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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805572

RESUMO

While ample evidence from high-income country settings indicates the prevalence and risk factors for multiple mental ill-health symptoms in student populations, evidence from low- and middle-income higher education settings remains limited. We determined the frequency, associations, and structural pathways between mental health outcomes and possible risk factors among a sample of 1292 predominantly Black African and female students ages 18-30 years, enrolled at nine purposefully selected public universities and Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) campuses. We measured and created a mental ill-health latent outcome consisting of depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidal thoughts. We also measured traumatic exposures including childhood trauma, recent intimate partner violence (IPV), non-partner rape, and other life traumatic events. We used structural equation modelling to analyse data. We found that 50% of the surveyed students binge drank, 43% reported depressive symptoms, 9% reported PTSD symptoms, and 21% had suicidal thoughts. Students' experiences of childhood trauma, food insecurity, other traumatic events, non-partner rape, and IPV impacted the mental ill-health latent. IPV experiences mediated the relationships between experiences of childhood trauma or other trauma and the mental ill-health latent, and the relationship between binge drinking and other life traumatic events. Non-partner rape mediated the relationship between food insecurity and the mental ill-health latent. Binge drinking directly impacted non-partner rape experience. The findings substantiate the need for campus-based mental health promotion, psychosocial services and treatments, and implementation of combined interventions that address the intersections of violence against women and mental health among students in South Africa.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Estupro , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estudantes , Ideação Suicida , Adulto Jovem
2.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 29(2): 2096186, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35904564

RESUMO

A major impediment to justice for rape in Bangladesh is the colonial rule of corroboration, which requires judges to verify the truthfulness of a rape complainant's testimony with other evidence. Medical evidence is the most commonly sought mode of corroboration and can be used to contradict the complainant's own testimony. The corresponding rule of resistance in turn guides how the rule of corroboration takes on a scientific character, whereby injuries in specific parts of the complainant's body are sought by doctors and judges as corroborative "signs of rape". If no "signs of rape" are found, this observation is then noted in the medical report and used to discredit the testimony of a rape complainant, by indicating that either the sexual intercourse was consensual or the rape accusation is false. This paper shows how the unfettered operation of these two rules gives birth to the "science of disbelief" in rape cases, whereby the institutional disbelief in a rape complainant's testimony is justified on ostensibly scientific grounds and largely restricts their right to seek justice. It illustrates how the science of disbelief was created and preserved through successive legal and institutional reforms in Bangladesh. This paper challenges the long-held yet seemingly unquestioned notion in Bangladesh that medical evidence should be the primary basis through which rape can be proved in court by analysing the pernicious jurisprudence and legal standards this assumption has created.


Assuntos
Estupro , Bangladesh , Coito , Humanos
3.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e134, 2022 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35875952

RESUMO

Benenson et al. (2022) amass impressive evidence of robust sex differences as support for expanding "staying alive" theory. We argue for a broader and more domain-specific conceptualization focusing on life history tradeoffs between survival and mating success. Using three examples - women's disgust, fear of rape, and cultivation of bodyguards - we illustrate these tradeoffs and suggest a broader theoretical framework.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Estupro , Atitude , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study analyzes the frequency and sociodemographic characteristics associated with sexual violence by a partner/ex-partner (PSV), someone other than a partner or ex-partner (NPSV), or sexual harassment (SH). METHODS: The study is based on the 2019 Macro-survey of Violence against Women conducted by the Spanish Ministry of Equality among a sample of 9568 women age 16 or more years. Odds Ratios were calculated and multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Forty-four women had suffered some kind of sexual violence over their lifetime, 9.2% had experienced PSV, 6.5% NPSV and 40.4% SH. More than 7% of women had been raped by a partner and 2.2% by another man. In the three groups, violence was associated with lower age and having a certified disability. NPSV and SH were significantly associated with a higher education and internet use. In NPSV, 9.2% of cases were reported to the police and 3.9% were reported to the courts. In SH, 91.7% of women told a family member or a close friend and 4.2% reported it to the police or the courts. CONCLUSIONS: A greater emphasis needs to be placed on reporting sexual violence in its various forms. Rape within intimate partnerships ought to be investigated and studied in greater depth.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Assédio Sexual , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742707

