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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 797379, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35784232

RESUMO

Background: Deaths due to medical care appear common. Individuals with low socioeconomic position seem to be at a higher risk for sustaining a medical adverse event and premature death. This time series analysis aimed to assess educational gradients behind adverse event deaths in the US over the period 2010-2019. Methods: Publicly available mortality and census data were retrieved from official sources. The data included age, sex, educational attainment, and underlying cause of death. Adverse event deaths were identified by ICD-10 codes Y40-Y84 and Y88. Four education categories were created in accordance with the International Standard Classification of Education 2011 coding scheme [No high school or General Educational Development (GED); High school or GED; Some college; Bachelor's degeree or higher]. To capture also highly educated individuals, the analysis was delimited to ≥30-year-olds. Age-adjusted mortality rates (AMRs) were compared between education categories by means of mortality plots and linear mixed models. Results: A total of 25,897,334 certified deaths occurred among ≥30-year-olds during the study period. The underlying cause of death was an adverse event in a rarity of cases (0.12%, n = 31,997). Individuals with Bachelor's degeree or higher had the lowest adverse event AMRs (6.1-12.4 per million per year), followed by the Some college category (9.6-18.6), the High school or GED category (17.1-35.4), and finally the No high school or GED category (20.0-36.0). AMRs showed a gradual increase as education level decreased (p ≤ 0.001 against those with Bachelor's degeree or higher). Moreover, the temporal increase in adverse event AMRs was more pronounced among individuals with low than high education; the contrasts between categories were greatest toward the end of the study period. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that the widening socioeconomic gradients in mortality extend also to fatal adverse events. Future studies should aim to analyze whether access to care, severity of the condition at presentation, quality of care, and social determinants of health may drive the gradients.


Assuntos
Censos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Escolaridade , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Assist Inferm Ric ; 41(2): 66-73, 2022.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35856305

RESUMO

. Experiences implemented during the Covid period in the Novara, Vercelli, Vallemaggia and Locarno areas. INTRODUCTION: The Covid-19 pandemic promoted the organization of several initiatives for the elderly. AIM: To map the local district initiatives for citizens >65 years active during the Covid pandemic in 3 districts of Piedmont and Ticino Canton. METHODS: The data were collected through interviews, contacting local Institutions, volunteer organisations and associations and through free research on the web and on institutional websites. RESULTS: The 26 interviews were conducted between August and September 2022: 16 in the Novara area, 4 in Vercelli and 6 in Canton Ticino. Forty-six initiatives were collected, mainly addressing social-healthcare needs, of which seven were already active in the pre-covid period; overall eight are still ongoing. The initiatives consisted of listening windows, home support (meals, shopping, face-masks, delivery of clean clothes to hospitalized patients). 31 were activated by public services with the collaboration of voluntary services. CONCLUSIONS: The mapping of the initiatives showed their heterogeneity and the fundamental role of volunteering in guaranteeing the continuity of supporting services. These experiences should be consolidated over time by institutions and the public health service, enhancing the contribution of volunteers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Censos , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Máscaras
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1441, 2022 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35906586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Night work has been increasing in the last decades due to new working arrangements for good and services production. Numerous studies have shown that night shift work causes disruptions in circadian rhythms that may affect health. In 2019, night shift work was classified as probably carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and may contribute to other health disorders. In this context, we assessed the number and proportion of workers exposed to night work today and investigated time trends by occupation and industry in France since 1982 in terms of prevention. METHODS: Using the data on work time schedules collected in the French Labour Force Surveys, sex- and period-specific job-exposure matrices (JEMs) to night work (working between midnight and 5 AM) were developed. After linkage of the JEMs with data of the national censuses of 1982, 1990, 1999, 2007 and 2015, the numbers and proportions of workers usually or occasionally exposed to night work were estimated. RESULTS: The number of night workers (usual and occasional) increased from 3.67 million in 1982 to 4.37 million in 2015 (15.8% vs 16.4%). Night work was more common in men than in women (e.g. 22.4% vs 10.0% in 2015), and usual night work largely increased after 2000 (4.4% in 1999, 7.2% in 2007). In 2015, 1.29 million men worked usually at night, including 882,000 workers in the service sector (63%) and 360,000 in the manufacturing and extracting industries (28%). For the same period, 581,000 women were usual night workers, most of them being employed in the service sector (90%). Among women, a 97% increase of usual night work was observed between 1982 and 2015. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that night work involves a growing number of workers in France, particularly in women in the service sector. These results raise concern about the public health impact of night work and particularly about the numbers of outcomes attributable to this exposure such as breast or prostate cancers.


