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1.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 49-58, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is accumulating evidence about detrimental impacts of the pandemic on population mental health, but knowledge on risk of groups specifically affected by the pandemic and variations across time is still limited. METHODS: We surveyed approximately n=1,000 Austrian residents in 12 waves between April and December 2020 (n=12,029). Outcomes were suicidal ideation (Beck Suicidal Ideation Scale), depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), and domestic violence. We also assessed the perceived burden from the pandemic. Demographic and Covid-19 specific occupational and morbidity-related variables were used to explain outcomes in multivariable regression analyses, controlling for well-established risk factors of mental ill-health, and variations over time were analyzed. RESULTS: Young age, working in healthcare or from home, and own Covid-19 illness were consistent risk factors controlling for a wide range of known mental health risk factors. Time patterns in the perceived burden from Covid-19-related measures were consistent with the time sequence of restrictions and relaxations of governmental measures. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were relatively stable over time, with some increase of depression during the second phase of lockdowns. Domestic violence increased immediately after both hard lockdowns. Suicidal ideation decreased slightly over time, with a low during the second hard lockdown. Mental health indicators for women and young people showed some deterioration over time, whereas those reporting own Covid-19 illness improved. LIMITATIONS: Data from before the pandemic were not available. CONCLUSIONS: Among mental health outcomes, increases in domestic violence and, to some smaller extent, depressive symptoms, appeared most closely related to the timing of hard lockdowns. Healthcare staff, individuals working from home, those with Covid-19, as well as young people and women are non-traditional risk groups who warrant heightened attention in prevention during and in the aftermath of the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , RNA Viral , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Áustria , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150244, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798752

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemia has been one of the most difficult challenges humankind has recently faced. Wastewater-based epidemiology has emerged as a tool for surveillance and mitigation of potential viral outbreaks, circumventing biases introduced by clinical patient testing. Due to the situation urgency, protocols followed for isolating viral RNA from sewage were not adapted for such sample matrices. In parallel to their implementation for fast collection of data to sustain surveillance and mitigation decisions, molecular protocols need to be harmonized to deliver accurate, reproducible, and comparable analytical outputs. Here we studied analytical variabilities linked to viral RNA isolation methods from sewage. Three different influent wastewater volumes were used to assess the effects of filtered volumes (50, 100 or 500 mL) for capturing viral particles. Three different concentration strategies were tested: electronegative membranes, polyethersulfone membranes, and anion-exchange diethylaminoethyl cellulose columns. To compare the number of viral particles, different RNA isolation methods (column-based vs. magnetic beads) were compared. The effect of extra RNA purification steps and different RT-qPCR strategies (one step vs. two-step) were also evaluated. Results showed that the combination of 500 mL filtration volume through electronegative membranes and without multiple RNA purification steps (using column-based RNA purification) using two-step RT-qPCR avoided false negatives when basal viral load in sewage are present and yielded more consistent results during the surveillance done during the second-wave in Delft (The Hague area, The Netherlands). By paving the way for standardization of methods for the sampling, concentration and molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2 viruses from sewage, these findings can help water and health surveillance authorities to use and trust results coming from wastewater based epidemiology studies in order to anticipate SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Esgotos , Humanos , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Águas Residuárias , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150264, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798759