RESUMO

In Bangladesh, traffickers have trapped socially and economically marginalised girls and women and sold them into sex work. Furthermore, multiple sociocultural factors shape women's forced and voluntary movement into sex work. However, there are limited peer-reviewed studies of how sex work operators and sociocultural and economic factors shape women's forced and voluntary engagement in sex work in Bangladesh and worldwide. This study examines how sex work operators and various factors shape Bangladeshi women's forced and voluntary involvement in sex work. This study used a qualitative approach by employing in-depth interviews with 10 female sex workers (FSWs) and 8 other stakeholders who work in a Bangladeshi brothel context. This study also used field notes to document how sex work operators and various factors shape women's engagement in sex work. The interview transcripts and field notes were coded and analysed thematically. Participants' accounts reveal two key themes about how sex work operators and sociocultural factors shape women's engagement in sex work. Findings suggest that sex work operators (e.g., traffickers, pimps, madams, house owners) forced girls and women into sex work by putting them in situations in which they had limited power. Furthermore, various economic (poverty, limited employment opportunities) and sociocultural (rape, harassment, exploitation, divorce, limited support from family members and friends, feeling of disempowerment, desire to be autonomous) factors shaped their voluntary engagement in sex work by creating a condition of victimhood in which women felt limited agency and obligated to work for madams as bonded sex workers. However, some women supported by an FSW-led organisation had more agency than others to work and earn in the brothel area. We suggest three important strategies that are likely to benefit brothel-based women and their families, children, and the wider community.


Assuntos
Tráfico de Pessoas , Estupro , Profissionais do Sexo , Criança , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho Sexual
6.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1147, 2022 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is a growing issue faced across diverse South Asian American communities under the backdrop of a distinct religious and cultural environment that intersects with the ability to prevent and manage this public health crisis. There is also growing attention on sexual violence experienced by younger or second-generation South Asian Americans, although little is known on the prevalence of this violence and its impact on health outcomes. Using data from a community-driven sexual violence survey, this study describes the experience of sexual violence and related help seeking behaviors and mental health outcomes among 18-34-year-old South Asian Americans living near the New York (NY) State region. METHODS: Participants were recruited via social media to participate in an anonymous survey developed in partnership with an advisory board of South Asian young adult representatives. Data was analyzed descriptively and through adjusted logistic regression models. RESULTS: Overall, responses from 335 sexual assault survivors were analyzed. Types of assault experienced included no-contact (97.6%), contact (75.2%), rape attempts (50.2%), rape (44.6%), and multiple rape (19.6%). Many reported perpetrators were South Asian (65.1%) or family members (25.1%). Only 27.6% indicated they had reported assaults to authorities or received services. In adjusted analyses, odds of help seeking were higher among participants who were older (AOR:1.10, 95%CI:1.02-1.20), were a sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual) (1.98, 1.05-3.71), had a family member as the perpetrator (1.85, 1.01-3.40), had lower disclosure stigma (1.66, 1.16-2.44), and experienced depression (2.16, 1.10-4.47). Odds of depression were higher among sexual minority participants and lower among those with higher sexual assault disclosure stigma (3.27, 1.61-7.16; 0.68, 0.50-0.93). CONCLUSIONS: Findings call for greater targeted policy interventions to address the prevention of sexual violence among young South Asian Americans and greater focus on improving help seeking behaviors and improving mental health outcomes among survivors.


Assuntos
Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , New York/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682393

RESUMO

Environmental criminological research on rape series is an understudied field due largely to deficiencies in official and publicly available data. Additionally, little is known about the spatial patterns of rapists with a large number of stranger rapes. With a unique integration and application of spatial, temporal, behavioral, forensic, investigative, and personal history data, we explore the geography of rape of a prolific, mobile serial stranger rapist identified through initiatives to address thousands of previously untested rape kits in two U.S. urban, neighboring jurisdictions. Rape kit data provide the opportunity for a more complete and comprehensive understanding of stranger rape series by linking crimes that likely never would have been linked if not for the DNA evidence. This study fills a knowledge gap by exploring the spatial offending patterns of extremely prolific serial stranger rapists. Through the lens of routine activities theory, we explore the motivated offender, the lack of capable guardianship (e.g., built environment), and the targeted victims. The findings have important implications for gaining practical and useful insight into rapists' use of space and behavioral decision-making processes, effective public health interventions and prevention approaches, and urban planning strategies in communities subjected to repeat targeting by violent offenders.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Criminosos , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Geografia , Humanos
8.
AMA J Ethics ; 24(6): E495-517, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Árabe, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35713918

