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1.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 222: 105476, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709569

RESUMO

Reading fiction is argued to have benefits for our understanding of others' thoughts, feelings and desires, referred to as 'theory of mind'(ToM). We aimed to test this assumption by examining whether children's reading experience is longitudinally associated with later ToM. We examined reading experience and ToM in 236 children between the ages of 11-13 years. Participants were asked to report on their time spent reading both fiction and non-fiction at ages 11 and 13, ToM was measured at age 13. Verbal ability, reading comprehension, and reading motivation were included as control variables in all analyses. Results showed that children's self-reported fiction, but not their non-fiction reading was associated with ToM. Further, the association was concurrent but not longitudinal: fiction reading and ToM at age 13 were associated but fiction reading at age 11 did not predict ToM at age 13. Our findings motivate further research on what types of reading materials might be beneficial, and the level of exposure to fiction that is needed for measurable benefits for later ToM.


Assuntos
Leitura , Teoria da Mente , Adolescente , Criança , Emoções , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais
2.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 222: 105470, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35714385

RESUMO

Chinese children's mental state terms were studied in a sample of 79 Chinese mother-child pairs (with children aged 3-6 years). Children's mental state term categories were calculated according to age, gender, and context as well as socioeconomic status (SES) variations. The study found that there were no significant age or gender differences in the Chinese children's mental state terms use during the 3- to 6-year stage and that the Chinese children's perception, disposition, and cognition terms were highly dependent on the use of particular words: "see" "like" and "know". After removing the highly dependent word "know," children's cognition terms showed significant age differences. Further research on disposition terms showed that with age negative terms displayed an increasing trend. In addition, the use of Chinese children's mental state terms was closely related to specific contexts. For example, references to volition occurred most often in the context of drawing, whereas references to cognition occurred when playing with blocks. Meanwhile, disposition terms were maintained at a minimum frequency in all contexts, although the picture book used in the reading context was embedded with many disposition cues. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the mental state terms of children aged 3 to 6 years with high and low SES. Furthermore, in addition to perception terms, mothers' mental state terms were significantly and positively related to children's mental state terms of the same type. These findings provide evidence for the developmental pattern of mentalization development and appropriate education for Chinese children aged 3 to 6 years.


Assuntos
Mães , Leitura , China , Cognição , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos
3.
J Pediatr Urol ; 18(3): 395-396, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750405
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10764, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750700

RESUMO

Throughout the history of modern psychology, the neural basis of cognitive performance, and particularly its efficiency, has been assumed to be an essential determinant of developmental and individual differences in a wide range of human behaviors. Here, we examine one aspect of cognitive efficiency-cognitive effort, using pupillometry to examine differences in word reading among adults (N = 34) and children (N = 34). The developmental analyses confirmed that children invested more effort in reading than adults, as indicated by larger and sustained pupillary responses. The within-age (individual difference) analyses comparing faster (N = 10) and slower (N = 10) performers revealed that in both age groups, the faster readers demonstrated accelerated pupillary responses compared to slower readers, although both groups invested a similar overall degree of cognitive effort. These findings have the potential to open up new avenues of research in the study of skill growth in word recognition and many other domains of skill learning.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Leitura , Adulto , Criança , Cognição/fisiologia , Humanos , Aprendizagem
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10752, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750770

RESUMO

Real-time digital image processing to optimally enhance low vision is now realizable with recent advances in personal computers. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a wearable smartphone-based low vision aid (LVA) with customizable vision enhancement in patients with visual impairment. We recruited 35 subjects with visual impairment and who were literate and cognitively capable. The subjects completed a training session and were provided a smartphone-based LVA for a 4-week use. Visual functions including binocular best-corrected distance, intermediate, and near visual acuities; reading performance (reading speed and accuracy); and facial recognition performance were measured at baseline and after 4-weeks use. All subjects also completed the Low Vision Quality of Life (LVQOL) Questionnaire. Thirty-four subjects (mean age, 43.82 ± 15.06 years) completed the study. Significant improvements in binocular best-corrected distance, intermediate, and near visual acuities were observed after smartphone-based LVA use (all p < 0.001). Reading accuracy and facial recognition performance also improved significantly (p = 0.009 and p < 0.001, respectively), but reading speed did not. LVQOL scores significantly improved after 4 weeks of use in subjects aged < 40 years (p = 0.024), but not in subjects aged ≥ 40 years (p = 0.653). Ocular and non-ocular adverse events were infrequent and resolved when the device was removed. The smartphone-based LVA with customizable vision enhancement could provide clinically significant improvements in the visual function of patients with visual impairment and was generally well tolerated. This study suggests that the smartphone-based LVA would be beneficial for visual rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Baixa Visão , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Leitura , Smartphone , Inquéritos e Questionários , Visão Binocular , Acuidade Visual
6.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 290: 655-659, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35673098

