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1.
J Radiol Prot ; 41(4)2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525457

RESUMO

A criticality accident occurred at the uranium conversion plant in Tokaimura, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan on 30 September 1999. When uranyl nitrate was overloaded to a critical mass level, uncontrolled fission reaction occurred. A procedure was carried out according to the JCO manual, although not an officially approved manual. Three workers were heavily exposed to neutrons andγ-rays produced by nuclear fission, and they subsequently developed acute radiation syndrome (ARS). The average doses to the whole body of the three workers were approximately 25, 9, and 3 GyEq (biologically equivalent dose ofγ-exposure), respectively; dose distribution analysis later revealed extreme heterogeneity of these doses in two workers. They were triaged according to the predicted clinical needs. Two of these workers developed severe bone marrow failure and received haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: one with peripheral stem cell transplantation from his Human Leukocyte Antigen compatible sister and the other with umbilical cord blood transplantation. The graft was initially successful in both workers; autologous haematopoietic recovery was observed after donor/recipient mixed chimerism in one of them. Despite of all medical efforts available including haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, investigational drugs, skin graft, two workers died of multiple organ involvement and failure 83 and 211 days after the accident, respectively. Clinically as well as pathologically, the direct cause of death was deemed to be intractable gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in one, and thoraco-abdominal compartment syndrome due to dermal fibrosis/sclerosis in the other. The third worker also developed bone marrow suppression but was treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. He recovered without major complications and is now under periodical medical follow-up. These experiences suggest that treatment of bone marrow is not a limiting factor for saving the life of ARS victims severely exposed. Successful treatment of other organs such as lungs, skin, and GI tract is also essential. Furthermore, the whole-body dose may not always reflect the prognosis of ARS victims because of the nature of accidental exposure, heterogenous exposure.


Assuntos
Lesões por Radiação , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos , Urânio , Humanos , Masculino , Nêutrons , Doses de Radiação
2.
J Radiol Prot ; 41(4)2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525459

RESUMO

Nuclear and radiological accidents are not frequent but may lead to major consequences in the population. For the health systems, the need to handle a large number of victims will probably remain as an exception. However, a high number of affected victims can be expected in some terrorist scenarios. In addition, medical accidents in radiotherapy, fluoroscopy and diagnostic radiology have increased the number of patients with severe radiation injuries considerably, especially in developed countries. Given the increased use of ionising radiation for industrial and medical purposes and new technological applications emerging, the number of accidents may increase in the future. Consequently, the early identification and adequate management of these emergencies is a priority, as well as the need for medical preparedness, requiring knowledge about various emergency scenarios and planning appropriate responses to them before they occur. Unfortunately, medical professionals have a substantial knowledge gap in identifying and treating injured persons affected by ionising radiation. As managing radiation accidents is a very challenging process, exercises must be carried out to organise a well-trained multidisciplinary group of professionals to manage any radiation accident properly. Efforts on a continuously updated guidance system should be developed. In addition, new approaches to foster sustainable interdisciplinary and international cooperative networks on radiation injuries are necessary. Lessons learned from past nuclear and radiological emergencies have significantly contributed to strengthening scientific knowledge and increasing the available medical information on the effects of ionising radiation in the human body. In this context, radiation emergency medicine has emerged as a discipline that contributes to the diagnosis, treatment, medical follow-up and prognosis of persons affected by radiation injuries in a nuclear or a radiological emergency. In this paper, we review some relevant concepts related to the medical preparedness and multidisciplinary response required to attend to persons affected by these emergencies.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Medicina de Emergência , Lesões por Radiação , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos , Humanos , Medição de Risco
3.
J Radiol Prot ; 41(4)2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488204

RESUMO

After nuclear accidents, people can be contaminated internally via ingestion, inhalation and via intact skin or wounds. The assessment of absorbed, committed doses after internal exposure is based on activity measurement byin vivoorin vitrobioassay. Estimation of dose following internal contamination is dependent on understanding the nature and form of the radionuclide. Direct counting methods that directly measureγ-rays coming from within the body or bioassay methods that measure the amount of radioactive materials in urine or feces are used to estimate the intake, which is required for calculating internal exposure doses. The interpretation of these data in terms of intake and the lifetime committed dose requires knowledge or making assumptions about a number of parameters (time, type of exposure, route of the exposure, physical, biological and chemical characteristics) and their biokinetics inside the body. Radioactive materials incorporated into the body emit radiation within the body. Accumulation in some specific organs may occur depending on the types of radioactive materials. Decorporation therapy is that acceleration of the natural rate of elimination of the contaminant will reduce the amount of radioactivity retained in the body. This article presents an overview of treatment of radiological contamination after internal contamination.


