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2.
Mol Immunol ; 135: 373-387, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020083

RESUMO

Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes vibriosis in wide range of marine organisms, and is responsible for food borne illnesses in humans through consumption of contaminated uncooked/partially cooked seafood. Continued and widespread antibiotics usage to increase the productivity has led to antibiotics resistance development. This has necessitated the need to develop alternative methods to control its infection. Use of safe and effective vaccines against the virulence factors not only protects from infection, it also minimizes antibiotic usage. The colonization of V. parahaemolyticus in the host and disease development requires several adhesins present on the cell surface, and thereby make them attractive vaccine candidates. V. parahaemolyticus produces extracellular type 1 fimbriae that have been shown to play a role in adhesion, biofilm formation and virulence. FimH is one of the minor components of the type 1 fimbriae occurring on its very tip. Being present on the cell surface, it is highly immunogenic, and can be targeted as a potential vaccine candidate. The present study describes the immunogenic and vaccine potential of recombinant V. parahaemolyticus FimH (rVpFimH) expressed in E. coli. Immunization of BALB/c mice with the rVpFimH elicited a strong mixed immune response, T-cell memory (evidenced by antibody isotyping, cytokine profiling and T-cell proliferation assay), and agglutination positive antibodies. FACS analysis and immunogold labeling showed that the polyclonal anti-rVpFimH antibodies were able to recognize the FimH on V. parahaemolyticus cells. In vivo challenge of the rVpFimH-immunized mice with 2×LD50 dose of live bacteria showed one hundred percent survival. Thus, our findings clearly demonstrate the potential of FimH as an effective vaccine candidate against V. parahaemolyticus.


Assuntos
Adesinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Proteínas de Fímbrias/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Vibrioses/prevenção & controle , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/imunologia , Adesinas Bacterianas/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas de Fímbrias/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Imunização , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Alimentos Crus/microbiologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Vibrioses/imunologia , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/genética , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/imunologia
3.
J Food Sci ; 86(6): 2579-2589, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34056725

RESUMO

This study was designed to investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors of Shigella flexneri isolated from drinking water and retail raw food samples in Peshawar, Pakistan. A total of 1,020 different samples were collected from various areas of Peshawar between January 2016 and May 2017, followed by identification of S. flexneri through biochemical, serological, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Potential risk factors associated with the development and spreading of S. flexneri infection were also investigated. Overall, 45 (4.41%) samples were positive for Shigella species. Among these samples, the predominant species was S. flexneri (n = 44) followed by S. boydii (n = 1). Interestingly, S. sonnei and S. dysenteriae isolates were not found in any sample. The isolation rate of S. flexneri in drinking water samples, market raw milk, and fruits/vegetables from Peshawar were 6.47%, 3.5%, and 2.9%, respectively. The phylogenetic reconstruction showed genetic diversity among three clades, as clades I and II have isolates of S. flexneri that were circulating within the drinking water, milk, fruits/vegetables, while clade III isolates were recovered from milk samples. Most of S. flexneri were detected in June to September. Potential risk factors of S. flexneri were water sources contaminated by toilet wastes (p = 0.04), surface water drainage (p = 0.0002), hospital wastes (p = 0.01), unhygienic handling (p < 0.05), and transportation of raw food (p = 0.04). In conclusion, S. flexneri isolates of closely related lineage originating from non-clinical samples might be associated with an increased human risk to shigellosis in Pakistan, as significant numbers of S. flexneri were observed in the drinking water and retail raw food samples. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study demonstrated the presence of S. flexneri in drinking water and retail raw food samples which seem to possess a serious threat to public health. Potential sources of food and water contamination should properly be monitored by public health authorities to reduce cases of shigellosis.