RESUMO

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neuro-developmental disorder characterized by inattention and/or impulsivity-hyperactivity symptoms. Through Machine Learning methods and the SHAP approach, this work aims to discover which features have the most significant impact on the students' performance with ADHD in arithmetic, writing and reading. The SHAP allowed us to deepen the model's understanding and identify the most relevant features for academic performance. The experiments indicated that the Raven_Z IQ test score is the factor with the most significant impact on academic performance in all disciplines. Then, the mother's schooling, being from a private school, and the student's social class were the most frequently highlighted features. In all disciplines, the student having ADHD emerged as an important feature with a negative impact but less relevance than the previous features.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Criança , Humanos , Matemática , Leitura , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Redação
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682387

RESUMO

This paper describes a study to evaluate the readability scores of Malaysian newspaper articles meant to create awareness of diabetes among the public. In contrast to patient-specific sources of information, mass media may potentially reach healthy people, thus preventing them from becoming part of the diabetes statistics. Articles published within a selected corpus from the years 2013 to 2018 and related to awareness regarding diabetes were sampled, and their readability was scored using Flesch Kinkaid Reading Ease (FKRE). Features of three articles ranked as the best and worst for readability were qualitatively analyzed. The average readability for the materials is low at 49.6 FKRE, which may impede the uptake of information contained in the articles. Feature analysis of articles with the best and worst readability indicates that medical practitioners may not be the best spokesperson to reach the public. It also indicates that simple sentence structures could help improve readability. There is still much room for improvement in attaining good public health literacy through mass media communication. Public health and media practitioners should be vigilant of the language aspects of their writing when reaching out to the public.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Letramento em Saúde , Compreensão , Humanos , Internet , Idioma , Leitura
8.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0258570, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749463

RESUMO

In Mandarin Chinese, an important manifestation of respectfulness is the use of different forms of second-person pronouns. Jiang et al. (2013) examined the event-related potential (ERP) correlates of processing respectful and plain pronouns in Chinese. However, this study suffered from a few methodological limitations, which restricted both the reliability and functional interpretations of the study's findings. In the present study, we resolved these limitations and further investigated the neurocognitive mechanisms of processing the respectfulness of pronouns. In the present study, participants read 160 critical Chinese sentences with a second-person pronoun (ni or nin) that was either consistent or inconsistent with its prior sentence context in terms of respectfulness, as well as 240 filler sentences. Unlike the previous study that reported a 300-500 ms negative response (N400) for both types of inconsistent pronouns, a sustained positive response for Nin inconsistent and a sustained negativity response for Ni inconsistent in the late time window, the present study found an N400 response and late sustained negativity for Nin inconsistent, but not for Ni inconsistent. Furthermore, the cluster-based permutation showed a significant negative cluster for Nin inconsistent, extending from 432-622 ms. We related this negative response for Nin inconsistent with recent accounts of the N400 and late negativity. Finally, the absence of the ERP effect for the Ni condition was linked to the role of the pragmatic property of Ni.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados , Leitura , China , Compreensão/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Semântica
9.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 76: 101742, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35738689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Depressed people tend to hold stable negative beliefs that resist challenges. Two experiments investigated the cognitive bases of belief change or resistance to change following the provision of supportive or challenging pseudo-evidence. METHOD: Students scoring high and low on a measure of depressed state read belief statements, each followed by invented experimental evidence to either verify or discount them. Two days later, they read all the belief statements again, together with new statements, this time rating belief. RESULTS: The students agreed that the statements described common beliefs and that the evidence was plausible. Discounted statements were believed less than new statements on the test. Also, dysphoric students believed discounted and new statements less than verified statements, but that difference was larger for the nondysphoric students. Parameter estimates of the habitual basis for belief ratings, obtained with process-dissociation procedures, were higher in the dysphoric group, and estimates of evidence recollection were lower. The latter finding was conceptually supported by deficient recognition of the gist of the discounting evidence in the dysphoric group (Experiment 2). LIMITATIONS: Experiment 2 results replicated the rating effects in Experiment 1, but not the parameter differences, due to low power as a consequence of the university response to the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: We interpret these results in the context of other evidence regarding belief change and depressive cognition, such as habitual rumination and deficient cognitive control.


