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1.
Appl Ergon ; 98: 103595, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610491

RESUMO

The present study examined whether the non-chronological age factor, engagement in physical exercise, affected responses to multimodal (combinations of visual, auditory, and/or tactile) signals differently between younger and older adults in complex environments. Forty-eight younger and older adults were divided into exercise and non-exercise groups, and rode in a simulated Level 3 autonomous vehicle under four different task conditions (baseline, video watching, headway estimation, and video-headway combination), while being asked to respond to various multimodal warning signals. Overall, bi- and trimodal warnings had faster response times for both age groups across driving conditions, but was more pronounced for older adults. Engagement in physical exercise was associated with smaller maximum braking force for younger participants only, and also corresponded to longer average fixation durations, compared to the non-exercise group. Findings from this research can help to guide decisions about the design of warning and information systems for semi-autonomous vehicles.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Idoso , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Tato
2.
Appl Ergon ; 99: 103638, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768226

RESUMO

Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) can enhance road safety by sending warning signals to drivers. Multimodal signals are gaining attention in ADAS warning design because they offer redundant information that facilitates human-system communication. However, no consensus has been reached on which multimodal design offers optimal benefit to road safety. Icons iconically map the real world and are associated with fast recognition and response time. Therefore, this study aims to investigate whether visual and auditory icons will benefit the effectiveness of audiovisual multimodal warnings. Thirty-two participants (16 females) experienced four types of unimodal warnings (high and low mapping visual warnings and high and low mapping auditory warnings) and four types of audiovisual warnings (high mapping visual + high mapping auditory warning, low mapping visual + low mapping auditory warning, high mapping visual + low mapping auditory warning, and low mapping visual + high mapping auditory warning) in simulated driving conditions. Visual warnings are presented in a head-up display. Results showed that multimodal warnings outperformed unimodal warnings (i.e., modality effect). We found mapping effect in audiovisual warnings, but only high mapping auditory constituents benefited warning effectiveness. Eye movement results revealed that the high mapping constituents might distract drivers from the road. This study adds evidence that multimodal warnings can offer extra benefits to drivers and high mapping auditory signals should be included in multimodal warning design to achieve better driving performance.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Condução de Veículo , Atenção , Simulação por Computador , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Reação
3.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118400, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688725

RESUMO

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in many industries for multiple applications that inevitably release AgNPs into surface water sources. The formation kinetics of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in the presence of AgNPs was investigated during chlorination. Experiments were carried out with raw water from a canal in Songkhla, Thailand, which analyzed the formation potential (FP) of trihalomethanes FP (THMFP), iodo-trihalomethanes FP (I-THMFP), haloacetonitriles FP (HANFP), and trichloronitromethane FP. Increased AgNP concentrations by 10-20 mg/L led to a higher specific formation rate of chloroform which is described by zero- and first-order kinetics. The increase in the specific formation of chloroform as increasing chlorine contact time could enhance both the THMFP rates and the maximum THMFP concentrations in all tested AgNPs. The AgNP content did not have a significant influence on I-THMFP and HANFP concentrations or speciation. The I-THMFP and HANFP increased in a short-chlorination time as mostly complete formation <12 h, and then the rate decreased as the reaction proceeded. The levels of THMs and many emerging DBPs are related to the presence of AgNPs in chlorinated water and chlorine reaction time. THMFP had a higher impact on integrated toxic risk value (ITRV) than I-THMFP and HANFP because of the chlorination of water with AgNPs. The chlorine reaction time was more effective for increasing the ITRV of THMFP than the level of AgNPs. Water treatment plants should control the DBPs that cause possible health risks from water consumption by optimizing water distribution time.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cloro , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Tempo de Reação , Prata/toxicidade , Tailândia , Trialometanos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
4.
Appl Ergon ; 99: 103628, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717071

RESUMO

Searching for targets among distractors in visual scenes can be more difficult due to the presence of clutter. However, studies in various domains have shown differentiated effects according to the expertise of the searcher. The present study extended these findings to the domain of action video games expertise. 58 participants, split in 2 groups (action video game players and non-action video game players) searched for targets in visual scenes under two clutter conditions (uncluttered and high clutter). Reaction times and accuracy served as measures of performance, and the visual behavior was assessed using the number and duration of eye fixations. Our findings suggest that visual clutter has a negative influence on performance and alters the visual behavior during visual search in action video game scenes. Our results also suggest that expert action video game players might use different visual strategies to cope with clutter, leading however to no performance benefits.