Assuntos
Censos , Exposição Ocupacional , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Indústrias , Masculino , Ocupações
5.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270746, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834564

RESUMO

This paper introduces a series of high resolution (100-meter) population grids for eight different sociodemographic variables across the state of California using data from the 2020 census. These layers constitute the 'CA-POP' dataset, and were produced using dasymetric mapping methods to downscale census block populations using fine-scale residential tax parcel boundaries and Microsoft's remotely-sensed building footprint layer as ancillary datasets. In comparison to a number of existing gridded population products, CA-POP shows good concordance and offers a number of benefits, including more recent data vintage, higher resolution, more accurate building footprint data, and in some cases more sophisticated but parsimonious and transparent dasymetric mapping methodologies. A general accuracy assessment of the CA-POP dasymetric mapping methodology was conducted by producing a population grid that was constrained by population observations within block groups instead of blocks, enabling a comparison of this grid's population apportionment to block-level census values, yielding a median absolute relative error of approximately 30% for block group-to-block apportionment. However, the final CA-POP grids are constrained by higher-resolution census block-level observations, likely making them even more accurate than these block group-constrained grids over a given region, but for which error assessments of population disaggregation is not possible due to the absence of observational data at the sub-block scale. The CA-POP grids are freely available as GeoTIFF rasters online at github.com/njdepsky/CA-POP, for total population, Hispanic/Latinx population of any race, and non-Hispanic populations for the following groups: American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian, Black/African-American, Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, White, other race or multiracial (two or more races) and residents under 18 years old (i.e. minors).


Assuntos
Censos , Grupos Raciais , Adolescente , California , Hispânico ou Latino , Humanos , Havaiano Nativo ou Outro Ilhéu do Pacífico
6.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 379, 2022 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35790727

RESUMO

The data reported here characterize spatial and temporal variation in the ratio of short-to-long-duration visits in public places (i.e., points of interest) in the United States for each week between January 2019 and December 2020. The underlying data on anonymized and aggregated foot traffic to public places is curated by SafeGraph, a geospatial data provider. In this work, we report the estimated number and duration of "short" (i.e., <4 hours) and "long" (i.e., >4 hours) visits to public places at the US census block group level. Long visits are shown to be a good proxy for workers based on formal economic data. We propose that short visits are more likely to represent nonobligate activities: people visiting a public place for leisure, shopping, entertainment, or civic or cultural engagement. Our work constructs a ratio of short to long visits, which can be used to inform population estimates for nonworker use of public space. These data may be useful for understanding how people's use of public space has changed during the COVID-19 pandemic and, more generally, for understanding activity patterns in public.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Censos , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Pandemias
7.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271504, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35862480

RESUMO

Disaggregated population counts are needed to calculate health, economic, and development indicators in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs), especially in settings of rapid urbanisation. Censuses are often outdated and inaccurate in LMIC settings, and rarely disaggregated at fine geographic scale. Modelled gridded population datasets derived from census data have become widely used by development researchers and practitioners; however, accuracy in these datasets are evaluated at the spatial scale of model input data which is generally courser than the neighbourhood or cell-level scale of many applications. We simulate a realistic synthetic 2016 population in Khomas, Namibia, a majority urban region, and introduce several realistic levels of outdatedness (over 15 years) and inaccuracy in slum, non-slum, and rural areas. We aggregate the synthetic populations by census and administrative boundaries (to mimic census data), resulting in 32 gridded population datasets that are typical of LMIC settings using the WorldPop-Global-Unconstrained gridded population approach. We evaluate the cell-level accuracy of these gridded population datasets using the original synthetic population as a reference. In our simulation, we found large cell-level errors, particularly in slum cells. These were driven by the averaging of population densities in large areal units before model training. Age, accuracy, and aggregation of the input data also played a role in these errors. We suggest incorporating finer-scale training data into gridded population models generally, and WorldPop-Global-Unconstrained in particular (e.g., from routine household surveys or slum community population counts), and use of new building footprint datasets as a covariate to improve cell-level accuracy (as done in some new WorldPop-Global-Constrained datasets). It is important to measure accuracy of gridded population datasets at spatial scales more consistent with how the data are being applied, especially if they are to be used for monitoring key development indicators at neighbourhood scales within cities.