Assuntos
Cognição , Rememoração Mental , Humanos , Leitura , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Estudantes
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9423, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676393

RESUMO

Reading speed in intermittent exotropia (IXT) children has been minimally examined. This study assessed reading speed in school-age children with IXT and determined clinical characteristics of IXT that impacted their reading ability. We compared the reading speed of 63 school-age (10-14 years) children with IXT to 44 age-matched normal counterparts. In addition, the correlation between reading speed and clinical characteristics of IXT were evaluated. The reading speed in children with IXT was 231 ± 51 CPM, while reading speed in normal counterparts was 257 ± 33 CPM. Age, gender were found to be factors associated with reading speed in children with IXT. After adjusting for the age and gender, we found a significant correlation between the LogTNO and reading speed in IXT group based on a generalized linear model (p = 0.014). These data show that reading speed was slower in school-age children with IXT assessed with the International Reading Speed Texts. When age and gender were adjusted, poor stereo function at near was found to be related with a slower reading speed.


Assuntos
Exotropia , Adolescente , Criança , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Leitura
11.
Cogn Sci ; 46(6): e13090, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661231

RESUMO

In a recent article, Meylan and Griffiths (Meylan & Griffiths, 2021, henceforth, M&G) focus their attention on the significant methodological challenges that can arise when using large-scale linguistic corpora. To this end, M&G revisit a well-known result of Piantadosi, Tily, and Gibson (2011, henceforth, PT&G) who argue that average information content is a better predictor of word length than word frequency. We applaud M&G who conducted a very important study that should be read by any researcher interested in working with large-scale corpora. The fact that M&G mostly failed to find clear evidence in favor of PT&G's main finding motivated us to test PT&G's idea on a subset of the largest archive of German language texts designed for linguistic research, the German Reference Corpus consisting of ∼43 billion words. We only find very little support for the primary data point reported by PT&G.


Assuntos
Idioma , Linguística , Humanos , Leitura
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643527

RESUMO

Do you ever find that someone-perhaps an author, actor, or pop icon-comes along and makes you a better therapist? Perhaps the day after reading their work or seeing them on TV, you find yourself just a little more conversationally brave, open, structured, or spontaneous? As our family eye-dabblingly makes our way through the most recent season of Netflix's Queer Eye, lately for me that person has been Karamo Brown. Brown is a therapist and life coach who gracefully repeats phrases of individuals whom the "Fab Five" are trying to help. He affirms ("You deserve the best") and challenges ("I'm going to push back on that"), holding people accountable to their strengths and to the ways that their defenses have become a barrier to fulfilling their desires. Similarly, this month, the Book Forum features 2 books that a pair of academic child and adolescent psychiatrists wrote to me about, feeling that these books make them better therapists.


Assuntos
Família , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Criança , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Leitura
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10313, 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725985

RESUMO

Developing countries lack studies investigated the socioeconomic and parental role on students' learning skills. This study is helpful to detect bottlenecks in the foundational learning skills (reading skills and numeracy skills) in the education system of Pakistan. Reading skills of children are found better who had no functional disabilities. Mothers with higher education had a significant positive contribution toward children learning skills. Children deprived of books for reading in appropriate language had a negative impact on their reading skills. Rich children had predominantly higher possibilities of good learning skills than poor children. Parents who had not attended children's school to discuss child progress had a significantly negative effect on children's numeracy skills. Overall parental involvement in some forms had insignificantly improved children reading and numeracy skills in Punjab, Pakistan.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Pais , Criança , Humanos , Paquistão , Leitura , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9870, 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701449

RESUMO

In this study, we experimentally manipulated the phonology of the cross-script prime-target dyads in an ERP-coupled masked priming paradigm to explore the role phonology plays in visual word processing. The written characters of certain bilingual dyads seldom show any visual/orthographic similarity, yet have the same phonological representation. While the Bilingual Interactive Activation (BIA) model relies on the orthographic similarity between the languages in a bilingual dyad, its revised version (BIA + model) additionally banks on the phonological (and semantic) similarity between the words in such dyads. Thus, there exists the need to investigate the role of phonological (and semantic) similarity between the words of a bilingual dyad, especially in the absence of orthographic similarity. Borrowed words from one language to another provide a suitable avenue to explore this question. Cross-orthographic (or cross-script) bilingual participants of this study performed the semantic judgment of visually presented words in a masked priming paradigm in each of their languages while we simultaneously collected the event-related potentials (ERPs). The primes were either translations (different phonology & orthography: P-O-; phonologically incongruent) or transliterations (same phonology & different orthography: P + O-; phonologically congruent) of the target. Overall, the results showed no difference between the two prime conditions. We discuss our findings in light of the BIA and BIA + models of bilingual visual word processing and discuss the relevance of the former model in orthographically distinct bilingual language dyads.