Assuntos
Liberação Nociva de Radioativos , Radiologia , Humanos , Doses de Radiação , Radioisótopos
4.
Am J Disaster Med ; 16(2): 147-162, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392526

RESUMO

Since the events of 9/11, a concerted interagency effort has been undertaken to create comprehensive emergency planning and preparedness strategies for management of a radiological or nuclear event in the US. These planning guides include protective action guidelines, medical countermeasure recommendations, and systems for diagnosing and triaging radiation injury. Yet, key areas such as perception of risk from radiation exposure by first responders have not been addressed. In this article, we identify the need to model and develop new strategies for the medical manage-ment of large-scale population exposures to radiation, examine the phenomena of radiation dread and its role in emergency response, and review recent findings on the willingness to work of first responders and other personnel involved in mass casualty medical management during a radiological or nuclear event.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Socorristas , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Lesões por Radiação , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos , Emergências , Humanos
5.
J Radiol Prot ; 41(4)2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433144

RESUMO

Recent advances in medical countermeasures (MCMs) has been dependent on the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) animal rule (AR) and the final guidance document provided for industry on product development. The criteria outlined therein establish the path for approval under the AR. The guidance document, along with the funding and requirements from the federal agencies provided the basic considerations for animal model development in assessing radiation effects and efficacy against the potential lethal effects of acute radiation injury and the delayed effects of acute exposure. Animal models, essential for determining MCM efficacy, were developed and validated to assess organ-specific, potentially lethal, radiation effects against the gastrointestinal (GI) and hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS), and radiation-induced delayed effects to lung and associated comorbidities of prolonged immune suppression, GI, kidney and heart injury. Partial-body irradiation models where marginal bone marrow was spared resulted in the ability to evaluate the concomitant evolution of multiple organ injury in the acute and delayed effects in survivors of acute radiation exposure. There are no MCMs for prophylaxis against the major sequelae of the ARS or the delayed effects of acute exposure. Also lacking are MCMs that will mitigate the GI ARS consequent to potentially lethal exposure from a terrorist event or major radiation accident. Additionally, the gap in countermeasures for prophylaxis may extend to mixed neutron/gamma radiation if current modelling predicts prompt exposure from an improvised nuclear device. However, progress in the field of MCM development has been made due to federal and corporate funding, clarification of the critical criteria for efficacy within the FDA AR and the concomitant development and validation of additional animal models. These models provided for a strategic and tactical approach to determine radiation effects and MCM efficacy.


Assuntos
Síndrome Aguda da Radiação , Contramedidas Médicas , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos , Síndrome Aguda da Radiação/prevenção & controle , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
6.
J Environ Radioact ; 237: 106703, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274887

RESUMO

The potential consequences for Norway should a nuclear accident at the Sellafield nuclear site occur, have been of concern for Norwegian authorities for several decades. Meteorological data from a 33-year period and the dispersion model 'SNAP' were used to evaluate meteorological conditions for which atmospheric transport of radionuclides from Sellafield to Norway would lead to the most severe impacts. The worst-case meteorological scenario for Norway, was found on 25th June 1989 for a low elevation (0-800 m) release and on 29th June 2001 for a higher elevation (800-1600 m) release. In both cases the western part of Norway was most affected. In general, the probability for depositions (>10 Bq/m2 of 137Cs) increased about 40% during the autumn and winter compared to the spring and summer months. An influence of climate change on the depositions was analysed, but not verified. Results from a number of simulations were also compared to identify how factors such as radioactive particle characteristics and initial release conditions could affect the predicted radionuclide deposition. The impact on predicted total depositions as well as hot-spot depositions by varying particle density and size as well as release elevation in worst-case scenario simulations amounted to about 40%-50%.