Assuntos
Jogos de Vídeo , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Percepção Visual
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770104

RESUMO

Exercise duration may influence the acute effects on cognition. However, only one study to date has explored the dose-response relationship between exercise duration and cognition in adolescents. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of differing durations of high-intensity intermittent running on cognition in adolescents. Thirty-eight adolescents (23 girls) completed three trials separated by 7 d: 30 min exercise, 60 min exercise, and rest; in a randomised crossover design. The exercise was a modified version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST), which elicited high-intensity intermittent exercise. Cognitive function tests (Stroop test, Sternberg paradigm, Flanker task) were completed 30 min pre, immediately post, and 45 min post exercise. Response times on the incongruent level of the Flanker task improved to a greater extent 45 min following the 30 min LIST, compared to rest (p = 0.009). Moreover, response times improved to a greater extent on the three-item level of Sternberg paradigm 45 min following the 30 min LIST, compared to the 60 min LIST (p = 0.002) and rest (p = 0.013), as well as on the five-item level 45 min following the 30 min LIST, compared to the 60 min LIST (p = 0.002). In conclusion, acute exercise enhanced subsequent cognition in adolescents, but overall, 30 min of high-intensity intermittent running is more favourable to adolescents' cognition, compared to 60 min.


Assuntos
Cognição , Corrida , Adolescente , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Teste de Stroop
6.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 47(10): 1313-1328, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766817

RESUMO

A longstanding debate in visual attention research has been whether physically salient objects have an automatic power to capture attention. Recent evidence has supported a hybrid model. According to the signal suppression hypothesis, salient items automatically attract attention but can be proactively suppressed via top-down control to prevent attentional capture. Although much recent evidence has suggested that salient items can be suppressed, many of these studies used color singletons with relatively low salience. It is therefore unknown whether highly salient color singletons can also be suppressed. The current study adapted the probe technique to assess capture by color singletons at large set sizes (10 or 30 items). In four experiments, we observed no evidence that highly salient color singletons captured attention and instead observed evidence that they were suppressed below baseline levels of processing. We did, however, find strong evidence of floor effects in probe report at high set sizes, which can be mitigated by limiting the number of items that are simultaneously probed. Altogether, the results support the signal suppression hypothesis. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Percepção de Cores , Humanos , Tempo de Reação
7.
J Med Syst ; 46(1): 5, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812925

RESUMO

In high-consequence industries such as health care, auditory alarms are an important aspect of an informatics system that monitors patients and alerts providers attending to multiple concurrent tasks. Alarms levels are unnecessarily high and alarm signals are uninformative. In a laboratory-based task setting, we studied 25 anesthesiology residents' responses to auditory alarms in a multitasking paradigm comprised of three tasks: patient monitoring, speech perception/intelligibility, and visual vigilance. These tasks were in the presence of background noise plus/minus music, which served as an attention-diverting stimulus. Alarms signified clinical decompensation and were either conventional alarms or a novel informative auditory icon alarm. Both alarms were presented at four different levels. Task performance (accuracy and response times) were analyzed using logistic and linear mixed-effects regression. Salient findings were 1), the icon alarm had similar performance to the conventional alarm at a +2 dB signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) (accuracy: OR 1.21 (95% CI 0.88, 1.67), response time: 0.04 s at 2 dB (95% CI: -0.16, 0.24), which is a much lower level than current clinical environments; 2) the icon alarm was associated with 27% greater odds (95% CI: 18%, 37%) of correctly addressing the vigilance task, regardless of alarm SNR, suggesting crossmodal/multisensory multitasking benefits; and 3) compared to the conventional alarm, the icon alarm was associated with an absolute improvement in speech perception of 4% in the presence of an attention-diverting auditory stimulus (p = 0.031). These findings suggest that auditory icons can provide multitasking benefits in cognitively demanding clinical environments.