Assuntos
Fonética , Leitura , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Humanos , Idioma , Processamento de Texto
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9144, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650229

RESUMO

Here we tested the hypothesis that in Chinese-English bilinguals, music reading experience may modulate eye movement planning in reading English but not Chinese sentences due to the similarity in perceptual demands on processing sequential symbol strings separated by spaces between music notation and English sentence reading. Chinese-English bilingual musicians and non-musicians read legal, semantically incorrect, and syntactically (and semantically) incorrect sentences in both English and Chinese. In English reading, musicians showed more dispersed eye movement patterns in reading syntactically incorrect sentences than legal sentences, whereas non-musicians did not. This effect was not observed in Chinese reading. Musicians also had shorter saccade lengths when viewing syntactically incorrect than correct musical notations and sentences in an unfamiliar alphabetic language (Tibetan), whereas non-musicians did not. Thus, musicians' eye movement planning was disturbed by syntactic violations in both music and English reading but not in Chinese reading, and this effect was generalized to an unfamiliar alphabetic language. These results suggested that music reading experience may modulate perceptual processes in reading differentially in bilinguals' two languages, depending on their processing similarities.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Música , China , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Idioma , Leitura
16.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 84(5): 1411-1416, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507255

RESUMO

The question of whether phonological information is integrated through the parafovea has remained unanswered particularly in Korean sentence reading. The current study used homophones with identical underlying phonological forms but with different orthography to examine phonological preview benefit effects in Korean. In an eye-tracking experiment using the boundary paradigm, target fixations were shorter (a) when the preview-target pairs were identical than when they were unrelated, (b) when the pairs were orthographically similar than when they were unrelated, and most importantly, (c) when the pairs were phonologically identical than when they were phonologically similar but different. These results indicate that underlying phonological information of a word, aside from orthographic information, is integrated through parafoveal preview during Korean sentence reading.


Assuntos
Fixação Ocular , Leitura , Fóvea Central , Humanos , Idioma , República da Coreia
17.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 84(5): 1734-1756, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35556234

RESUMO

Recently, paradigms in the face recognition literature have been adopted to reveal holistic processing in word recognition. It is unknown, however, whether different measures of holistic word processing share similar underlying mechanisms, and whether fluent word reading relies on holistic word processing. We measured holistic processing effects in three paradigms (composite, configural sensitivity, part-whole) as well as in reading fluency (3DM task: reading aloud high- and low-frequency words and pseudowords). Bin scores were used to combine accuracy and response time variables in the quest for a more comprehensive, reliable, and valid measure of holistic processing. Weak correlations were found between the different holistic processing measures, with only a significant correlation between the configural sensitivity effect and part-whole effect (r = .32) and a trend of a positive correlation between the word composite effect and configural sensitivity effect (r = .21). Of the three holistic processing measures, only one (part-whole effect) correlated with a lexical access measure of 3DM (r = .23). We also performed a principal component analysis (PCA) of performance in the three lists of 3DM, with the second most probably reflecting lexical access processes. There was a tendency for a positive correlation between part-whole bin measure and Component 2 of PCA. We also found a positive correlation between composite aligned in accuracy and Component 2 of PCA.Our results show that different measures of holistic word processing reflect predominantly different mechanisms, and that differences among normal readers in word reading do not seem to depend highly on holistic processing.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Leitura , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Processamento de Texto
18.
Neuropsychologia ; 171: 108254, 2022 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504304

RESUMO

Humans are unique in their ability to parse hierarchical structures of sentences. Previous studies demonstrated that syntactic processes at different hierarchies are subserved by distinct subregions in left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG), in which BA45 is mainly involved in processing lower-level syntactic structures and BA44 is mainly involved in processing higher-level syntactic structures. However, little is known about whether semantic processes at different syntactic hierarchies show similar dissociations in LIFG. In the present fMRI experiment, participants read sentences with the structure "subject noun + verb + numeral + classifier + object noun", in which the object noun is constrained by the classifier at the lower-level and by the verb at the higher-level. The object noun was manipulated to be either semantically congruent or incongruent with the classifier at the lower-level and/or with the verb at the higher-level. Both the whole brain contrasts and the region of interest (ROI) analyses showed that, in LIFG, the semantic process of integrating the object noun with the classifier induced stronger activation in BA45 whereas the semantic process of integrating the object noun with the verb induced stronger activation in BA44. This dissociation demonstrates a neural segregation for semantic processes at different syntactic hierarchies, with the lower-level process relying more on neural substrates for general semantic processes and the higher-level process relying more on neural substrates for processing structural hierarchies.