RESUMO

The presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in wastewater produced interest in its use for sentinel surveillance at a community level and as a complementary approach to syndromic surveillance. With this work, we set the foundations for wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) in Portugal by monitoring the trends of SARS-CoV-2 RNA circulation in the community, on a nationwide perspective during different epidemiological phases of the pandemic. The Charité assays (E_Sarbecco, RdRP, and N_Sarbecco) were applied to monitor, over 32-weeks (April to December 2020), the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 RNA at the inlet of five wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), which together serve more than two million people in Portugal. Raw wastewater from three Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reference hospitals was also analyzed during this period. In total, more than 600 samples were tested. For the first weeks, detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was sporadic, with concentrations varying from 103 to 105 genome copies per liter (GC/L). Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA increased steeply by the end of May into late June, mainly in Lisboa e Vale do Tejo region (LVT), during the reopening phase. After the summer, with the reopening of schools in mid-September and return to partial face-to-face work, a pronounced increase of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater was detected. In the LVT area, SARS-CoV-2 RNA load agreed with reported trends in hotspots of infection. Synchrony between trends of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in raw wastewater and daily new COVID-19 cases highlights the value of WBE as a surveillance tool, particularly after the phasing out of the epidemiological curve and when hotspots of disease re-emerge in the population which might be difficult to spot based solely on syndromic surveillance and contact tracing. This is the first study crossing several epidemiological stages highlighting the long-term use of WBE for SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias , Humanos , Portugal/epidemiologia , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Águas Residuárias
5.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 327-334, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524690

RESUMO

Genomic surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) plays an important role in COVID-19 pandemic control and elimination efforts, especially by elucidating its global transmission network and illustrating its viral evolution. The deployment of multiplex PCR assays that target SARS-CoV-2 followed by either massively parallel or nanopore sequencing is a widely-used strategy to obtain genome sequences from primary samples. However, multiplex PCR-based sequencing carries an inherent bias of sequencing depth among different amplicons, which may cause uneven coverage. Here we developed a two-pool, long-amplicon 36-plex PCR primer panel with ~1000-bp amplicon lengths for full-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2. We validated the panel by assessing nasopharyngeal swab samples with a <30 quantitative reverse transcription PCR cycle threshold value and found that ≥90% of viral genomes could be covered with high sequencing depths (≥20% mean depth). In comparison, the widely-used ARTIC panel yielded 79%-88% high-depth genome regions. We estimated that ~5 Mbp nanopore sequencing data may ensure a >95% viral genome coverage with a ≥10-fold depth and may generate reliable genomes at consensus sequence levels. Nanopore sequencing yielded false-positive variations with frequencies of supporting reads <0.8, and the sequencing errors mostly occurred on the 5' or 3' ends of reads. Thus, nanopore sequencing could not elucidate intra-host viral diversity.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Sequenciamento por Nanoporos/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , COVID-19 , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Nasofaringe/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos
6.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 88-98, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524697

RESUMO

The outbreak of the current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) occurred in late 2019 and quickly spread all over the world. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) belongs to a genetically diverse group that mutates continuously leading to the emergence of multiple variants. Although a few antiviral agents and anti-inflammatory medicines are available, thousands of individuals have passed away due to emergence of new viral variants. Thus, proper surveillance of the SARS-CoV-2 genome is needed for the rapid identification of developing mutations over time, which are of the major concern if they occur specifically in the surface spike proteins of the virus (neutralizing analyte). This article reviews the potential mutations acquired by the SARS-CoV2 since the pandemic began and their significant impact on the neutralizing efficiency of vaccines and validity of the diagnostic assays.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Deriva Genética , Genoma Viral/genética , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Frequência do Gene/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
7.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 366-371, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546584

RESUMO

Co-epidemics happening simultaneously can generate a burden on healthcare systems. The co-occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 with vector-borne diseases (VBD), such as malaria and dengue in resource-limited settings represents an additional challenge to the healthcare systems. Herein, we assessed the coinfection rate between SARS-CoV-2 and VBD to highlight the need to carry out an accurate diagnosis and promote timely measures for these infections in Luanda, the capital city of Angola. This was a cross-sectional study conducted with 105 subjects tested for the SARS-CoV-2 and VBD with a rapid detection test in April 2021. The participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (3.80%), malaria (13.3%), and dengue (27.6%). Low odds related to testing positivity to SARS-CoV-2 or VBD were observed in participants above or equal to 40 years (odds ratio [OR]: 0.60, p = 0.536), while higher odds were observed in male (OR: 1.44, p = 0.392) and urbanized areas (OR: 3.78, p = 0.223). The overall co-infection rate between SARS-CoV-2 and VBD was 11.4%. Our findings showed a coinfection between SARS-CoV-2 with malaria and dengue, which could indicate the need to integrate the screening for VBD in the SARS-CoV-2 testing algorithm and the adjustment of treatment protocols. Further studies are warranted to better elucidate the relationship between COVID-19 and VBD in Angola.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Angola/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Teste para COVID-19 , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
9.
Environ Res ; 203: 111831, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352235