Assuntos
Censos , Características de Residência , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Namíbia , Densidade Demográfica , População Urbana
8.
G Ital Nefrol ; 39(3)2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35819036

RESUMO

Objectives: Analysis of the results of the 7th National Census (Cs-19) of Peritoneal Dialysis in Italy, conducted in 2020-21 by the Peritoneal Dialysis Project Group of the Italian Society of Nephrology, for the year 2019. Materials and methods: The data was initially collected using specially designed software, which after entering the data of individual patients allows the aggregate extraction of the necessary information. The difficulties due to the COVID pandemic made it necessary to also use the traditional on-line questionnaire used previously. Of the 237 Centers envisaged, 198 responded, of which 177 with complete data for HD also in 2016. Results: Overall incidence and prevalence (31/12/2019) were respectively 1,363 (CAPD/APD = 741/622) and 3,922 (CAPD/APD = 1,857 / 2,065) patients. The percentage incidence and prevalence (177 Centers) decreased compared to 2016, respectively, from 23.8% to 22.1% and from 17.3% to 16.6%. 31.4% started PD incrementally in 60.3% of the Centers. The catheter is placed by the Nephrologist alone in 19.7%. Assisted PD is used by 24.5% of the prevalent patients, mostly (83.8%) by a family member. In 2019, the exit from PD (ep/100 years-pts: 11.6 in HD; 8.9 death; 6.0 Tx) is decreasing for all causes. The main cause of transfer to HD remains peritonitis (26.8%). The incidence of peritonitis in 2019 dropped further to 0.190 ep/year-pts as well as the incidence of new cases of EPS (0.103 ep/100 years-pts). Conclusions: The Cs-19 confirms the good results of the DP in Italy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diálise Peritoneal , Peritonite , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Censos , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Peritonite/epidemiologia
9.
J Health Econ ; 84: 102649, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793610

RESUMO

We combine individual data from the 1940 full-count census with death records and other information available on the Family Tree at familysearch.org to create the largest individual dataset to date (17 million) to study the association between years of schooling and age at death. Conditional on surviving to age 35, one additional year of education is associated with roughly 0.4 more years of life for both men and women for cohorts born 1906-1915 and smaller for earlier cohorts. Focusing on the 1906-1915 cohort we find that this association is identical when we use sibling or twin fixed effects. This association varies substantially by place of birth. For men, the association is stronger in places with greater incomes, higher quality of school, and larger investments in public health. Women also exhibit great heterogeneity in the association, but our measures of the childhood environment do not explain it.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Longevidade , Adulto , Censos , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
São Paulo; SMS; jul. 2022. (Boletim CEInfo, XXI, 21).
Monografia em Português | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, Sec. Munic. Saúde SP, CEINFO-Producao, Sec. Munic. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1380812

RESUMO

A Coordenação de Epidemiologia e Informação da Secretaria Municipal da Saúde de São Paulo apresenta a 21ª edição do Boletim CEInfo "Saúde em Dados". Esta publicação teve início em 2002 e tem se consagrado por divulgar anualmente um conjunto substancial de dados e indicadores de saúde na cidade e suas regiões, com a intenção de apoiar o planejamento e a gestão das políticas públicas de saúde no Município. Compõem o quadro de indicadores, agravos considerados de grande magnitude e relevância no perfil de morbimortalidade da população e/ou para os quais existem programas ou ações prioritárias para o seu enfrentamento. Neste boletim são apresentados dados de mortalidade, nascidos vivos, doenças de notificação compulsória, produção assistencial e estrutura do SUS para o ano 2021 e a estimativa populacional para 2022. Em continuidade ao ano anterior, são apresentados os registros de síndrome gripal (SG), síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SRAG) e óbitos causados pelo novo coronavírus (SARS-CoV2) em decorrência da pandemia de Covid-19. O documento é apresentado em dois formatos: uma versão em PDF para consulta e download e outra em formato aberto com os conteúdos apresentados em diferentes configurações territoriais do município de São Paulo ­ Coordenadoria Regional de Saúde/Supervisão Técnica de Saúde e Subprefeitura. Como destaque desta edição, são apresentadas algumas informações do censo demográfico da população em situação de rua ­ sexo, faixa etária, tempo em situação de rua e situação de moradia/acolhimento e a produção assistencial das equipes multiprofissionais de Consultório na Rua do Município. As informações podem ser utilizadas na produção de análises sobre a situação de saúde e de apoio aos gestores, trabalhadores e demais pessoas interessadas em discutir as ações e políticas de saúde na cidade de São Paulo. Assim qualquer pessoa pode acessar estes conteúdos e utilizá-los com diferentes finalidades e formatos, sendo necessária, apenas a preservação da sua origem e citação da fonte. Espera-se que esta publicação seja mais um instrumento público de divulgação de informações de saúde, de apoio aos gestores e participação social do SUS na cidade de São Paulo. Convidamos todos os leitores a contribuirem com comentários e sugestões para o contínuo aperfeiçoamento do "Saúde em Dados", acessando o formulário eletrônico no link: https://bit.ly/3nGSHid.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Organização e Administração , Sistema Único de Saúde , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Coronavirus , Censos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Política de Saúde
11.
Am J Public Health ; 112(8): 1217-1220, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35737930

