Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.628
Filtrar
1.
Ethics Hum Res ; 44(3): 2-11, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543261

RESUMO

Digital applications (apps) are commonly used across the research ecosystem. While apps are frequently updated in the course of clinical and behavioral research, there is limited guidance as to when an app update should trigger action related to human research participant protections and who should be responsible for monitoring and reviewing these updates. We term this the "update problem" and argue that, while it is the principal investigator's duty to track all relevant updates, the level of involvement and re-review by the institutional review board (IRB) of an approved research protocol should vary depending on whether the update may be classified as minor, not minor, or significant. Minor updates require at most annual notification of the IRB, updates that are not minor require prompt notification of the IRB, and significant updates may require full board re-review or another response. We also suggest how these policies might be implemented.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental , Ecossistema , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa , Humanos
2.
Health Psychol ; 41(1): 1-12, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35113583

RESUMO

Measurable progress toward better outcomes is hard to find in health-related behavioral intervention research and practice. This report examines several barriers to progress toward better outcomes and discusses ways to overcome them. The solutions it presents include strengthening our collective commitment to achieving better outcomes; incentivizing this kind of progress; conducting more definitive, outcome-oriented randomized controlled trials; developing methods to measure successful treatment outcomes and to track success rate trends; and embracing stepwise approaches to preventing and treating health-related behavioral and psychosocial problems. The report concludes with a call for guidance and leadership on this complex and challenging issue from scientific and professional organizations and from government entities that have a stake in improving the outcomes of health-related behavioral interventions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Pesquisa Comportamental , Humanos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35055700

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in December 2019 has spread globally. The ongoing psychological and behavioral effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, which poses a major challenge to humanity, are of concern to researchers. To understand the academic community's attention, focus and research collaboration on psychological and behavioral research during the COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted a macro analysis using a bibliometric approach. Using the topic selection strategy of TS = ("COVID-19" OR "coronavirus disease 2019" OR "SARS-CoV-2" OR "2019-nCoV") AND TS = ("behavio*") AND TS = ("psycholog*"), 2096 high-quality research articles and reviews were downloaded as data from the Web of Science core collection on 16 November 2021. Through analysis and visualization, the following conclusions are drawn in this study: (1) The popularity and importance of psychological and behavioral research under COVID-19 has increased significantly and needs further attention; (2). Related research focuses on eight hotspots, with quarantine, health care workers, the elderly, students, pregnant women, family, consumers, social media and emergency preparedness knowledge as the focus of the research object; and (3) Research collaboration is relatively high at the author, organizational and national levels. However, low-income countries need to get more attention. Furthermore, this article would help researchers make decisions for the research of psychological and behavioral issues under COVID-19 and planning for future prospects to contribute to academic development and applied methodology.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso , Pesquisa Comportamental , Bibliometria , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Glob Public Health ; 17(5): 672-687, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460361

RESUMO

Comparative European data using Second Generation Surveillance System (SGSS) are scarce among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men. This study evaluated the implementation of Sialon II, a bio-behavioural HIV research combined with targeted HIV prevention in 13 European cities conducted in collaboration with community partners. A mixed-methods process evaluation assessed the project's coverage, outputs, quality, challenges and opportunities for improvement. Data collected through structured questionnaire from 71 data collectors from community-based organisations and semi-structured interviews with 17 managers of participating gay venues were analysed. Overall implementation was successful, achieving 4901 valid behavioural questionnaires and obtaining 4716 biological samples. Challenges in conducting bio-behavioural research in gay venues related to strict research protocols and unfavourable characteristics of venues. Formative research, collaboration with community gay venues, and offering HIV prevention emerged as facilitators. Community researchers' training was crucial for fidelity to research protocols, increased trust amongst communities and enabled data collectors to effectively address practical problems in the field. Scientifically sound SGSS with community participation is feasible and allows for including 'hard-to-reach' populations. Prevention benefits include awareness raising, capacity building and sexual health promotion in gay venues. The findings are beneficial for epidemiological research among other HIV key populations.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Pesquisa Comportamental , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Behav Res Methods ; 54(2): 922-940, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357540