Assuntos
Alarmes Clínicos , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica , Ruído , Tempo de Reação , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
8.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 47(10): 1348-1364, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766819

RESUMO

Stimuli that signal large reward have an increased likelihood of capturing attention and gaze relative to stimuli that signal small or no reward, even when capture counterproductively prevents reward delivery. These findings suggest that a stimulus's signaling relationship with reward (the contingency between stimulus presentation and reward delivery) is a potent influence on selective attention. Recent studies have also implicated a stimulus's response relationship with reward (the contingency between orienting to a stimulus and reward delivery) in reducing capture by signals of reward. Here we show that this response pathway modulates capture by encouraging a reactive, goal-directed distractor suppression process. In a rewarded visual search task, participants demonstrated an oculomotor preference away from a distractor that had a negative response relationship with high reward (looking at the distractor caused reward omission) and toward a distractor that had no such negative response relationship, providing evidence for the role of the response relationship in suppressing capture by reward-related distractors. Analysis of the temporal dynamics of eye movements suggests that this distractor suppression process operates via a reactive mechanism of rapid disengagement (Experiment 1). Consistent with a goal-directed mechanism, the influence of the response relationship was eliminated when reward was unavailable (Experiment 2). These findings highlight the multifaceted role of stimulus-reward relationships in attentional selection. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção , Objetivos , Humanos , Motivação , Tempo de Reação , Recompensa
9.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 47(10): 1365-1377, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766820

RESUMO

Previous literature on the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect examined which factors modulate spatial-numerical associations. Recently, the role of order in the SNARC effect has been debated, and further research is necessary to better understand its contribution. The present study investigated how the order elicited by the context of the stimuli and by task demands interact. Across three experiments, we presented numbers in the context of a mobile phone keypad, an overlearned numerical display in which the ordinal position of numbers differs from the mental number line. The experiments employed three tasks with different levels of consistency with the order elicited by the context. In Experiment 1, participants judged numbers based on their spatial position on the keypad, and we found a spatial association consistent with the keypad configuration, indicating that the spatial association is driven both by the context and by the task when they consistently elicit the same order. In Experiment 2a, participants performed a magnitude classification task, and results revealed a lack of spatial associations, suggesting a conflict between the orders elicited by the context and by the task. In Experiment 2b, participants performed a parity judgment task, and the results revealed a SNARC effect, suggesting that the order elicited by the context did not modulate the spatial association. Overall, three different tasks gave rise to three different results. This shows that the context alone is not sufficient in modulating spatial-numerical associations but that the consistency between the orders elicited by context and task demands is a key factor. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Julgamento , Percepção Espacial , Humanos , Matemática , Tempo de Reação
10.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 47(10): 1378-1394, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766821

RESUMO

Extensive research has shown that people are sensitive to statistical regularities of visual stimuli, such as a repeated sequence of object locations. Such learning, however, has primarily occurred for objects presented in isolation. Here, we tested whether sequence learning also manifested in complex displays. Using variants of the serial reaction time task, we asked participants to report the screen quadrant of a letter T, whose location followed a 12-trial sequence that repeated 30 times over 360 trials. In different experiments, we manipulated the nature of distractors surrounding the target. The T could appear in isolation, as a color singleton among distractors with fixed or variable locations, or as a conjunction search target. Sequence learning-expressed as elevated response time when the learned sequence was disrupted-decreased as spatial noise increased. Learning was robust when the T appeared in isolation or when it was surrounded by distractors that did not change locations. It was reduced in feature search and eliminated in conjunction search. These findings suggest that target locations are coded in relation to concurrently presented distractors. Variability in distractor locations disrupts target location sequence learning, revealing a limit to people's ability to extract and use spatiotemporal regularities in complex environments. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção , Aprendizagem , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Percepção Visual
11.
Cogn Sci ; 45(10): e13042, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606110