RESUMO

Objectives. To determine whether an association exists between Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) scores and 40-year recertification violation within the City of Miami, Florida. Methods. A cross-sectional, observational secondary data analysis of social and housing vulnerability, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's SVI overall themes, estimated median year a housing unit was built, and 40-year recertification code violation data. We conducted the study using data sets from 2013 to 2018 at the census tract level in response to the collapse of Champlain Tower South in Surfside, Florida. Results. Every 1-unit increase in a census tract's SVI score yielded a 21-fold increase in the odds of being a census tract with high 40-year recertification violations. Census tracts within the third quartile for SVI scores had approximately 9 times the odds, and tracts within the fourth quartile had 11 times the odds of being tracts with high 40-year recertification violations. Conclusions. Findings demonstrate that inequitable conditions exist among the City of Miami's most socially vulnerable residents, through greater exposure to risky housing environments. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(8):1217-1220. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306890).


Assuntos
Habitação , Vulnerabilidade Social , Censos , Estudos Transversais , Florida , Humanos
12.
Int J Popul Data Sci ; 7(1): 1694, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35719716

RESUMO

Introduction: In Wales, the Children in Need (CIN) dataset includes information relating to needs of children and social care support. Before the Social Services and Well-being (Wales) Act 2014 came into force in April 2016, this data collection was named the Children in Need census, changing to Children Receiving Care and Support (CRCS) after this date to reflect better the children eligible for inclusion. This paper describes these datasets, their potential for research and their limitations. We describe data that researchers can access via the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) Databank and exploratory linkages made to health records. Methods: CIN and CRCS data were transferred to the SAIL Databank using a standardised approach to provide de-identified data with Anonymised Linking Fields (ALF) for successfully matched records. The linkage method relies on the use of Unique Pupil Numbers (UPN). As such, no records are currently available for children without a UPN, which includes most under age three. ALFs enabled linkage to individual-level health data within SAIL. Health service use was compared to non-CIN/CRCS populations. Results: CRCS data held within the SAIL Databank comprises 25,972 records, 81% of the total number of records reported by the Welsh Government. The CIN data contains 108,449 records, 79% of the Welsh Government's records for this data collection. Health service use of children in need, and children receiving care and support, was roughly equal to that of the non-CIN/CRCS population, except GP visits, where children in need had fewer consultations, and children receiving care and support had more consultations than the comparison population. Conclusion: Researchers can access Welsh CIN and CRCS datasets through the SAIL Databank, enabling research opportunities. Work is ongoing to improve records and to understand better the health and health service use among children captured by CIN and CRCS censuses.


Assuntos
Censos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Criança , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , País de Gales/epidemiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682066

RESUMO

The Seventh National Population Census, recently conducted in 2020, reported the most up-to-date information on the size, structure, and distribution of China's population. The results showed that the gender imbalance in China is still severe compared with the international standard. With the aim of understanding what has contributed to China's gender imbalance, this study examined a range of potential influencing factors and measured the extent to which they have affected China's sex structure. We gathered data from 3100 citizens (100 surveys from each provincial-level administrative region in mainland China); the useful response rate was 87.5% (2713/3100). We relied on statistical analysis to investigate the phenomenon of male preference in China and used a logit regression to analyze the factors associated with this result. We inspected the factors associated with the perception according to gender, age, annual income, living location, educational level, nationality, family contribution, the ideology of being supported by sons, social status, ability to generate money, and carrying on the family name. The results showed that, among these factors, the relationship of family contribution, the ideology of being supported by sons, and carrying on the family name with male preference was significant. This study is among the first to explore the factors affecting male preference that could have resulted in China's gender imbalance. The findings of this research are also important as references for the development of the population strategy and policy instruments used to manage the demographic problems in China.