RESUMO

The ongoing coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic constitutes a concerning global threat to public health and economy. In the midst of this pandemic scenario, the role of environment-to-human COVID-19 spread is still a matter of debate because mixed results have been reported concerning SARS-CoV-2 stability on high-touch surfaces in real-life scenarios. Up to now, no alternative and accessible procedures for cell culture have been applied to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 infectivity on fomites. Several strategies based on viral capsid integrity have latterly been developed using viability markers to selectively remove false-positive qPCR signals resulting from free nucleic acids and damaged viruses. These have finally allowed an estimation of viral infectivity. The present study aims to provide a rapid molecular-based protocol for detection and quantification of viable SARS-CoV-2 from fomites based on the discrimination of non-infectious SARS-CoV-2 particles by platinum chloride (IV) (PtCl4) viability RT-qPCR. An initial assessment compared two different swabbing procedures to recover inactivated SARS-CoV-2 particles from fomites coupled with two RNA extraction methods. Procedures were validated with human (E229) and porcine (PEDV) coronavirus surrogates, and compared with inactivated SARS-CoV-2 suspensions on glass, steel and plastic surfaces. The viability RT-qPCR efficiently removed the PCR amplification signals from heat and gamma-irradiated inactivated SARS-CoV-2 suspensions that had been collected from specified surfaces. This study proposes a rapid viability RT-qPCR that discriminates non-infectious SARS-CoV-2 particles on surfaces thus helping researchers to better understand the risk of contracting COVID-19 through contact with fomites and to develop more efficient epidemiological measures.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Fômites , Humanos , Pandemias , RNA Viral , Suínos
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150573, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582878

RESUMO

Wastewater surveillance systems for SARS-CoV-2 can be used to support public health decisions, complementary to clinical surveillance. We examined the lead-lag associations between SARS-CoV-2 RNA copies in wastewater and COVID-19 rates in relatively small urban areas of Seville, adjusting for internal mobility, temperature, and wastewater-related variables. The association COVID-19 rates-RNA copies were statistically significant from three to 27 days after sampling. Temperature is a confounding factor for both viral RNA counts and mobility. The model that best fitted data used cases six days after sampling. A logarithmic unit increase in viral RNA count in wastewater was associated with a 26.9% increase in COVID-19 rate per 100,000 inhabitants (95% CI: 13.1-42.4%), within the urban area, six days later. Surveillance system for SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater has great potential for public health. Knowing the specific association between SARS-CoV-2 RNA copies in wastewater and COVID-19 daily rates may help to improve its performance.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , RNA Viral , Águas Residuárias , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150121, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534872

RESUMO

Current estimates of COVID-19 prevalence are largely based on symptomatic, clinically diagnosed cases. The existence of a large number of undiagnosed infections hampers population-wide investigation of viral circulation. Here, we quantify the SARS-CoV-2 concentration and track its dynamics in wastewater at a major urban wastewater treatment facility in Massachusetts, between early January and May 2020. SARS-CoV-2 was first detected in wastewater on March 3. SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations in wastewater correlated with clinically diagnosed new COVID-19 cases, with the trends appearing 4-10 days earlier in wastewater than in clinical data. We inferred viral shedding dynamics by modeling wastewater viral load as a convolution of back-dated new clinical cases with the average population-level viral shedding function. The inferred viral shedding function showed an early peak, likely before symptom onset and clinical diagnosis, consistent with emerging clinical and experimental evidence. This finding suggests that SARS-CoV-2 concentrations in wastewater may be primarily driven by viral shedding early in infection. This work shows that longitudinal wastewater analysis can be used to identify trends in disease transmission in advance of clinical case reporting, and infer early viral shedding dynamics for newly infected individuals, which are difficult to capture in clinical investigations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , RNA Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Águas Residuárias
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150327, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543793