RESUMO

This article outlines the history of international humanitarian law vis-à-vis conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) from the promulgation of the Lieber Code in 1863 until the adoption in 2019 of United Nations Security Council Resolution 2467. This article considers how a survivor-centered approach to CRSV has emerged, particularly since 2008. The authors identify 3 significant clinical, ethical, and legal lessons: (1) international humanitarian law, as articulated in the Geneva Conventions and other legal instruments, requires clinicians to adopt a holistic approach to care; (2) during or after any conflict in which CRSV has allegedly been inflicted, a clinician may be required to provide evidence to an official investigatory body or court; and (3) infliction of rape in any conflict may equate to commission of torture and possibly genocide, a reality which obliges every clinician to appreciate that a patient may simultaneously be a victim of human rights violations and of crimes.


Assuntos
Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Altruísmo , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Sobreviventes
9.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 936, 2022 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538457

RESUMO

Where abortion is legal, it is often regulated through a grounds-based approach. A grounds-based approach to abortion provision occurs when law and policy provide that lawful abortion may be provided only where a person who wishes to have an abortion satisfies stipulated 'grounds', sometimes described as 'exceptions' or 'exceptional grounds'. Grounds-based approaches to abortion are, prima facie, restrictive as they limit access to abortion based on factors extraneous to the preferences of the pregnant person. International human rights law specifies that abortion must be available (and not 'merely' lawful) where the life or health of the pregnant woman or girl is at risk, or where carrying a pregnancy to term would cause her substantial pain or suffering, including but not limited to situations where the pregnancy is the result of rape or incest or the pregnancy is not viable. However, international human rights law does not specify a grounds-based approach as the way to give effect to this requirement. The aim of this review is to address knowledge gaps related to the health and non-health outcomes plausibly related to the effects of a grounds-based approach to abortion regulation. The evidence from this review shows that grounds have negative implications for access to quality abortion and for the human rights of pregnant people. Further, it shows that grounds-based approaches are insufficient to meet states' human rights obligations. The evidence presented in this review thus suggests that enabling access to abortion on request would be more rights-enhancing than grounds-based approaches to abortion regulation.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Estupro , Aborto Legal , Feminino , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Gravidez , Gestantes
10.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 207, 2022 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35585046

RESUMO

Sexual assault and rape are crimes that impact victims worldwide. Although the psychosocial and eco-evolutionary factors associated with this antisocial behavior have repeatedly been studied, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still largely unknown. Here, we established a novel paradigm to provoke and subsequently assess sexual aggression (SxA) in adult male Wistar rats: the sexual aggression test (SxAT). Briefly, male Wistar rats are sexually aroused by a receptive female, which is exchanged by a non-receptive female immediately after the first intromission. This protocol elicits forced mounting and aggressive behavior toward the non-receptive female to different degrees, which can be scored. In a series of experiments we have shown that SxA behavior is a relatively stable trait in rats and correlates positively with sexual motivation. Rats with innate abnormal anxiety and aggressive behavior also show abnormal SxA behavior. In addition, central infusion of oxytocin moderately inhibits aggressive behavior, but increases forced mounting. Finally, we identified the agranular insular cortex to be specifically activated by SxA, however, inhibition of this region did not significantly alter behavior in the SxAT. Altogether, the SxAT is a paradigm that can be readily implemented in behavioral laboratories as a valuable tool to find answers regarding the biological mechanisms underlying SxA in humans, as well as social decision-making in general.