Assuntos
Censos , Países em Desenvolvimento , China , Demografia , Pesquisa Empírica , Humanos , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional
14.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2022: 6882047, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35530531

RESUMO

The mean flow of direct survey estimates is mainly concerning the sample adequacy fulfillment unless it has been produced large variance estimates, and therefore, the small area estimations are developed to manage this flaw of the path. Small area estimation improved the direct survey estimates by borrowing strength from the census data and at the same time by using historical data from consecutive surveys. In this paper, we applied the spatiotemporal Fay-Herriot (STFH) model for producing fairly reliable disaggregate-level estimates of undernutrition indicators across all zones. The STFH model is an appropriately fitted model to the undernutrition data since it has the lowest information criteria (IC) value. The spatiotemporal estimates improved both the direct and spatial estimates of undernutrition under the FH model and have brought efficiency gain in the percent coefficient of variation (CV). These results may provide useful information to the government's planners, policymakers, and legislative organs for effective policy formulation and budget allocation in all zones.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Censos , Criança , Humanos , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 871778, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35615032

RESUMO

If hospitalization becomes inevitable in the course of a chronic disease, discharge from acute hospital care in older persons is often associated with temporary or persistent frailty, functional limitations and the need for help with daily activities. Thus, acute hospitalization represents a particularly vulnerable phase of transient dependency on social support and health care. This study examines how social and regional inequality affect the decision for an institutionalization after acute hospital discharge in Switzerland. The current analysis uses routinely collected inpatient data from all Swiss acute hospitals that was linked on the individual level with Swiss census data. The study sample included 60,209 patients 75 years old and older living still at a private home and being hospitalized due to a chronic health condition in 199 hospitals between 2010 and 2016. Random intercept multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the impact of social and regional factors on the odds of a nursing home admission after hospital discharge. Results show that 7.8% of all patients were admitted directly to a nursing home after hospital discharge. We found significant effects of education level (compulsory vs. tertiary education OR = 1.16 (95% CI: 1.03-1.30), insurance class (compulsory vs. private insurance OR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.09-1.41), living alone vs. living with others (OR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.53-1.76) and language regions (French vs. German speaking part: OR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.37-0.80) on the odds of nursing home admission in a model adjusted for age, gender, nationality, health status, year of hospitalization and hospital-level variance. The language regions moderated the effect of education and insurance class but not of living alone. This study shows that acute hospital discharge in older age is a critical moment of transient dependency especially for socially disadvantaged patients. Social and health care should work coordinated together to avoid unnecessary institutionalizations.


Assuntos
Censos , Hospitalização , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Hospitais , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Análise Multinível , Casas de Saúde , Suíça
16.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268092, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511893

RESUMO

Infantile wheezing and eczema are associated with the subsequent onset of asthma and other atopic diseases. However, there are no large population-based surveys on infantile allergic symptoms in Japan. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of wheezing and asthma in infants in Nagoya, Japan. This population-based cross-sectional study was performed in the metropolitan city of Nagoya, Japan. We surveyed parents to ascertain the prevalence of wheezing and eczema in infants who attended group health checkups at 3, 18, and 36 months of age. Their parents completed modified questionnaires from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. More than 90% of the approximately 40,000 children in each study group living in the target area were included in the survey. The prevalence of wheezing was 8%, 17%, and 13% at 3, 18, and 36 months, respectively, and was characterized by birth season. The prevalence of eczema was 24%, 30%, and 31%, at 3, 18, and 36 months, respectively. Participants born in autumn and winter had a higher incidence of eczema in each age group. Three-quarters of the children had a parental history of allergic conditions. Parental allergic diseases and male gender are risk factors for wheezing and eczema in children. This survey had a high response rate and covered almost the entire population of the target age groups in a large city. We believe that the results of this study, therefore, provide a much higher level of confidence regarding the prevalence of allergies in infants in Japan than that in previous studies with limited cohorts.


Assuntos
Asma , Eczema , Hipersensibilidade , Asma/epidemiologia , Censos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Eczema/diagnóstico , Eczema/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Sons Respiratórios , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Science ; 376(6593): 563-564, 2022 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536907

RESUMO

Agency wants to retool its surveys and decennial census to improve efficiency and generate better data.