Assuntos
Água Potável/microbiologia , Disenteria Bacilar/epidemiologia , Alimentos Crus/microbiologia , Shigella flexneri/isolamento & purificação , Disenteria Bacilar/microbiologia , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fatores de Risco , Shigella flexneri/genética
5.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e124, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955833

RESUMO

In August 2017, a cluster of four persons infected with genetically related strains of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 was identified. These strains possessed the Shiga toxin (stx) subtype stx2a, a toxin type known to be associated with severe clinical outcome. One person died after developing haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Interviews with cases revealed that three of the cases had been exposed to dogs fed on a raw meat-based diet (RMBD), specifically tripe. In two cases, the tripe had been purchased from the same supplier. Sampling and microbiological screening of raw pet food was undertaken and indicated the presence of STEC in the products. STEC was isolated from one sample of raw tripe but was different from the strain causing illness in humans. Nevertheless, the detection of STEC in the tripe provided evidence that raw pet food was a potential source of human STEC infection during this outbreak. This adds to the evidence of raw pet food as a risk factor for zoonotic transmission of gastrointestinal pathogens, which is widely accepted for Salmonella, Listeria and Campylobacter spp. Feeding RMBD to companion animals has recently increased in popularity due to the belief that they provide health benefits to animals. Although still rare, an increase in STEC cases reporting exposure to RMBDs was detected in 2017. There has also been an increased frequency of raw pet food incidents in 2017, suggesting an increasing trend in potential risk to humans from raw pet food. Recommendations to reduce the risk of infection included improved awareness of risk and promotion of good hygiene practices among the public when handling raw pet food.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Escherichia coli O157/isolamento & purificação , Animais de Estimação , Alimentos Crus/microbiologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças , Cães , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/transmissão , Escherichia coli O157/genética , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/microbiologia , Humanos , Carne/microbiologia , Toxina Shiga/genética , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 350: 109228, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023681

RESUMO

Raw milk may contain pathogenic microorganism that can seriously affect the health of consumers. In Southwest Ethiopia, raw cow milk is consumed more than the processed products, but its microbiological quality and its predictors are not studied well. The aim of this study was to determine the microbial quality of raw cow milk and its predictors along the dairy value chain in Southwest Ethiopia. A total of 150 milk and 300 environmental samples were collected randomly from dairy farms, milk distribution centers, and retailer outlets for microbiological analysis using standard protocols. One milk handler from each milk production or distribution stage was also interviewed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding milk handling. Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression models were used to summarize the data and to identify predictors of milk microbial quality, respectively. As the milk transported from dairy farm to milk retailer outlet, the mean total bacterial count has increased from 5.0 ±â€¯0.3 to 7.2 ±â€¯0.1 log CFU/ml respectively. The mean coliform count of the milk sample was 4.4 ±â€¯0.4 log CFU/ml at the dairy farm and 7.0 ±â€¯0.2 log CFU/ml at milk selling points, indicating the deterioration of milk quality along the dairy value chain. All of the analyzed water samples were positive for fecal coliform bacteria. The highest coliform bacteria were reported from milk storage equipment found at milk retailer outlet with the count of 4.8 ±â€¯0.5 log CFU/ml. Educational status and attitude of milk handlers and the quality of water used to wash milk equipment and hands of milk handlers were the major factors affecting the microbial quality of raw cow milk. The findings of this study revealed that the microbial quality of raw milk in the study area was poor. Hence, improving the attitude and educational status of milk handlers, and the quality of water is an important step to enhance milk quality and consequently to prevent milk borne diseases.


Assuntos
Carga Bacteriana , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Leite/microbiologia , Alimentos Crus/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Etiópia , Fazendeiros , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino
8.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2021: 6631860, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854412