Assuntos
Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Agressão , Animais , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Feminino , Masculino , Estupro/psicologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 13(1): 2057165, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35558683

RESUMO

Background: Sexual assault (SA) is a highly prevalent global public health problem and a robust predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use disorder (SUD), and suicidality. A large percentage are drug or alcohol facilitated (DFSA), impairing trauma memory and affecting the application of evidence-based treatments. Despite these problems, few have investigated DFSA-specific mental health (MH) needs. Objective: Goals of this study were (1) to identify psychological sequelae characterizing DFSA towards explaining why symptoms have been treatment-refractory, comparing survivors with involuntary substance ingestion (forced, covert: DFSA-I), voluntary ingestion (DFSA-V), and non-DFSA; and (2) to determine how impaired trauma memory relates to the development of PTSD and depression symptoms. Method: Data from a retrospective chart review of 74 adults receiving SA MH services at an outpatient trauma center are presented. The sample includes a 2-year cohort seen acutely at an urban rape treatment center. The study is one of the first to examine therapy records beyond case studies for DFSA. Logistic, Poisson, and negative binomial regression analyses of quantitative data and qualitative thematic analysis of trauma cognitions and treatment foci were conducted. Results: DFSA-V had five times greater odds of SUD, and notable substance-related self-blame compared to DFSA-I. DFSA-I had prominent relationship distress and self-blame for missing danger of perpetrator drugging. Survivors with impaired trauma memory had significantly fewer hyper-arousal and overall PTSD symptoms, and specifically less hypervigilance. No differences were found in re-experiencing symptoms. Conclusion: Impaired trauma memory is common in DFSA and is associated with fewer baseline hyper-arousal and overall PTS. Despite this, DFSA issues including re-experiencing symptoms that are particularly distressing without the ability to cognitively connect the intrusions contribute to increased treatment needs. Impaired memory limits the application of evidence-based treatments, and collectively these findings call for the development of trauma-specific treatment protocols to enhance recovery for DFSA survivors. HIGHLIGHTS: Survivors of drug-facilitated sexual assault have prominent PTSD including reexperiencing, though trauma memory may not be encoded. • Those absent trauma memory have less hyperarousal, but DFSA complications explain why it is treatment refractory and inform treatment development.


Antecedentes: La agresión sexual (AS) es un problema de salud pública mundial de alta prevalencia y es un sólido predictor del trastorno de estrés postraumático (TEPT), del trastorno por uso de sustancias (TUS) y de suicidalidad. Un gran porcentaje de AS son facilitadas por drogas o alcohol (ASFDA), deteriorando la memoria del trauma y afectando la aplicación de tratamientos basados en la evidencia. A pesar de estos problemas, pocos han investigado las necesidades de salud mental (SM) específicas de los ASFDA.Objetivo: Los objetivos de este estudio fueron; primero, identificar las secuelas psicológicas que caracterizan a las ASFDA para explicar por qué los síntomas han sido refractarios al tratamiento. Para ello, se comparó a sobrevivientes a una ingestión involuntaria de sustancias (forzada, encubierta: ASFDA-I), a una ingestión voluntaria (ASFDA-V), y a una AS no-ASFDA; y, segundo; determinar cómo el deterioro de la memoria del trauma se relaciona con el desarrollo de síntomas del TEPT y depresión.Método: Se presentan los datos de una revisión retrospectiva de las historias clínicas de 74 adultos que recibieron servicios de SM por AS en un centro de trauma para pacientes ambulatorios. La muestra incluye a una cohorte de 2 años en donde los casos de AS fueron vistos de forma aguda en un centro urbano de tratamiento para violación. El estudio es uno de los primeros, más allá de los estudios de casos, en examinar los registros de terapia por ASFDA. Se realizaron análisis de regresión logística, Poisson y binomial negativa de datos cuantitativos y un análisis temático cualitativo de las cogniciones del trauma y los puntos clave del tratamiento.Resultados: Los ASFDA-V tuvieron cinco veces más probabilidades de TUS y de un notable sentimiento de culpa relacionado con las sustancias comparado con los ASFDA-I. Las ASFDA tenían problemas de relación importantes y sentimientos de culpa por haber pasado por alto el peligro de que el agresor se drogara. Los sobrevivientes con deterioro de la memoria traumática tuvieron significativamente menos síntomas de hiperactivación y del TEPT en general y, específicamente, menos hipervigilancia. No se encontraron diferencias en los síntomas de reexperimentación.Conclusión: El deterioro de la memoria traumática es común en las ASFDA y se asocia con menos hiperactivación de base y síntomas postraumáticos en general. A pesar de esto, los problemas de los ASFDA incluyen a los síntomas de reexperimentación que son particularmente angustiantes y que restan la capacidad de conectar cognitivamente las intrusiones, por lo que contribuyen a aumentar las necesidades de tratamiento. El deterioro de la memoria limita la aplicación de tratamientos basados en la evidencia y, en conjunto, estos hallazgos exigen el desarrollo de protocolos de tratamiento específicos para trauma para mejorar la recuperación de los sobrevivientes a las ASFDA.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Estupro/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
12.
Violence Vict ; 37(4): 515-531, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613885