Assuntos
Censos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
18.
Am J Ind Med ; 65(7): 548-555, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) produced an advisory list identifying essential critical infrastructure workers (ECIW) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) response. The CISA advisory list is the most common national definition of ECIW but has not been mapped to United States (U.S.) Census industry codes (CICs) to readily identify these worker populations in public health data sources. METHODS: We identified essential critical infrastructure industry designations corresponding to v4.0 of the CISA advisory list for all six-digit North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and cross-walked NAICS codes to CICs. CICs were grouped as essential, non-essential, or mixed essential/non-essential according to component NAICS industries. We also obtained national estimated population sizes for NAICS and Census industries and cross-tabulated Census industry and occupation codes to identify industry-occupation pairs. RESULTS: We produced and made publicly available spreadsheets containing essential industry designations corresponding to v4.0 of the CISA advisory list for NAICS and Census industry titles and codes and population estimates by six-digit NAICS industry, Census industry, and Census industry-occupation pair. The CISA advisory list is highly inclusive and contains most industries and U.S. workers; 71.0% of Census industries comprising 80.6% of workers and 80.7% of NAICS industries comprising 87.1% of workers were designated as essential. CONCLUSIONS: We identified workers in essential critical infrastructure industries as defined by CISA using standardized industry codes. These classifications may support public health interventions and analyses related to the COVID-19 pandemic and future public health crises.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Censos , Humanos , Indústrias , Ocupações , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
J Environ Manage ; 315: 115098, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504183

RESUMO

Biological significance of scat marking by otters has been a controversial subject among scientists. Using multiyear (2014-2017) data of otter spraint counts in South Korea, this study aimed to test whether the observed pattern of spraint presence/absence is driven by detection error and if/how scat counts can be a proxy for otter abundance at the landscape scale. To test the first hypothesis, spraint presence/absence was analyzed through occupancy models, which relied on environmental variables related to otter detectability and presence. Spraint count models were used to test the second hypothesis against resource-related covariates in combination with landscape, anthropogenic, and climate variables through machine learning algorithms (MLAs). The detection probability has specifically decreased in areas characterized by high rainfall and human population densities, whereas the probability has increased near food-rich sites, characterized by high marking frequencies. The temporal trends of spraint count predictions were in line with changes in the diversity of fish communities in 2014-2017 instead of fish biomass, suggesting that the availability of feeding resources is higher where fish communities are more diverse. Because diverse fish communities can attract otters, fish diversity conservation is critical for preserving this mammal's populations. This fine scale four-year monitoring has contributed to the disentanglement of the role of spraint presence/absence and spraint counts in detectability and population trends. This will assist in identifying key resource areas and planning strategies to promote otter conservation and dispersal dynamics.


Assuntos
Lontras , Animais , Censos , Densidade Demográfica , República da Coreia
20.
Cancer ; 128(14): 2760-2767, 2022 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35482017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Childhood Cancer Research Network (CCRN) was established by the Children's Oncology Group (COG) as a resource for epidemiologic studies of childhood cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the representativeness of CCRN and identify factors associated with enrollment. METHOD: The number of US childhood patients with cancer diagnosed <20 years of age enrolled in CCRN (2008-2015) was compared to expected counts, calculated from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results incidence rates and US Census population estimates. Observed-to-expected ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated across sex, race, diagnosis age, calendar year, and cancer diagnosis groups. Multivariable linear regression models were generated to evaluate the association between open COG phase 3 therapeutic trials and CCRN enrollment rates. RESULT: The 43,110 cases enrolled in CCRN represented 36% of the expected childhood cancers diagnosed from 2008 to 2015 (N = 120,118). CCRN enrollment ratios [95% CI] were highest among males (0.38 [95% CI, 0.37-0.38]), non-Hispanics (0.35 [95% CI, 0.35-0.36]), and those diagnosed from 1 to 4 years of age (0.50 [95% CI, 0.50-51]). Enrollment ratios varied by diagnosis group, with leukemia, myeloproliferative diseases, myelodysplastic diseases (0.55 [95% CI, 0.54-0.55]), and renal tumors (0.55 [95% CI, 0.53-0.58]) having the highest enrollment. After adjusting for year of diagnosis and cancer diagnosis, there was a 3.1% [95% CI, 0.6-5.6%] increase in CCRN enrollment during windows of open COG therapeutic trials. CONCLUSIONS: Despite enrolling only 36% of newly diagnosed cases, CCRN remains a valuable resource for investigators conducting childhood cancer etiology and survivorship research. The results of this study may inform efforts to improve enrollment on current and future COG nontherapeutic registry protocols.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Censos , Criança , Previsões , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Sistema de Registros
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