RESUMO

Escherichia coli O157 : H7 (E. coli O157 : H7) has been found to be the major cause of food-borne diseases and a serious public health problem in the world, with an increasing concern for the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant strains. Hitherto, little is known about the carriage of E. coli O157 : H7 and its antimicrobial susceptibility profile in the food of animal origin in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the occurrence and multidrug resistance profile of E. coli O157 : H7 from food of animal origin at different catering establishments in the selected study settings of Arsi Zone. One hundred ninety-two animal origin food items, namely, raw/minced meat (locally known as "Kitfo," "Kurt," and "Dulet"), raw milk, egg sandwich, and cream cake samples were collected and processed for microbiological detection of E. coli O157 : H7. Out of 192 samples, 2.1% (4/192) were positive for E. coli O157 : H7. Two E. coli O157 : H7 isolates were obtained from "Dulet" (6.3%) followed by "Kurt" (3.1%, 1/32) and raw milk (3.1%, 1/32), whereas no isolate was obtained from "Kitfo," egg sandwich, and cream cake samples. Of the 4 E. coli O157 : H7 isolates subjected to 10 panels of antimicrobial discs, 3 (75%) were highly resistant to kanamycin, streptomycin, and nitrofurantoin. Besides, all the isolates displayed multidrug resistance phenotypes, 3 to 5 antimicrobial resistance, amid kanamycin, streptomycin, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol. The occurrence of multidrug-resistant E. coli O157 : H7 isolates from foods of animal origin sampled from different catering establishments reveals that the general sanitary condition of the catering establishments, utensils used, and personnel hygienic practices did not comply with the recommended standards. Thus, this finding calls for urgent attention toward appropriate controls and good hygienic practices in different catering establishments dealing with consuming raw/undercooked foods of animal origin.


Assuntos
Ovos/microbiologia , Escherichia coli O157/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Restaurantes , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Área Programática de Saúde , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Escherichia coli O157/efeitos dos fármacos , Etiópia , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Testes de Fixação do Látex , Modelos Logísticos , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Alimentos Crus/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco , Amostragem
9.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 346: 109164, 2021 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813365

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to assess the presence of genes in ESBL-producing E. coli (ESBL-Ec) isolated from retail raw food in Nha Trang, Vietnam. A total of 452 food samples comprising chicken (n = 116), pork (n = 112), fish (n = 112) and shrimp (n = 112) collected between 2015 and 2017 were examined for the prevalence of ESBL-Ec. ESBL-Ec were detected in 46.0% (208/452) of retail food samples, particularly in 66.4% (77/116), 55.4% (62/112), 42.0% (47/112) 19.6% (22/112) of chicken, pork, fish and shrimp, respectively. Sixty-five out of the 208 (31.3%) ESBL-Ec isolates were positive for mcr genes including mcr-1, mcr-3 and both mcr-1 and mcr-3 genes in 56/208 (26.9%), 1/208 (0.5%) and 8/208 (3.9%) isolates, respectively. Particularly, there was higher prevalence of mcr-1 in ESBL-Ec isolates from chicken (53.2%, 41/77) in comparison to shrimp (22.7%, 5/22), pork (11.3%, 7/62) and fish (6.4%, 3/47). mcr-3 gene was detected in co-existence with mcr-1 in ESBL-Ec isolates from shrimp (9.1%, 2/22), pork (8.1%, 5/62) and fish (2.1%, 1/47) but not chicken. The 65 mcr-positive ESBL-Ec (mcr-ESBL-Ec) were colistin-resistant with the MICs of 4-8 µg/mL. All mcr-3 gene-positive isolates belonged to group A, whereas phylogenetic group distribution of isolates harboring only mcr-1 was B1 (44.6%), A (28.6%) and D (26.8%). PFGE analysis showed diverse genotypes, although some isolates demonstrated nearly clonal relationships. S1-PFGE and Southern hybridization illustrated that the mcr-1 and mcr-3 genes were located either on chromosomes or on plasmids. However, the types of mcr genes were harbored on different plasmids with varied sizes of 30-390 kb. Besides, the ESBL genes of CTX-M-1 or CTX-M-9 were also detected to be located on plasmids. Noteworthy, co-location of CTX-M-1 with mcr-1 or mcr-3 genes on the same plasmid was identified. The conjugation experiment indicated that the mcr-1 or mcr-3 was horizontally transferable. All mcr-ESBL-Ec isolates were multidrug resistance (resistance to ≥3 antimicrobial classes). Moreover, ß-Lactamase-encoding genes of the CTX-M-1 (78.5%), CTX-M-9 (21.5%), TEM (61.5%) groups were found in mcr-ESBL-Ec. The astA gene was detected in 27 (41.5%) mcr-ESBL-Ec isolates demonstrating their potential virulence. In conclusion, mcr-1 and mcr-3 genes existed individually or concurrently in ESBL-Ec isolates recovered from retail raw food in Nha Trang city, which might further complicate the antimicrobial-resistant situation in Vietnam, and is a possible health risk for human.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Colistina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Carne/microbiologia , Alimentos Crus/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética , Animais , Galinhas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Peixes , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Genótipo , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Prevalência , Alimentos Crus/economia , Suínos , Vietnã , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
11.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 75(2): 137-152, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752536