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that the human visual system can detect a face and elicit a saccadic eye movement toward it very efficiently compared to other categories of visual stimuli. In the first experiment, we tested the influence of facial expressions on fast face detection using a saccadic choice task. Face-vehicle pairs were simultaneously presented and participants were asked to saccade toward the target (the face or the vehicle). We observed that saccades toward faces were initiated faster, and more often in the correct direction, than saccades toward vehicles, regardless of the facial expressions (happy, fearful, or neutral). We also observed that saccade endpoints on face images were lower when the face was happy and higher when it was neutral. In the second experiment, we explicitly tested the detection of facial expressions. We used a saccadic choice task with emotional-neutral pairs of faces and participants were asked to saccade toward the emotional (happy or fearful) or the neutral face. Participants were faster when they were asked to saccade toward the emotional face. They also made fewer errors, especially when the emotional face was happy. Using computational modeling, we showed that this happy face advantage can, at least partly, be explained by perceptual factors. Also, saccade endpoints were lower when the target was happy than when it was fearful. Overall, we suggest that there is no automatic prioritization of emotional faces, at least for saccades with short latencies, but that salient local face features can automatically attract attention.


Assuntos
Emoções , Movimentos Sacádicos , Atenção , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Tempo de Reação
12.
Cogn Sci ; 45(10): e13046, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606113

RESUMO

Mouse tracking, a new action-based measure of behavior, has advanced theories of decision making with the notion that cognitive and social decision making is fundamentally dynamic. Implicit in this theory is that people's decision strategies, such as discounting delayed rewards, are stable over task design and that mouse trajectory features correspond to specific segments of decision making. By applying the hierarchical drift diffusion model and the Bayesian delay discounting model, we tested these assumptions. Specifically, we investigated the extent to which the "mouse-tracking" design of decision-making tasks (delay discounting task, DDT and stop-signal task, SST) deviate from the standard "keypress" design of decision making tasks. We found remarkable agreement in delay discounting rates (intertemporal impatience) obtained in the keypress and mouse-tracking versions of DDT (ρ = 0.90) even though these tasks were given about 1 week apart. Rates of evidence accumulation converged well in the two versions (DDT, ρ = .86; SST, ρ = .55). Omission/commission error in SST showed high agreement (ρ = .42, ρ = .53). Mouse-motion features such as maximum velocity and AUC (area under the curve) correlated well with nondecision time (ρ = -.42) and boundary separation (ρ = .44)-the amount of information needed to accumulate prior to making a response. These results indicate that the response time (RT) and motion-based decision tasks converge well at a fundamental level, and that mouse-tracking features such as AUC and maximum velocity do indicate the degree of decision conflict and impulsivity.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Desvalorização pelo Atraso , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Tempo de Reação , Recompensa
13.
J Int Adv Otol ; 17(5): 400-404, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617889

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the development of aided long-latency response (ALLR) in children with cochlear implants (CI) within 18 months of implantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ALLR was recorded in 33 children with CI who had an experience of less than 18 months with the implant. All the participants were in the age range of 3-7 years and were divided into 3 groups based on implant age, as 0-6 months, 6.1-12 months, and 12.1-18 months. Latency of the P1 component was recorded. RESULTS: P1 latency was observed to be 142.105 ms at 0-6 months of implant age, 135.141 ms at 6.1-12 months of implant age, and 122.952 ms. at 12.1-18 months of implantation. CI recipients require 1 year of experience in order to obtain a significant difference in the P1 latency value. It was also found that gender does not influence P1 latency. CONCLUSION: These preliminary findings suggest that with adequate stimulation, there is a gradual decrease in P1 latency, which indicates maturation of the central auditory structures. It was also found that the gender does not influence P1 latency.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Surdez , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Surdez/cirurgia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Reação
14.
Cogn Sci ; 45(10): e13050, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643964

RESUMO

The input to phonological reasoning are alternations, that is, variations in the pronunciation of related words, such as in electri[k] - electri[s]-ity. But phonologists cannot agree what counts as a relevant alternation: the issue is highly contentious despite a research record of over 50 years. We believe that the experimental setup presented may contribute to this debate based on a kind of evidence that was not brought to bear to date. Our experiment was thus designed to distinguish between alternations where phonological computation plays no role, and those where it has contributed to language production. The design manipulates two factors that to date have not been considered in experimental studies of language production: linguistic complexity and alternation specificity. The former is understood as extra processing demands issued by two types of linguistic activity, morphosyntactic and phonological. Our results show that reaction time latencies are longer when participants are burdened with both morphosyntactic and phonological tasks than when they carry out just a morphosyntactic task, and they are still shorter in absence of both types of demands. These results allowed us to address alternation specificity, that is, the fact that different alternations (within a language or across languages) may be driven by different production routines (an idea that is consensual among linguists but underdeveloped in the psycholinguistic literature). Our study shows that four different alternations in French produce alternation-specific signatures in reaction time latencies. These findings may thus redound to the advantage of psycholinguistic studies by identifying two new factors, as well as produce results that speak to the linguistic quarrels.