Assuntos
Poluentes Radioativos do Ar , Monitoramento de Radiação , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos , Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise , Noruega
7.
J Radiol Prot ; 41(2)2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075897

RESUMO

As far as carcinogens are concerned, radiation is one of the best studied, having been researched for more than 100 years. Yet, radiation remains feared in many contexts as a result of its invisibility, its relationship with cancers and congenital disorders, aided by a variety of heuristics and reinforced by negative imagery. The strong socio-psychological response relating to nuclear energy has made radiation a classical case in the risk literature. This is reflected clearly following the nuclear accidents that have taken place, where the socio-psychological impacts of the clear dissonance between real and perceived health effects due to radiation exposure have caused considerable health detriment, outweighing the actual radiological impacts. Despite considerable efforts to normalise humankind's relationship with radiation, there has been little shift away from the perceived uniqueness of the health risks of radiation. One consistent issue is the failure to place radiation within its proper perspective and context, which has ensured that radiophobia has persisted. The radiation protection community must get better at placing its research within the appropriate perspective and context, something that is far too rarely the case in discussions on radiation matters outside of the scientific community. Each member of the radiation protection community has an ethical, professional and moral obligation to set the record straight, to challenge the misconceptions and factual errors that surround radiation, as well as putting it into the proper perspective and context. Failing to do so, the well-established harms of radiophobia will remain, and the many benefits of nuclear technology risk being withheld.


Assuntos
Exposição à Radiação , Proteção Radiológica , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos
8.
J Radiat Res ; 62(Supplement_1): i15-i20, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978174

RESUMO

Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) due to whole body exposure (WBE) presents various clinical pictures, occasionally leading to fatal consequences. In this report, the literature providing details of the clinical course of severe ARS owing to WBE is reviewed and the lessons learned from recent accidents are discussed, to better prepare for another radiological event. Studies investigating radiological accidents that provided details of medical care for severe ARS were searched in official reports from the International Atomic Energy Agency and through the databases of PubMed, Medline, CiNii and Google Scholar and reviewed. Four fatal cases of severe ARS due to WBE in Soreq 1990 and Nesvizh 1992, and two cases in JCO Tokaimura 1999 were reviewed. A common set of medical interventions was carried out, that put a focus on medical management assuming the occurrence of hematopoietic disorders. However, clinicians were faced with a mixture of chronic hematological and non-hematological events including persistent gastrointestinal disorders, gradual and progressive skin disorders, liver and renal dysfunction and respiratory failure. Clinical pictures following high-dose WBE have become more complicated as treatment modalities improve. To address these issues, a concept of severe ARS due to WBE has been proposed with respect to radiation-induced multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (RI-MODS) and failure (RI-MOF). These patients need to be managed at institutions where multidisciplinary, resource-intensive therapy can be provided.


Assuntos
Síndrome Aguda da Radiação/etiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Irradiação Corporal Total/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos
9.
J Environ Radioact ; 234: 106621, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991742

RESUMO

Nuclear accidents, despite having an extremely low probability of occurrence, could cause uncontrolled release of radioactive elements (fission and activation products) into the environment, and may ultimately lead to contamination of food products. Such a scenario requires extraordinary measures for control of food, which might be contaminated to a level not suitable for human consumption. Agricultural products (which include grain crops, vegetable, fruits, dairy, meat, eggs and poultry) pass through a series of local, district and state level markets to finally reach consumers. An effective intervention at different stages of distribution by targeted sampling and analysis of suspected (contaminated) foodstuffs will substantially reduce the chances of contaminated food to reach the public. At the same time, it will also ensure food security of the people without imposing unreasonable restrictions in market flow. This can also help in getting the farmers adequately compensated. This paper presents a protocol for sampling and analysis suitable for India, considering the diversity with respect to climate, soil type, land use, crop pattern, population density, etc. The paper also provides an estimate of infrastructure requirement to carry out environmental monitoring following the emergency with respect to human resources and instruments. The paper proposes to use the national web portal for collection of data pertaining to crop pattern, land use and market flow. A web-based decision support system (Web-DSS) on a GIS platform, for sampling, analysis and display of data online would enhance the transparency of decision being taken and enable the administrators to effectively monitor the work flow, details of sample collection, analysis and effective use of human and other resources.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos , Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas , Humanos , Índia
10.
J Environ Radioact ; 234: 106630, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989844