RESUMO

Little is known about victims' experiences with the perpetrator after they report a sexual assault. This study examined harassment of sexual assault victims during the prosecution process utilizing case notes from a large, southern District Attorney's office. Specifically, harassment cases were compared to cases where no harassment was reported by the victim. We found that approximately 15% of victims vocalized harassment by the defendant, his family, or friends. The results detail characteristics and factors related to how harassment was carried out in these cases. These findings unveil the importance of communicating with victims during the prosecution process and suggest control balance theory to be an appropriate lens through which to view harassing behavior.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Assédio Sexual , Adulto , Humanos
13.
Sci Justice ; 62(3): 358-364, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35598928

RESUMO

South Africa has one of the highest rape statistics in the world, with an average of 117 rapes reported daily. Y-STR genotyping is becoming a popular tool in the analysis of DNA evidence collected after a crime of a sexual nature has been committed, but has yet to be implemented in South Africa's forensic laboratories. This study aimed to investigate the forensic value of the 27 Yfiler™ Plus loci in the South African population. A total of 271 samples from the African, Asian/Indian, Mixed Ancestry1, and Caucasian populations at the University of the Free State in Bloemfontein, South Africa were amplified and analysed using ThermoFisher Scientific's Yfiler™ Plus PCR Amplification kit. Of the 271 samples, 261 were identified to be unique, with an overall discrimination capacity of 98.15%. Discrimination capacities ranged from 91.67% for the Asian/Indian population to 100% for the Mixed Ancestry population. The haplotype diversity across the four populations is 0.9999, with an average gene diversity across all loci of 0.717. The forensic parameters estimated in this study provide evidence for the potential use of the commercial Yfiler™ Plus PCR amplification kit in a forensic application in South Africa.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Y , Genética Forense , Repetições de Microssatélites , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Frequência do Gene , Genética Populacional , Humanos , Estupro , África do Sul
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35627434

RESUMO

Sexual violence against women, including rape, is a serious public health issue in many countries. Rape victims often meet health professionals in medical institutions for a range of health problems. The aim of this research was investigation of attitudes towards rape victims among medical students. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 1183 university students who represented various medical disciplines. The average age of the respondents was 23.3 years. The Attitudes toward Rape Victims Scale (ARVS) was used in this study. RESULTS: Higher scores in men indicate that they held less sympathetic attitudes towards rape victims than women (61.6 vs. 52.6, p = 0.0000). Given the univariate interaction, social environment, and religious commitment did not significantly differentiate the respondents in this respect. Students of the medical faculty obtained the lowest results (medicine 49.7 vs. midwifery and nursing: 54.1, other fields: 54.4, p = 0.0008), showing much understanding and empathy for rape victims. CONCLUSIONS: The surveyed medical students presented moderately positive attitudes towards rape victims, among them men somewhat negative than women who made more pro-victim judgments. Among all medical field of study, medicine was distinguished by higher empathy. Religion and social environment independently do not differentiate respondents in this respect.


