and several taxa synonymized with the type species.


Assuntos
Volvocida/classificação , Proteínas de Algas/análise , Argentina , Itália , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Filogenia , RNA de Algas/análise , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Volvocida/citologia , Volvocida/genética , Volvocida/ultraestrutura
20.
J Phycol ; 54(1): 126-137, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29194622

RESUMO

The family Ceratocoryaceae includes the genera Ceratocorys, Protoceratium, and Schuettiella, whose phylogenetic relationships are poorly known. Here, the new non-yessotoxin-producing species of the genus Ceratocorys, Ceratocorys mariaovidiorum sp. nov., previously reported as the toxic Protoceratium reticulatum, is described from examinations by light and scanning electron microscopy, molecular phylogeny, and toxin analyses. The species description is made from culture samples of strains CCMP1740 and CCMP404 from USA waters. Ceratocorys mariaovidiorum is globular and has thick and strongly reticulated plates with one pore within each reticule, just like P. reticulatum, but the key difference between the two species is the presence of five precingular plates in C. mariaovidiorum instead of six as in P. reticulatum. The thecal plate formula is Po, 4', 0a, 5″, 6c, ~7s, 5‴, 0p, 2''''. The apical pore plate is oval with a λ-shaped pore. The first apical plate is narrow with a ventral pore on the right anterior side; it contacts the apical pore plate and its contact with the anterior sulcal plate is slight or absent. The fourth precingular plate of other Gonyaulacales is absent. Ceratocorys mariaovidiorum may have small spines on the second antapical plate. A phylogenetic study based on internal transcribed spacer/5.8SrDNA supports the morphological classification of C. mariaovidiorum as a new species of Ceratocorys and in a different clade from P. reticulatum.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/classificação , Dinoflagelados/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/análise , Dinoflagelados/citologia , Dinoflagelados/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Filogenia , RNA de Algas/análise , RNA de Protozoário/análise , RNA Ribossômico 5,8S/análise , Estados Unidos
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