RESUMO

Advanced nuclear reactor designs and advanced fuel types offer safety features that may reduce environmental consequences in an accident scenario when compared to conventional reactors and fuels. One advanced reactor fuel is tri-structural isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles which are approximately 0.9 mm in diameter. TRISO particle mobility, assuming the particle is unruptured and the encapsulated radionuclides are contained, was explored by a theoretical examination of transport through atmosphere, soil and groundwater, surface water, and non-human biota pathways. TRISO particles are too large and dense to travel in the atmosphere except under extreme conditions. TRISO particles are also too large to penetrate most soil profiles and so cannot be transported to or by groundwater. TRISO particles will settle out of the water column in surface waters and thus the transport will depend on the energy of the water body (e.g., waves or floods). TRISO particles could be transported by non-human biota. The size of TRISO particles could allow them to be intentionally ingested by non-human biota as a gastrolith or mimic something typical in an organism's diet. Generally, TRISO particles will have reduced environmental mobility compared to releases of radionuclides in the event of a conventional nuclear reactor accident. The extent of transport has implications in emergency planning zone designations and other considerations for licensing and deploying TRISO-fueled reactors. Further research and experimental work exploring TRISO particle mobility is required to understand the full environmental mobility of TRISO particles in the environment.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos , Atmosfera , Reatores Nucleares , Radioisótopos/análise
11.
Radiat Res ; 196(2): 129-146, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979439

RESUMO

Chartered by the U.S. Congress in 1961, the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) is a Joint Department of Defense (DoD) entity with the mission of carrying out the Medical Radiological Defense Research Program in support of our military forces around the globe. In the last 60 years, the investigators at AFRRI have conducted exploratory and developmental research with broad application to the field of radiation sciences. As the only DoD facility dedicated to radiation research, AFRRI's Medical Radiobiology Advisory Team provides deployable medical and radiobiological subject matter expertise, advising commanders in the response to a U.S. nuclear weapon incident and other nuclear or radiological material incidents. AFRRI received the DoD Joint Meritorious Unit Award on February 17, 2004, for its exceptionally meritorious achievements from September 11, 2001 to June 20, 2003, in response to acts of terrorism and nuclear/radiological threats at home and abroad. In August 2009, the American Nuclear Society designated the institute a nuclear historic landmark as the U.S.'s primary source of medical nuclear and radiological research, preparedness and training. Since then, research has continued, and core areas of study include prevention, assessment and treatment of radiological injuries that may occur from exposure to a wide range of doses (low to high). AFRRI collaborates with other government entities, academic institutions, civilian laboratories and other countries to research the biological effects of ionizing radiation. Notable early research contributions were the establishment of dose limits for major acute radiation syndromes in primates, applicable to human exposures, followed by the subsequent evolution of radiobiology concepts, particularly the importance of immune collapse and combined injury. In this century, the program has been essential in the development and validation of prophylactic and therapeutic drugs, such as Amifostine, Neupogen®, Neulasta®, Nplate® and Leukine®, all of which are used to prevent and treat radiation injuries. Moreover, AFRRI has helped develop rapid, high-precision, biodosimetry tools ranging from novel assays to software decision support. New drug candidates and biological dose assessment technologies are currently being developed. Such efforts are supported by unique and unmatched radiation sources and generators that allow for comprehensive analyses across the various types and qualities of radiation. These include but are not limited to both 60Co facilities, a TRIGA® reactor providing variable mixed neutron and γ-ray fields, a clinical linear accelerator, and a small animal radiation research platform with low-energy photons. There are five major research areas at AFRRI that encompass the prevention, assessment and treatment of injuries resulting from the effects of ionizing radiation: 1. biodosimetry; 2. low-level and low-dose-rate radiation; 3. internal contamination and metal toxicity; 4. radiation combined injury; and 5. radiation medical countermeasures. These research areas are bolstered by an educational component to broadcast and increase awareness of the medical effects of ionizing radiation, in the mass-casualty scenario after a nuclear detonation or radiological accidents. This work provides a description of the military medical operations as well as the radiation facilities and capabilities present at AFRRI, followed by a review and discussion of each of the research areas.


Assuntos
Academias e Institutos , Síndrome Aguda da Radiação/epidemiologia , Radiobiologia/história , Terrorismo , Síndrome Aguda da Radiação/patologia , Animais , Raios gama , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Militares , Nêutrons/efeitos adversos , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10398, 2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001964

RESUMO

We report a shipping container that enables a disruptive logistics for cytogenetic biodosimetry for radiation countermeasures through pre-processing cell culture during transportation. The container showed precise temperature control (< 0.01 °C) with uniform sample temperature (< 0.1 °C) to meet the biodosimetry assay requirements. Using an existing insulated shipping box and long shelf life alkaline batteries makes it ideal for national stockpile. Dose curve of cytogenetic biodosimetry assay using the shipping container showed clear dose response and high linear correlation with the control dose curve using a laboratory incubator (Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.992). The container's ability of pre-processing biological samples during transportation could have a significant impact on radiation countermeasure, as well as potential impacts in other applications such as biobanking, novel molecular or cell-based assays or therapies.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/normas , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos , Manejo de Espécimes/normas , Transportes/normas , Bioensaio/normas , Análise Citogenética/normas , Citogenética/normas , Humanos , Navios/normas
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801535