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of raw (PP) and fermented pomegranate pomace (FP) on performance, antioxidant activity, caecal microbiota and ileal morphology in broiler chickens. A total of 175 male broiler chicks were allocated to five treatment groups with five replicates and seven birds per replicate in a completely randomised design. Dietary treatments included a soy-corn based diet (control), diets supplemented with PP at 5 (5PP) and 10 g/kg (10PP), and diets supplemented with FP at 5 (5FP) and 10 g/kg (10FP). Dietary PP and FP did not change the body weight and feed conversion ratio. Moreover, dietary PP and FP did not alter the serum glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase levels but decreased malondialdehyde (p < 0.05) in breast meat. Caecal Clostridium perfringens count was decreased in broiler chickens of groups 10PP, 5FP and 10FP (p < 0.05). However, PP and FP had detrimental effects on the ileum morphology of broiler chicks. The villus height was decreased in the 10PP, 5FP and 10FP groups compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Crypt depth was higher in the 5PP and 10FP groups than control and 10PP groups (p < 0.01). The villus height to crypt depth ratio was also decreased in 5PP, 5FP, and 10FP groups (p < 0.01). These results suggest that PP and FP have the potential to be used in broiler diets as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. However, detailed studies should be conducted to investigate the underlying reasons for the detrimental effects on ileal morphology.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Romã (Fruta)/química , Alimentos Crus/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Galinhas/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
12.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 341: 109031, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485138

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. It has been reported as the fourth leading cause of hospitalization and second leading cause of death among 31 major foodborne pathogens in the United States. Humans are infected through consumption of raw or undercooked meat containing T. gondii tissue cysts or ingestion of food, soil, or water contaminated by T. gondii oocysts. People often lack knowledge about how to prevent T. gondii infection, especially the risks associated with eating or handling raw or undercooked meat. Current available data on cooking or low temperature storage for whole cuts of meat are not sufficient to validate inactivation of T. gondii. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the relationship of time and temperature with the survival rate of T. gondii during cooking and low temperature storage of fresh cut meats. We used different statistical sampling techniques such as bootstrap resampling and Gibbs sampling to establish those relationships. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the safe temperature for cooking and storing meats. The results showed no detection of T. gondii in fresh meats when the internal temperature reached above 64 °C (147.2 °F) and below -18 °C (0 °F). The tissue cysts can remain viable at least up to 30 days at 4 °C (39 °F) and about 3.3% cysts survived at 62.8 °C (145 °F). This study can provide helpful information in improving the risk models to further mitigate the public health burden of toxoplasmosis.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Temperatura Alta , Carne/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Toxoplasmose/prevenção & controle , Culinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Alimentos Crus/parasitologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia
13.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 341: 109050, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498008

RESUMO

Dromedary camel milk is generally considered a valuable and marketable commodity but its production suffers from poor hygienic conditions that result in low microbiological quality and the presence of various pathogens. The objective of the present study was to provide a detailed report of the bacterial species level composition of Moroccan raw camel milk samples that can serve as a starting point for the selection of starter cultures to facilitate a change in manufacturing practices to an improved and safer production system. The composition of the bacterial community in four freshly collected raw camel milk samples was analyzed by performing a large-scale isolation campaign combined with 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. A total of 806 isolates were obtained from four raw camel milk samples using ten combinations of growth media and incubation conditions. Subsequent isolate dereplication using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and identification of representative isolates through sequence analysis of protein encoding and 16S rRNA genes revealed the presence of established and novel dairy lactic acid bacteria, as well as bacteria that are considered indicators of poor hygienic conditions and psychrotrophic spoilage organisms. The large numbers of Lactococcus and Enterococcus isolates obtained present an interesting resource for starter culture selection.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Camelus/fisiologia , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Leite/microbiologia , Alimentos Crus/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Enterococcus/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactobacillales/genética , Lactobacillales/isolamento & purificação , Marrocos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
14.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 341: 109068, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498009