Assuntos
Idioma , Fonética , Cognição , Humanos , Psicolinguística , Tempo de Reação
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(20)2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695946

RESUMO

Today, a lot of research on autonomous driving technology is being conducted, and various vehicles with autonomous driving functions, such as ACC (adaptive cruise control) are being released. The autonomous vehicle recognizes obstacles ahead by the fusion of data from various sensors, such as lidar and radar sensors, including camera sensors. As the number of vehicles equipped with such autonomous driving functions increases, securing safety and reliability is a big issue. Recently, Mobileye proposed the RSS (responsibility-sensitive safety) model, which is a white box mathematical model, to secure the safety of autonomous vehicles and clarify responsibility in the case of an accident. In this paper, a method of applying the RSS model to a variable focus function camera that can cover the recognition range of a lidar sensor and a radar sensor with a single camera sensor is considered. The variables of the RSS model suitable for the variable focus function camera were defined, the variable values were determined, and the safe distances for each velocity were derived by applying the determined variable values. In addition, as a result of considering the time required to obtain the data, and the time required to change the focal length of the camera, it was confirmed that the response time obtained using the derived safe distance was a valid result.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Radar , Tempo de Reação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tecnologia
16.
Elife ; 102021 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647889

RESUMO

Animals depend on fast and reliable detection of novel stimuli in their environment. Neurons in multiple sensory areas respond more strongly to novel in comparison to familiar stimuli. Yet, it remains unclear which circuit, cellular, and synaptic mechanisms underlie those responses. Here, we show that spike-timing-dependent plasticity of inhibitory-to-excitatory synapses generates novelty responses in a recurrent spiking network model. Inhibitory plasticity increases the inhibition onto excitatory neurons tuned to familiar stimuli, while inhibition for novel stimuli remains low, leading to a network novelty response. The generation of novelty responses does not depend on the periodicity but rather on the distribution of presented stimuli. By including tuning of inhibitory neurons, the network further captures stimulus-specific adaptation. Finally, we suggest that disinhibition can control the amplification of novelty responses. Therefore, inhibitory plasticity provides a flexible, biologically plausible mechanism to detect the novelty of bottom-up stimuli, enabling us to make experimentally testable predictions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Comportamento Exploratório , Modelos Neurológicos , Inibição Neural , Plasticidade Neuronal , Transmissão Sináptica , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Camundongos , Periodicidade , Tempo de Reação , Detecção de Sinal Psicológico , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677342

RESUMO

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been recently studied as an alternative method for cost-effective diagnostics in the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Recent reports document that LAMP-based diagnostic methods have a comparable sensitivity and specificity to that of RT-qPCR. We report the use of a portable Arduino-based LAMP-based amplification system assisted by pH microelectrodes for the accurate and reliable diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 during the first 3 min of the amplification reaction. We show that this simple system enables a straightforward discrimination between samples containing or not containing artificial SARS-CoV-2 genetic material in the range of 10 to 10,000 copies per 50 µL of reaction mix. We also spiked saliva samples with SARS-CoV-2 synthetic material and corroborated that the LAMP reaction can be successfully monitored in real time using microelectrodes in saliva samples as well. These results may have profound implications for the design of real-time and portable quantitative systems for the reliable detection of viral pathogens including SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/virologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/genética , Humanos , Microeletrodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/instrumentação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/instrumentação , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Tempo de Reação , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Saliva/virologia
18.
Cogn Sci ; 45(10): e13053, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622483