Assuntos
Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Estudantes de Medicina , Adulto , Atitude , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457663

RESUMO

Sexual violence, including nonconsensual sexual initiation and rape, remains pervasive, with impacts including adverse mental health and dysregulated stress response. Resilience is a promising interventional target. To advance the science, we examined the potential for resilience as an interventional tool by estimating associations between resilience, adverse mental health, and perceived stress among women by sexual violence history and partner perpetration. We analyzed 2018-2020 baseline survey data from 65 women enrolled in a prospective case-control study of sexual violence and HIV susceptibility in San Diego, CA. Multiple linear regressions were performed to examine associations, stratified by sexual violence history. About half of women experienced nonconsensual sexual initiation and/or rape; half of rapes were partner-perpetrated. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was significantly associated with perceived stress among survivors (in regressions with depression and resilience, nonconsensual initiation: ß = 6.514, p = 0.003, R2 = 0.616; rape: ß = 5.075, p = 0.030, R2 = 0.611). Resilience was associated with lower perceived stress for all women; the effect appeared stronger among survivors of sexual violence (nonconsensual initiation: ß = -0.599, p < 0.001 vs. ß = -0.452, p = 0.019; rape: ß = -0.624, p < 0.001 vs. ß = -0.421, p = 0.027). Partner perpetration of rape was not associated with perceived stress. Our findings support leveraging resilience and addressing PTSD to reduce perceived stress among women with lifetime experiences of sexual violence.


Assuntos
Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
16.
Arch Sex Behav ; 51(5): 2373-2383, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35441334

RESUMO

The perpetration of rape and sexual assault on college campuses is a pervasive problem that has been linked to narcissism and rape myth acceptance. Studies evaluating empathy priming-based prevention programs have yielded mixed results, and empathy priming has not been examined specifically among high-risk populations. The present study sought to address this gap in the literature by exploring how empathy priming interacts with narcissistic traits to predict heterosexual college males' (n = 74) rape myth acceptance. Participants read a vignette depicting a date rape and were either primed to be empathetic or objective. Results showed that baseline empathy and narcissism were negatively and positively associated with rape myth acceptance, respectively. After priming, participants low on narcissistic traits had lower rape myth acceptance when they were in the empathy (vs. the objective) condition, whereas individuals high in narcissistic traits had higher rape myth acceptance when they were in the empathy priming condition. Findings suggest that males who were at higher risk of perpetration more strongly endorsed problematic beliefs about rape after being asked to empathize with a fictional rape victim. Future prevention and intervention studies should incorporate measures of personality traits and continue to explore the possibility that empathy priming may produce the opposite of the intended effect among high-risk males.


Assuntos
Estupro , Empatia , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Narcisismo , Estupro/prevenção & controle , Universidades
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e051969, 2022 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35487735

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations and potential pathways between women's lifetime exposure to traumatic events and their recent experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV). SETTING: South African informal settlements near Durban. PARTICIPANTS: 677 women, living in informal settlements, aged 18-30 years, currently out of school or formal employment. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported experiences of IPV in the past 12 months and exposure to traumatic neighbourhood events (including witnessing murder, being robbed or kidnapped, witnessing and experiencing rape). RESULTS: Exposure to traumatic events was common among the 677 women surveyed. Over 70% had experienced at least one in their lifetime; one quarter (24%) had experienced 3 or more different events. Women exposed to any traumatic event had a 43% increase in the odds of experiencing IPV in comparison to those with no exposure (aOR 1.43, p≤0.000). Exposure to non-partner rape is more strongly associated with IPV than any other traumatic experience. Pathways from exposure to traumatic events and non-partner rape to recent IPV experience are mediated by a latent variable of poor mental health. Food insecurity is associated with all forms of traumatic experience, and is also indirectly associated with IPV through views by women that are unsupportive of gender equality. CONCLUSIONS: Women living in South African informal settlements who witness or experience traumatic events were likely to experience IPV, and this increases when women were exposed to multiple types of events. Our model suggests that experiencing traumatic events, and non-partner rape in particular, has negative effects on women's mental health in ways that may increase their vulnerability to IPV. IPV prevention interventions should consider the broader impacts of women's exposure to neighbourhood violence and severe poverty on IPV risk in settings where these are endemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03022370; post-results.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Estupro , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 788, 2022 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35440076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This paper investigates trends in rape-related crimes against women and girls reported in the Indian administrative data from 2001 to 2018 to assess the burden of crime, describe sub-national variations, and highlight data gaps to address sexual violence effectively in India. METHODS: Data on five rape-related crimes were extracted from the annual reports of National Crimes Record Bureau (NCRB), and included assault with the intent to outrage modesty of woman, rape, insult to the modesty of women, attempt to commit rape, and murder with rape/gang-rape. Rates for all categories combined, and for each crime were estimated for women and girls for India and its states. Trends for type of offender for rape, mean number of people arrested, and legal status of the cases was also assessed. RESULTS: The rate of all rape-related crime increased from 11.6 in 2001 to 19.8 in 2018 per 100,000 women and girls. Most of the 70.7% increase in rate between 2001 and 2018 was post 2012 following a gang-rape and murder case in India's capital. The largest proportion of crimes was recorded as assault with the intent to outrage modesty of the woman, followed by rape. The cited offender in rape cases was for the majority a close known person (44·3%) or other known person (43·1%). By the end of 2018, only 9·6% of the cases had completed trials, with acquittals in 73% cases. CONCLUSIONS: The wide variations in the yearly crime rates at state-level highlighted significant issues in data quality including under-reporting, non-comparability, possible bias in data reporting in NCRB, definition of rape-related crime in India, and access in reporting of crimes. Addressing barriers to reporting, improving quality and scope of administrative data recorded on sexual violence is urgently needed for India to meet SDG targets of eliminating all forms of violence against women and girls.