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Airflows sustain the infection spread, and in densely urbanized areas airborne particulate matters (PMs) are deemed to aggravate the viral transmission. Apis mellifera colonies are used as bioindicators as they allow environmental sampling of different nature, PMs included. This experiment demonstrates for the first time the possible use of honey bee colonies in the SARS-CoV-2 monitoring. The trial was conducted in Bologna on 18 March 2021, when the third wave of the Italian pandemic was at its peak and environmental conditions allowed high PM concentrations in the air. Sterile swabs were lined up at the hive entrance to sample the dusty material on the body of returning foragers. All of them resulted positive for the target genes of viral SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Likewise, internal samples were taken, but they resulted in no amplification of the target sequences. This experiment does not support speculations about the role of honey bees or their products in SARS-CoV-2 transmission. However, it indicates a novel use of A. mellifera colonies in the environmental detection of airborne human pathogens, at least in a densely urbanized area, deserving better understanding and possible integration with data from automatic air samplers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Animais , Abelhas , Humanos , Pandemias , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 27-30, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630276

RESUMO

Recently, a discussion has begun on the global management strategy against COVID-19 based on the hypothesis that individuals' macro- and micronutrient status combined with antiviral drugs and herbs can be an ally against the infection. The hypothesis is that people's nutritional and oxidative scavenging capacity may provide fundamental data to predict severe and acute pulmonary distress following SARS-Cov2 infection. Consequently, the scientific community has addressed the role of balanced diets, nutritional supplements, and micronutrients, including folk herbal formulations, in reducing hospitalization and the severity of pulmonary impact in COVID-19 by preventing the most serious forms of the infection. This led to an animated debate on the potential effectiveness of some vitamins, micronutrients, and traditional Chinese medicine in preventing COVID-19, with some authors convinced that plant extracts could act oppositely, exacerbating the effect of the infection. While current research is still far to assess the suggestions and issues raised in this short communication, it is undoubtedly true that determining an individual's current metabolic status, including macro- and micronutrients, is an essential factor in defining any individuals' deficiencies, which will need to be addressed urgently through a proper diet, specific personalized nutritional supplementation, and lifestyle changes.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , COVID-19 , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118299, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626707

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) have been reported in the outdoor/indoor air of urban centres, raising health concerns due to the potential for human exposure. Since aerosols are considered one of the routes of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission and may bind to the surface of airborne MPs, we hypothesize that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) could be associated with the levels of MPs in the air. Our goal was to quantify the SARS-CoV-2 RNA and MPs present in the total suspended particles (TSP) collected in the area surrounding the largest medical centre in Latin America and to elucidate a possible association among weather variables, MPs, and SARS-CoV-2 in the air. TSP were sampled from three outdoor locations in the areas surrounding a medical centre. MPs were quantified and measured under a fluorescence microscope, and their polymeric composition was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy coupled with attenuated total reflectance (ATR). The viral load of SARS-CoV-2 was quantified by an in-house real-time PCR assay. A generalized linear model (GzLM) was employed to evaluate the effect of the SARS-CoV-2 quantification on MPs and weather variables. TSP samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in 22 out of 38 samples at the three sites. Polyester was the most frequent polymer (80%) found in the samples. The total amount of MPs was positively associated with the quantification of SARS-CoV-2 envelope genes and negatively associated with weather variables (temperature and relative humidity). Our findings show that SARS-CoV-2 aerosols may bind to TSP, such as MPs, and facilitate virus entry into the human body.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aerossóis , Humanos , América Latina , Microplásticos , Plásticos , RNA Viral , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 149877, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818780