RESUMO

Radiation emergency medicine systems are operated around the world to provide special care for the injured that require immediate medical attention in accidents. The objective of this survey was to evaluate people's perception of those who design the emergency medical plan for radiation accidents and those who supervise it in Korea. A questionnaire survey was conducted on the people involved in a regulatory system for medical response in a radiation emergency. Of 150 survey recipients, 133 (88.7%) completed the survey, including 92 workers and 41 inspectors. The respondents expressed the view that the national emergency medical plan is prepared above the average level using a Likert-style scale of 1 to 5 (mean = 3.55, SD = 0.74). Interestingly, using the Mann-Whitney U test, it could be shown that inspectors evaluated the emergency medical system for radiation accidents more strictly in all of the questions than the licensee workers, especially on radiation medical emergency preparedness (p = 0.004) and the governmental regulatory policy for radiation safety (p = 0.007). For a more efficient system of radiation emergency medicine, licensee workers prioritized the workforce, whereas inspectors favored laws and regulations for safety. The survey results show different perspectives between inspectors and licensee workers, which stem from the actual properties of each occupational role in the regulatory system for radiation medical emergency. These data could be utilized for communication and interaction with relevant people to improve the medical response preparedness against radiation accidents.


Assuntos
Defesa Civil , Medicina de Emergência , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos , Emergências , Humanos , República da Coreia
14.
J Hazard Mater ; 414: 125546, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684811

RESUMO

When severe nuclear accidents at nuclear power plants release radioactive material into the atmosphere, the source term information is typically unknown. Estimating the emission rate of radionuclides is essential to assess the consequences of the accident before adequate decision-making can be performed. A recurrent neural network-based model, optimized with the Bayesian method, is proposed to estimate the emission rates of multi-nuclides using off-site sequential gamma dose rate monitoring data. Compared with the existing method that is based on least squares, this new model does not require a priori information and the complicated and time-consuming process of conducting atmospheric dispersion simulations following a nuclear accident, which is conducive to a faster response. Six typical radionuclides (Sr-91, La-140, Te-132, Xe-133, I-131, and Cs-137) were set as mixed source terms, combined with meteorological parameters, and input into the International Radiological Assessment System for simulation to generate data sets for model training. The results indicate that with the input of data describing the sequential gamma dose rate, the accuracy of the nuclide emission rates estimated by this new method is continuously improved, with a mean absolute percentage error for Te-132 of below 7% over 10 h.


Assuntos
Poluentes Radioativos do Ar , Monitoramento de Radiação , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos , Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise , Teorema de Bayes , Radioisótopos de Césio , Radioisótopos do Iodo , Redes Neurais de Computação , Centrais Nucleares , Radioisótopos de Xenônio
15.
J Radiol Prot ; 41(2)2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652427

RESUMO

My task is to consider whether haematopoietic cell transplants would be considered appropriate today in persons with features like victims of high-dose and dose-rate ionizing radiations after the Chernobyl nuclear power facility accident in 1986 given knowledge and experience gained over the past 35 years. First I consider the conceptual bases for considering an intervention appropriate and then the metric for deciding whether a transplant is appropriate in similar persons. Data needed to support this decision-making process include estimates of dose, dose-rate, dose uniformity, synchronous or metachronous injuries, donor availability and alternative interventions. Many of these co-variates have substantial uncertainties. Fundamental is a consideration of potential benefit-to-risk and risk-to-benefit ratios under conditions of substantial inaccuracy and imprecision. The bottom line is probably fewer transplants would be done and more victims would receive molecularly-cloned haematopoietic growth factors.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Chernobyl , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Lesões por Radiação , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos , Humanos , Radiação Ionizante , Ucrânia
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6162, 2021 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731779

RESUMO

Emergency medical responders (EMRs) who treat victims during a radiation emergency are at risk of radiation exposure. In this study, the exposure dose to EMRs treating hypothetically contaminated patients was estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation, and the findings may be useful for educating EMRs and reducing their anxiety. The Monte Carlo simulation estimated radiation doses for adult computational phantoms based on radioactive contamination conditions and radiation dosages from previous studies. At contamination conditions below the typical upper limit of general Geiger-Müller survey meters, the radiation doses to EMRs were estimated to be less than 1 µSv per hour. In cases with greater contamination due to mishandling of an intense radioactive source (hundreds of GBq), the radiation doses to EMRs could reach approximately 100 mSv per hour. These results imply that a radiological accident with a highly radioactive source could expose EMR to significant radiation that exceeds their dose limit. Thus, authorities and other parties should ensure that EMRs receive appropriate education and training regarding measures that can be taken to protect themselves from the possibility of excessive radiation exposure. The results of this study may provide EMRs with information to take appropriate protective measures, although it is also important that they not hesitate to perform lifesaving measures because of concerns regarding radiation.