Assuntos
Peste , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Crime , Feminino , Homicídio , Humanos , Masculino , Violência
19.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 700, 2022 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35397528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In August 2017, a large population of Rohingya from northern Rakhine state in Myanmar fled to Bangladesh due to "clearance operations" by the Myanmar security forces characterized by widespread and systematic violence, including extensive conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV). This study sought to document the patterns of injuries and conditions experienced by the Rohingya, with a specific focus on sexual violence. METHODS: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 26 health care professionals who cared for Rohingya refugees after their arrival in Bangladesh between November 2019 and August 2020. RESULTS: Health care workers universally reported hearing accounts and seeing evidence of sexual and gender-based violence committed against Rohingya people of all genders by the Myanmar military and security forces. They observed physical and psychological consequences of such acts against the Rohingya while patients were seeking care. Health care workers shared that patients faced pressure not to disclose their experiences of CRSV, likely resulted in an underreporting of the prevalence of sexual violence. Forced witnessing of sexual violence and observed increases in pregnancy and birth rates as a result of rape are two less-reported issues that emerged from these data. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare workers corroborated previous reports that the Rohingya experienced CRSV at the hands of the Myanmar military and security forces. Survivors often revealed their experiences of sexual violence while seeking care for a variety of physical and psychological conditions. Stigma, cultural pressure, and trauma created barriers to disclosing experiences of sexual violence and likely resulted in an underreporting of the prevalence of sexual violence. The findings of this research emphasize the importance of offering universal and comprehensive trauma-informed services to all refugees with the presumption of high rates of trauma in this population and many survivors who may never identify themselves as such.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Estupro , Refugiados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Refugiados/psicologia , Violência
20.
J Affect Disord ; 309: 151-164, 2022 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35427719

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in rape survivors is considerably higher than the prevalence in non-sexual trauma survivors. Few studies have investigated risk and protective factors in survivors early-after-rape in a prospective longitudinal design. METHODS: In a sample of 639 rape-exposed women who were assessed within 20 days of rape and over 6 months, baseline data were used to predict PTSD symptom severity scores up to 6 months post-rape. RESULTS: The incidence of PTSD at 3 months was 48.5% and the cumulative incidence at 6 months post-rape was 54.8%. Baseline experience of rape stigma (guilt, shame, self-blame, social devaluation and discredit) and depression were significant predictors of PTSD symptom scores over time, in mixed linear regression models. Higher levels of depression and rape stigma were associated with higher PTSD scores. Assault-related factors were not associated with PTSD scores. LIMITATIONS: We could not measure PTSD symptom trajectories in all rape survivors, some of who may be at greater risk for PTSD e.g. non-disclosing rape survivors, those who declined participation and those who were extremely distressed at the time of recruitment. CONCLUSION: Addressing internalised and externalised stigma and resultant mental health effects on women who present to rape clinics may reduce the long-term adverse effects of rape on mental health outcomes, such as PTSD. Rape survivors who present with high levels of depression soon after a rape should be carefully monitored and appropriately treated in order to reduce PTSD severity.


Assuntos
Estupro , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Estupro/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia
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