RESUMO

Wastewater surveillance for pathogens using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is an effective and resource-efficient tool for gathering community-level public health information, including the incidence of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Surveillance of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in wastewater can potentially provide an early warning signal of COVID-19 infections in a community. The capacity of the world's environmental microbiology and virology laboratories for SARS-CoV-2 RNA characterization in wastewater is increasing rapidly. However, there are no standardized protocols or harmonized quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) procedures for SARS-CoV-2 wastewater surveillance. This paper is a technical review of factors that can cause false-positive and false-negative errors in the surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater, culminating in recommended strategies that can be implemented to identify and mitigate some of these errors. Recommendations include stringent QA/QC measures, representative sampling approaches, effective virus concentration and efficient RNA extraction, PCR inhibition assessment, inclusion of sample processing controls, and considerations for RT-PCR assay selection and data interpretation. Clear data interpretation guidelines (e.g., determination of positive and negative samples) are critical, particularly when the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater is low. Corrective and confirmatory actions must be in place for inconclusive results or results diverging from current trends (e.g., initial onset or reemergence of COVID-19 in a community). It is also prudent to perform interlaboratory comparisons to ensure results' reliability and interpretability for prospective and retrospective analyses. The strategies that are recommended in this review aim to improve SARS-CoV-2 characterization and detection for wastewater surveillance applications. A silver lining of the COVID-19 pandemic is that the efficacy of wastewater surveillance continues to be demonstrated during this global crisis. In the future, wastewater should also play an important role in the surveillance of a range of other communicable diseases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , SARS-CoV-2 , Águas Residuárias , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias
16.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 147-153, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411312

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in serum and its association with the clinical severity of COVID-19. This retrospective cohort study performed at Toyama University Hospital included consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia and the strength of its association with clinical severity variables were examined. Fifty-six patients were included in this study. RNAemia was detected in 19.6% (11/56) patients on admission, and subsequently in 1.0% (1/25), 50.0% (6/12), and 100.0% (4/4) moderate, severe, and critically ill patients, respectively. Patients with RNAemia required more frequent oxygen supplementation (90.0% vs. 13.3%), ICU admission (81.8% vs. 6.7%), and invasive mechanical ventilation (27.3% vs. 0.0%). Among patients with RNAemia, the median viral loads of nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs that were collected around the same time as the serum sample were significantly higher in critically ill (5.4 log10 copies/µl; interquartile range [IQR]: 4.2-6.3) than in moderate-severe cases (2.6 log10 copies/µl; [IQR: 1.1-4.5]; p = 0.030) and were significantly higher in nonsurvivors (6.2 log10 copies/µl [IQR: 6.0-6.5]) than in survivors (3.9 log10 copies/µl [IQR: 1.6-4.6]; p = 0.045). This study demonstrated a relatively high proportion of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia and an association between RNAemia and clinical severity. Moreover, among the patients with RNAemia, the viral loads of NP swabs were correlated with disease severity and mortality, suggesting the potential utility of combining serum testing with NP tests as a prognostic indicator for COVID-19, with higher quality than each separate test.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , RNA Viral/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Carga Viral , Viremia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Criança , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 222-228, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449894