Assuntos
Socorristas , Doses de Radiação , Exposição à Radiação/análise , Monitoramento de Radiação , Proteção Radiológica , Humanos , Método de Monte Carlo , Imagens de Fantasmas , Monitoramento de Radiação/instrumentação , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos
18.
Radiat Res ; 195(6): 584-589, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788925

RESUMO

Recently, it has been proposed that the doses received from 133Xe released during the accident in 1979 at the Three Mile Island (TMI) plant in Pennsylvania were much higher than has been conventionally assessed, due to a gross underestimation of the relative biological effectiveness of electrons from beta-particle-emitting radionuclides within the body. The central evidence cited in support of this proposal was the doses derived from cytogenetic analyses of blood sampled in the mid-1990s from people living near TMI at the time of the accident. However, the chromosome aberration data show a marked discrepancy in biodosimetric estimates evaluated from the frequencies of stable translocations and unstable dicentrics (corrected for temporal attenuation), strongly suggesting that exposures to clastogenic agents occurred long after the TMI accident. Few details have been reported on the people providing the blood samples and how they were selected for study. Crucially, this lack of information includes the distributions in the exposed and control groups of age at sampling, which is a critical factor in interpreting translocation data. Contrary to the recent claim, these cytogenetic data offer no support to the suggestion of a serious underestimation of internal doses from beta particles or from 133Xe discharged during the TMI accident.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas/efeitos da radiação , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos , Análise Química do Sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiometria
19.
Reprod Toxicol ; 100: 137-142, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539902

RESUMO

In Europe, the male to female ratio at birth (secondary sex ratio: SSR; sex odds: SO) is 1.04-1.06, is influenced by many factors and is declining in industrialized countries. This study was carried out to identify possible impacts of fallout by atomic bomb tests or by the Chernobyl event on SSR in Italy. Italy is a country without commercial nuclear power generation for the last four decades and thus nearly free of radiological confounders. Counts of annual male and female live births in Italy are provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) and by the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Statistica (ISTAT). This study included 57.7 million live births (1940-2019) with overall SSR 1.05829. The Italian SSR trend was modelled with linear and non-linear logistic regression. Trend changes, i.e., periods with level shifts were estimated with Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). Two distinct idealized level shifts were identified superimposed on a uniform secular downward trend. The first one is seen towards the end of the 1960s with a jump sex odds ratio (SOR) 1.00681, p < 0.0001. The second one occurred in 1987 with SOR 1.00474, p < 0.0001. In each of the 3 periods separated by the two jumps, SSR uniformly decreased with trend SOR per 100 years of 0.98549, p < 0.0001. In conclusion, the secular trend in the Italian SSR showed two marked level shifts, at the end of the 1960s and from 1987 onward. These follow the release of radioactivity by atmospheric atomic bomb tests during the 1960s and by Chernobyl in 1986 and corroborate the hypothesis that ionizing radiation increases SSR.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Chernobyl , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Cinza Radioativa/efeitos adversos , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos , Razão de Masculinidade , Coeficiente de Natalidade/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Armas Nucleares , Radiação Ionizante , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551095

RESUMO

A radiation accident occurred in Bursa, Turkey, in July 2005. An industrial radiographer was exposed to industrial iridium-192 gamma rays for 5 h while laying the natural gas line. After 5 h, the victim had a break because of vomiting and nausea. He ended his work, considering that he might have been exposed to radiation. In a few days, erythema, pain, desquamation, edema started in both hands of the victim. The biological dose assessment was started based on frequencies of dicentrics and rings in peripheral blood lymphocytes ten days after the radiation accident. 6 repeated blood samples were taken for 9 years and analyzed staining after giemsa. After 9 years, decline at dicentric frequencies is significant, but still, dicentric contain cells were detected, which were a strong indicator for external radiation exposure.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas/efeitos da radiação , Análise Citogenética/métodos , Raios gama/efeitos adversos , Linfócitos/patologia , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Seguimentos , Humanos , Linfócitos/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Turquia
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