Assuntos
Idioma , Semântica , Mapeamento Encefálico , Compreensão/fisiologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Leitura
19.
Neuropsychologia ; 172: 108259, 2022 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569562

RESUMO

A straightforward prediction of the Local Combination Detectors [LCD] model of word recognition (Dehaene et al., 2005) is that letter rotations above 40-45° should disrupt the mapping of the visual input onto orthographic representations. However, the evidence supporting this claim is scarce and not conclusive. To shed light on this issue, we conducted a masked repetition priming lexical decision experiment while recording the participants' EEG measures. Targets were always presented in the standard horizontal format, and we rotated the individual letters of the identity/unrelated primes (0°, 45°, or 90°). Behavioral and Event-Related Potentials (ERP) results revealed that the identity priming effect decreased as a function of letter rotation. Importantly, the ERP data allowed us to examine in detail the time course of processing of words with rotated letters. Amplitude comparisons showed that identity priming followed the typical course for 0° primes (i.e., it started around 100 ms, in the visual feature encoding stage, and strengthened with processing time). The parallel effect for 45° primes emerged later, at around 175 ms. This pattern strongly suggests that letter rotations at around 45° have a processing cost, thus providing evidence in favor of the LCD model of word recognition (Dehaene et al., 2005).


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Leitura , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Atividade Motora , Mascaramento Perceptivo , Tempo de Reação
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(5): e36835, 2022 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35576562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wikipedia is a popular encyclopedia for health- and disease-related information in which patients seek advice and guidance on the web. Yet, Wikipedia articles can be unsuitable as patient education materials, as investigated in previous studies that analyzed specific diseases or medical topics with a comparatively small sample size. Currently, no data are available on the average readability levels of all disease-related Wikipedia pages for the different localizations of this particular encyclopedia. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze disease-related Wikipedia pages written in English, German, and Russian using well-established readability metrics for each language. METHODS: Wikipedia database snapshots and Wikidata metadata were chosen as resources for data collection. Disease-related articles were retrieved separately for English, German, and Russian starting with the main concept of Human Diseases and Disorders (German: Krankheit; Russian: Заболевания человека). In the case of existence, the corresponding International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), codes were retrieved for each article. Next, the raw texts were extracted and readability metrics were computed. RESULTS: The number of articles included in this study for English, German, and Russian Wikipedia was n=6127, n=6024, and n=3314, respectively. Most disease-related articles had a Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) score <50.00, signaling difficult or very difficult educational material (English: 5937/6125, 96.93%; German: 6004/6022, 99.7%; Russian: 2647/3313, 79.9%). In total, 70% (7/10) of the analyzed articles could be assigned an ICD-10 code with certainty (English: 4235/6127, 69.12%; German: 4625/6024, 76.78%; Russian: 2316/3314, 69.89%). For articles with ICD-10 codes, the mean FRE scores were 28.69 (SD 11.00), 20.33 (SD 9.98), and 38.54 (SD 13.51) for English, German, and Russian, respectively. A total of 9 English ICD-10 chapters (11 German and 10 Russian) showed significant differences: chapter F (FRE 23.88, SD 9.95; P<.001), chapter E (FRE 25.14, SD 9.88; P<.001), chapter H (FRE 30.04, SD 10.57; P=.049), chapter I (FRE 30.05, SD 9.07; P=.04), chapter M (FRE 31.17, 11.94; P<.001), chapter T (FRE 32.06, SD 10.51; P=.001), chapter A (FRE 32.63, SD 9.25; P<.001), chapter B (FRE 33.24, SD 9.07; P<.001), and chapter S (FRE 39.02, SD 8.22; P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Disease-related English, German, and Russian Wikipedia articles cannot be recommended as patient education materials because a major fraction is difficult or very difficult to read. The authors of Wikipedia pages should carefully revise existing text materials for readers with a specific interest in a disease or its associated symptoms. Special attention should be given to articles on mental, behavioral, and neurodevelopmental disorders (ICD-10 chapter F) because these articles were most difficult to read in comparison with other ICD-10 chapters. Wikipedia readers should be supported by editors providing a short and easy-to-read summary for each article.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Idioma , Humanos , Leitura , Federação Russa , Redação
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