RESUMO

Raw vegetables are a key food for a healthy diet, but their increased consumption brings a higher risk for foodborne disease. Contamination of salad greens with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 has caused severe disease and important economic losses almost yearly in the United States over the last 10 years. To curb the risk of infections from contaminated produce, approaches based on bacterial virus - commonly known as bacteriophage or phage - have recently started to draw interest among other antimicrobial strategies. Phages enter bacterial cells to reproduce and cause cellular lysis to release their phage progeny at the end of their infection cycle. This lytic effect is caused by lysins, phage-encoded enzymes that have evolved to degrade the bacterial cell wall resulting in hypotonic lysis. When applied externally in their purified form, such enzymes are able to kill sensitive bacteria on contact in a similar way. Their unique bactericidal properties have made lysins effective antimicrobial agents in a variety of applications, from treating multidrug-resistant infections in humans to controlling bacterial contamination in several areas, including microbiological food safety. Here we describe a novel lysin, namely PlyEc2, with potent bactericidal activity against key gram-negative pathogens including E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas. PlyEc2 displayed high bactericidal activity against STEC to a concentration of 12.5 µg/ml under different pH conditions. This lysin was also able to reduce the bacterial titer of several pathogenic strains in vitro by more than 5 logarithmic units, resulting in complete sterilization. Importantly, PlyEc2 proved to be a powerful produce decontamination agent in its ability to clear 99.7% of contaminating STEC O157:H7 in our Romaine lettuce leaf model. PlyEc2 was also able to eradicate 99.8% of the bacteria contaminating the washing solution, drastically reducing the risk of cross-contamination during the washing process. A sensory evaluation panel found that treatment with PlyEc2 did not alter the visual and tactile quality of lettuce leaves compared to the untreated leaves. Our study is the first to describe a highly effective lysin treatment to control gram-negative pathogenic contamination on fresh lettuce without the addition of membrane destabilizing agents.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriófagos/enzimologia , Escherichia coli O157/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Alface/microbiologia , Bacteriófagos/metabolismo , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Descontaminação/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Humanos , Alimentos Crus/microbiologia
15.
J Food Prot ; 84(2): 255-261, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513256

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii, a ubiquitous obligate intracellular parasite that can infect homeothermic animals, is one of the main pathogens causing foodborne diseases worldwide. In Gaza, Palestine, leafy vegetables are frequently eaten raw. The present study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of T. gondii oocyst in local leafy vegetables. Fifty samples each of six species of leafy plants sold in open-air markets, in supermarkets, and by retail sellers were randomly collected from March to August 2019, for a total of 300 samples. The samples were examined by light microscopy after flotation in Sheather's sucrose solution and by PCR assay of the pelleted samples. All suspect T. gondii oocysts were confirmed with a PCR assay. With the PCR assay of the pelleted samples, only 19 (6.33%) of the 300 samples were positive for T. gondii, whereas with the Sheather's flotation method, 35 (11.66%) of the 300 samples were positive. With the PCR assay, among the six plant types mint had the highest T. gondii prevalence (10.00% of samples) followed by watercress and dill (both 8.00%), parsley (6.00%), thyme (4.00%), and lettuce (2.00%). Even though the relative prevalence of T. gondii in the contaminated plant species was similar with both the PCR and Sheather's flotation methods, the actual prevalences were different. With Sheather's flotation, T. gondii prevalence was highest in mint (18.00% of samples) followed by watercress (14.00%), dill (13.00%), parsley (10.00%), thyme (10.00%), and lettuce (6.00%). The relationship between T. gondii contamination and the time of year the samples were collected was also significant. The highest prevalence recorded was in July followed by June and August. These findings indicate that leafy vegetables, particularly mint, can be contaminated with T. gondii and are a potential risk factor for transmitting T. gondii to humans in Gaza, Palestine.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , DNA de Protozoário , Humanos , Oocistos , Alimentos Crus , Verduras
16.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 42(1): 29-36, jan./jun. 2021. Tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247833