RESUMO

Considerable work during the past two decades has focused on modeling the structure of semantic memory, although the performance of these models in complex and unconstrained semantic tasks remains relatively understudied. We introduce a two-player cooperative word game, Connector (based on the boardgame Codenames), and investigate whether similarity metrics derived from two large databases of human free association norms, the University of South Florida norms and the Small World of Words norms, and two distributional semantic models based on large language corpora (word2vec and GloVe) predict performance in this game. Participant dyads were presented with 20-item word boards with word pairs of varying relatedness. The speaker received a word pair from the board (e.g., exam-algebra) and generated a one-word semantic clue (e.g., math), which was used by the guesser to identify the word pair on the board across three attempts. Response times to generate the clue, as well as accuracy and latencies for the guessed word pair, were strongly predicted by the cosine similarity between word pairs and clues in random walk-based associative models, and to a lesser degree by the distributional models, suggesting that conceptual representations activated during free association were better able to capture search and retrieval processes in the game. Further, the speaker adjusted subsequent clues based on the first attempt by the guesser, who in turn benefited from the adjustment in clues, suggesting a cooperative influence in the game that was effectively captured by both associative and distributional models. These results indicate that both associative and distributional models can capture relatively unconstrained search processes in a cooperative game setting, and Connector is particularly suited to examine communication and semantic search processes.


Assuntos
Idioma , Semântica , Humanos , Memória , Tempo de Reação
19.
Neuropsychologia ; 162: 108049, 2021 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624258

RESUMO

Both visuo-spatial neglect and visual extinction may occur following right-brain damage. So far, studies on brain-damaged patients have not provided definite evidence about which lesion patterns may lead to the association or dissociation of these deficits. This study was set out to address this issue using Intracranial Electrical Stimulation (IES) in a group of nine patients affected by refractory epilepsy. Cerebral regions associated with visuo-spatial neglect and visual extinction were stimulated, including the right frontal, temporal, and posterior parietal areas. During IES, patients with intracranial implantation involving at least one of these cortical regions were administered with a manual line bisection task (N = 9) to assess visuo-spatial neglect, and a computerized task (N = 8) assessing visual extinction. Results showed that parietal IES induced a rightward bias at the manual bisection task, together with a general improvement in reaction times at bilateral and unilateral visual stimuli detection at the extinction task. The occurrence of visual extinction did not vary across stimulations. By adopting a complementary approach to anatomo-clinical correlation studies, our work corroborates the notion that lesions to the right inferior parietal lobule play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of visuo-spatial neglect. Importantly, our results also suggest that temporarily interfering with the activity of this region is not sufficient per se to generate visual extinction, which instead may involve a broader and/or different network, possibly extending beyond the cerebral regions considered here, posing important theoretical and clinical implications.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Percepção , Percepção Espacial , Estimulação Elétrica , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Lobo Parietal , Transtornos da Percepção/etiologia , Tempo de Reação
20.
Chin J Physiol ; 64(5): 218-224, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708713

RESUMO

Positive feeling or rewarding experience is crucial for individuals to operative their cognitive activities via an outcome evaluation of incentive reinforcement. For a long time, rewarding process or outcome evaluation is assumed greatly influenced by neuronal construct that holds individuals' impulsiveness, a capacity to inhibit unwanted behaviors provoked in a given situation. In the present study, we proposed that the outcome evaluation or rewarding experience can influence the occurrence of impulsiveness too. We hypothesized that animals would be more likely to deliver impulsive action in the place where it was previously associated with reinforcing process, in which central dopamine may play an important role. By employing five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), we examined whether one of the five holes where rats made a correct response to get the reward would gain a higher probability to deliver premature or perseverative activities than other holes in the next trial of 5-CSRTT under baseline or longer waiting period condition. The effects of D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 were also evaluated in the above paradigm. We demonstrated that (i) the influence on motoric impulsive response from previous rewarded experience can be described in a behavioral paradigm such as the 5-CSRTT, (ii) both prematures and perseverations at the hole associated with previous rewarding were about one-fifth of probability, however were statistically not correlated unless the interventions of inter-trial interval = 7 plus SCH23390, and (iii) the hole associated with the positive reinforcement of the 5-CSRTT appears more likely for rats to carry out an intuitive impetus under SCH23390 in a longer waiting condition. Our results may shed some insight toward the role of rewarding process in impulsive behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento Impulsivo , Recompensa , Animais , Dopamina , Ratos , Tempo de Reação
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