RESUMO

The current study aimed at characterizing the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) antigenemia in a cohort of critically ill adult COVID-19 patients and assessing its potential association with plasma levels of biomarkers of clinical severity and mortality. Seventy-three consecutive critically ill COVID-19 patients (median age, 65 years) were recruited. Serial plasma (n = 340) specimens were collected. A lateral flow immunochromatography assay and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used for SARS-CoV-2 N protein detection and RNA quantitation and in plasma, respectively. Serum levels of inflammatory and tissue-damage biomarkers in paired specimens were measured. SARS-CoV-RNA N-antigenemia and viral RNAemia were documented in 40.1% and 35.6% of patients, respectively at a median of 9 days since symptoms onset. The level of agreement between the qualitative results returned by the N-antigenemia assay and plasma RT-PCR was moderate (k = 0.57; p < 0.0001). A trend towards higher SARS-CoV-2 RNA loads was seen in plasma specimens testing positive for N-antigenemia assay than in those yielding negative results (p = 0.083). SARS-CoV-2 RNA load in tracheal aspirates was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the presence of concomitant N-antigenemia than in its absence. Significantly higher serum levels of ferritin, lactose dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, and D-dimer were quantified in paired plasma SARS-CoV-2 N-positive specimens than in those testing negative. Occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 N-antigenemia was not associated with increased mortality in univariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-3.34; p = 0.59). In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2 N-antigenemia detection is relatively common in ICU patients and appears to associate with increased serum levels of inflammation and tissue-damage markers. Whether this virological parameter may behave as a biomarker of poor clinical outcome awaits further investigations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/sangue , Estado Terminal , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/mortalidade , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoproteínas/sangue , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Traqueia/virologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150151, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623953

RESUMO

We measured SARS-CoV-2 RNA load in raw wastewater in Attica, Greece, by RT-qPCR for the environmental surveillance of COVID-19 for 6 months. The lag between RNA load and pandemic indicators (COVID-19 hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions) was calculated using a grid search. Our results showed that RNA load in raw wastewater is a leading indicator of positive COVID-19 cases, new hospitalization and admission into ICUs by 5, 8 and 9 days, respectively. Modelling techniques based on distributed/fixed lag modelling, linear regression and artificial neural networks were utilized to build relationships between SARS-CoV-2 RNA load in wastewater and pandemic health indicators. SARS-CoV-2 mutation analysis in wastewater during the third pandemic wave revealed that the alpha-variant was dominant. Our results demonstrate that clinical and environmental surveillance data can be combined to create robust models to study the on-going COVID-19 infection dynamics and provide an early warning for increased hospital admissions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , RNA Viral , Águas Residuárias , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias
19.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 161-172, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415583

RESUMO

Detailed information on intrahost viral evolution in SARS-CoV-2 with and without treatment is limited. Sequential viral loads and deep sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 from the upper respiratory tract of nine hospitalized children, three of whom were treated with remdesivir, revealed that remdesivir treatment suppressed viral load in one patient but not in a second infected with an identical strain without any evidence of drug resistance found. Reduced levels of subgenomic RNA during treatment of the second patient, suggest an additional effect of remdesivir on viral replication. Haplotype reconstruction uncovered persistent SARS-CoV-2 variant genotypes in four patients. These likely arose from within-host evolution, although superinfection cannot be excluded in one case. Although our dataset is small, observed sample-to-sample heterogeneity in variant frequencies across four of nine patients suggests the presence of discrete viral populations in the lung with incomplete population sampling in diagnostic swabs. Such compartmentalization could compromise the penetration of remdesivir into the lung, limiting the drugs in vivo efficacy, as has been observed in other lung infections.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/virologia , Evolução Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Viral , Feminino , Haplótipos , Humanos , Lactente , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 195: 113649, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555637

RESUMO

Considering the worldwide health crisis associated with highly contagious severe respiratory disease of COVID-19 outbreak, the development of multiplexed, simple and rapid diagnostic platforms to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is in high demand. Here, a nucleic acid amplification-free electrochemical biosensor based on four-way junction (4-WJ) hybridization is presented for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. To form a 4-WJ structure, a Universal DNA-Hairpin (UDH) probe is hybridized with two adaptor strands and a SARS-CoV-2 RNA target. One of the adaptor strands is functionalized with a redox mediator that can be detected using an electrochemical biosensor. The biosensor could simultaneously detect 5.0 and 6.8 ag/µL of S and Orf1ab genes, respectively, within 1 h. The biosensor was evaluated with 21 clinical samples (16 positive and 5 negative). The results revealed a satisfactory agreement with qRT-PCR. In conclusion, this biosensor has the potential to be used as an on-site, real-time diagnostic test for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , COVID-19 , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Humanos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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