RESUMO

The population interest for fish consumption has increased, mainly due to several beneficial nutritional properties presented by this food. In this context, oriental culinary also brings different eating habits as consume raw food, such as sashimi. A relevant food contaminant of fecal origin is Escherichia coli, able to become potentially harmful, when it acquires virulence factors, as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). This study aimed to evaluate 30 samples of salmon sashimi regarding the presence of E. coli, as well as perform the genotypic characterization of virulence factors associated with STEC. Three samples were collected from 10 different restaurants, specialized in Japanese culinary in the city of Londrina - PR. The E. coli identification was performed using the Colilert® chromogenic substrate technique and biochemical tests, and for the investigation of virulence genes, stx1 and stx2, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used. Among the 30 samples analyzed, 15 (50%) presented contamination by E. coli. However, in no sample were detected virulence factors associated with STEC. Although human diseases associated with STEC are poorly described in Brazil, it is possible to verify that fish, mainly those consumed raw, are potential transmitters of E. coli to humans. This can compromise the food safety of these products and, thus, characterize them as unsuitable for consumption. Therefore, it is necessary the adoption of preventive measures of contamination by E. coli in products intended to human consumption, beyond more research that can verify the potential of STEC as a fish contaminant. (AU)


O interesse da população pelo consumo de peixe tem aumentado, principalmente devido às diversas propriedades nutricionais benéficas apresentadas por este alimento. Neste contexto, a culinária oriental também traz diferentes hábitos alimentares, como consumir alimentos crus, tais como o sashimi. Um relevante contaminante alimentar de origem fecal é Escherichia coli, capaz de tornarse potencialmente danosa ao adquirir fatores de virulência, como E. coli produtora de toxina Shiga (STEC). Este estudo objetivou avaliar 30 amostras de sashimi de salmão quanto à presença de E. coli, bem como realizar a caracterização genotípica de fatores de virulência associados com STEC. Três amostras foram coletadas de 10 diferentes restaurantes especializados em culinária japonesa da cidade de Londrina - PR. A identificação de E. coli foi realizada utilizando a técnica de substrato cromogênico Colilert® e testes bioquímicos, e para a investigação dos genes de virulência, stx1 e stx2, a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) foi utilizada. Dentre as 30 amostras analisadas, 15 (50%) apresentaram contaminação por E. coli. Contudo, em nenhuma das amostras foram detectados fatores de virulência associados com STEC. Embora as doenças humanas associadas com STEC sejam pouco descritas no Brasil, é possível verificar que os peixes, principalmente aqueles consumidos crus, são potenciais transmissores de E. coli aos humanos. Isto pode comprometer a segurança alimentar destes produtos e, assim, caracterizá-los como impróprios para o consumo. Portanto, é necessária a adoção de medidas preventivas de contaminação por E. coli nos produtos destinados ao consumo humano, além de mais pesquisas que possam verificar o potencial de STEC como um contaminante de peixes. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Restaurantes , Salmão , Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica , Alimentos Crus , Alimentos
18.
Mycotoxin Res ; 37(1): 89-96, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216318

RESUMO

In the present study, a total of 112 raw milk samples were collected between October and December of 2018 from dairy farming households in Malawi and analyzed for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) using VICAM aflatest fluorometry procedure. These data together with the consumption data obtained through a milk consumption frequency questionnaire were used for the calculation of AFM1 exposure and its association with hepatocarcinoma (HCC) risk in dairy farming population. Average daily milk intake by children and adults were approximately 300 ± 0.07 and 541.7 ± 0.14 mL, respectively. All raw milk samples tested positive to AFM1 averaging 0.551 µg/L. Probable mean daily exposure to AFM1 for adults was 4.98 ± 7.25 ng/kg BW/day almost half that of children (8.28 ± 11.82 ng/kg BW/day). Estimated risk of AFM1-induced HCC associated with consumption of milk among children and adults were 0.038 and 0.023 cases per 100,000 individuals per year, respectively. Although the results of this investigation suggest a low risk of HCC, other negative health effects of AFM1 justify its continuous monitoring and update of the risk assessment. This work presents the first insight in the occurrence of AFM1 in cow milk in Malawi as well as associated AFM1 exposure in dairy farming population.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina M1/análise , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Leite/química , Alimentos Crus/análise , Adulto , Agricultura , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Indústria de Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Malaui/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
Acta Trop ; 216: 105752, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188749

RESUMO

Clonorchiasis is an important food-borne parasitic disease in China because of the popularity in ingesting raw freshwater fish. To explore the epidemiology and determinants of clonorchiasis in children, a cross-sectional survey was implemented in two middle schools in Qiyang county, Hunan province, in southeastern China. Questionnaire survey and fecal examination were implemented. Questionnaires were fed back by 627 students, while stool samples were collected from 557 students, out of which 545 ones also provided questionnaire information. The percentage of students ingesting raw freshwater fish was 40.5% (254/627), while the prevalence with Clonorchis sinensis infection was 18.9% (105/557). Such factors contributed significantly to the students' practice in eating raw freshwater fish including boys, fathers' eating raw freshwater fish, mothers' eating raw freshwater fish, and preparation of raw freshwater fish at home, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.9 (95% confidence intervals (95% CI): 1.3-2.8), 3.9 (95% CI: 2.3-6.5), 3.0 (95% CI: 1.8-4.8) and 2.8 (95% CI: 1.8-4.5), correspondingly. Ingestion of raw freshwater fish, fathers' eating raw freshwater fish and preparation of raw freshwater fish at home were risk factors of C. sinensis infection in students, and the adjusted odds ratio was 3.2 (95% CI: 1.9-5.5), 2.1 (95% CI: 1.1-3.9) and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.0-3.2), respectively. Thus, clonorchiasis was endemic in the surveyed schools due to the ingestion of raw freshwater fish, which is influenced by family environment. Education should be implemented in schools to promote behavioral change of eating raw freshwater fish.


Assuntos
Clonorquíase/epidemiologia , Clonorchis sinensis , Peixes/parasitologia , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Alimentos Crus/parasitologia , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Água Doce , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Food Prot ; 84(3): 399-407, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057673

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Raw pet food, composed of raw meat and vegetables, has increased in popularity in recent years. Multiple surveys and frequent recalls indicate that this commodity has a high risk of contamination with Salmonella and other foodborne pathogens. Improved screening methods are needed to meet the growing demand for testing. This matrix verification study aimed to apply a Salmonella loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method, recently completed multilaboratory validation in dry dog food, in several raw pet food matrices, following the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s method validation guidelines. Five types of raw pet food, consisting of freeze-dried beef and chicken treats and frozen beef, pork, and turkey complete foods, were evaluated. For each matrix, two sets of ten 25-g test portions (seven inoculated with ≤30 cells of Salmonella Typhimurium and three uninoculated controls) were examined. One set was preenriched in buffered peptone water and the other one was preenriched in lactose broth, which was followed by LAMP screening using two isothermal master mixes (ISO-001 and ISO-004). All results were confirmed by culture as specified in the FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM). The LAMP method accurately detected Salmonella in all inoculated test portions of the five raw pet food samples, regardless of the preenrichment broth used. Positive results could be obtained within 4 min of the LAMP run using the ISO-004 master mix. All uninoculated controls tested negative using LAMP or BAM. In addition, one turkey-based complete pet food sample was found to be already contaminated with three Salmonella serovars harboring multiple antimicrobial resistance genes. The Salmonella LAMP method offers a rapid, reliable, and robust tool for routine screening of Salmonella in raw pet food, which will help better ensure product safety and protect public health.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Animais , Bovinos , Cães , Carne , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Alimentos Crus
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