RESUMO

Large-scale surveys are common in social and behavioral science research. Missing data often occur at item levels due to nonresponses or planned missing data designs. In practice, the item scores are typically aggregated into scale scores (i.e., sum or mean scores) for further analyses. Although several strategies to handle item-level missing data have been proposed, most of them are not easy to implement, especially for applied researchers. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we examined a practical hybrid approach to deal with item-level missing data in Likert scale items with a varying number of categories (i.e., four, five, and seven) and missing data mechanisms. Specifically, the examined approach first uses proration to calculate the scale scores for a participant if a certain proportion of item scores is available (a cutoff criterion of proration) and then use full information maximum likelihood to deal with missing data at the scale level when scale scores cannot be computed due to the selected proration cutoff criterion. Our simulation results showed that the hybrid approach was generally acceptable when the missing data were randomly spread over the items, even when they had different thresholds/means and loadings, with caution to be taken when the missingness is determined by one of the scale items. Based on the results, we recommend using the cutoff of 30% or 40% for proration when the sample size is small and the cutoff of 40% or 50% when the sample size is moderate or large.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Tamanho da Amostra , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 114(2): 179-186, 2022 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240206

RESUMO

It is estimated that behaviors such as poor diet, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, sedentary behavior, and excessive ultraviolet exposure account for nearly one-half of all cancer morbidity and mortality. Accordingly, the behavioral, social, and communication sciences have been important contributors to cancer prevention and control research, with methodological advances and implementation science helping to produce optimally effective interventions. To sustain these contributions, it is vital to adapt to the contemporary context. Efforts must consider ancillary effects of the 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic, profound changes in the information environment and public understanding of and trust in science, renewed attention to structural racism and social determinants of health, and the rapidly increasing population of cancer survivors. Within this context, it is essential to accelerate reductions in tobacco use across all population subgroups; consider new models of energy balance (diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior); increase awareness of alcohol as a risk factor for cancer; and identify better communication practices in the context of cancer-related decisions such as screening and genetic testing. Successful integration of behavioral research and cancer prevention depends on working globally and seamlessly across disciplines, taking a multilevel approach where possible. Methodological and analytic approaches should be emphasized in research training programs and should use new and underused data sources and technologies. As the leadership core of the National Cancer Institute's Behavioral Research Program, we reflect on these challenges and opportunities and consider implications for the next phase of behavioral research in cancer prevention and control.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental , Neoplasias , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle
11.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; 31(3): e13545, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34931724

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the state of behavioural oncology research in Africa and outline key considerations for future research. METHODS: Five bibliographic databases were searched to identify original English-language articles published between January 2000 and August 2020. The Behavioural Epidemiology Framework was applied to studies with data/findings from Africa to delineate their current state. Research gaps/opportunities available for behavioural oncology research in Africa were further highlighted. RESULTS: Two hundred eighty-seven original research with findings from Africa has been published over the last two decades, with the highest contribution arising from Nigeria, Kenya, Ethiopia and South Africa. Cervical and breast cancers were the most widely investigated. Prominently studied behaviours relate to cancer screening, health literacy, lifestyle, and vaccination. Behavioural oncology literature in Africa is generally in Phases I and III and lacks in measurement studies (<2%) and studies that seek to evaluate behaviour change/health promotion interventions (<6%) or translate them into practice (13.2%). CONCLUSION: Embracing new and progressive approaches, including methodological/analytical paradigms and implementation science is imperative to advance the frontiers of behavioural oncology research in Africa. This calls for a responsive research approach that can mobilise multidisciplinary/multilevel coalitions, ensuring a research structure that effectively integrates behavioural research and cancer prevention/control in the region.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental , Promoção da Saúde , Etiópia , Humanos , Nigéria , África do Sul
13.
Transl Behav Med ; 11(11): 2065-2069, 2021 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850930

RESUMO

Cancer prevention and control has benefited substantially from behavioral medicine research over the last several decades. The National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, ably led by Barbara Rimer and then Bob Croyle since being established in 1997, has been a primary supporter of this research. NCI has made significant investments in many of the topics featured in this special section and will continue to do so. These include research on basic behavioral processes such as affect as well as optimal approaches to health communication. A key and enduring focus has been the support of behavioral interventions, particularly for tobacco, diet, physical activity, and sun exposure. The success of such interventions will be amplified to the extent that they leverage novel research designs, emerging digital technologies, evidence gleaned from the burgeoning field of implementation science, and lessons learned from greater attention to the impact of health disparities and inequities. Moreover, as the cancer survivor population continues to grow given the rapid development of diagnostic and therapeutic science, it will be even more essential to devote attention to understanding and addressing the health care and other needs of survivors such as cognitive dysfunction and financial toxicity. The field of behavioral medicine should be both applauded for its many contributions to reducing the cancer burden and encouraged to continue developing new research ideas in these critical areas.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento , Neoplasias , Pesquisa Comportamental , Atenção à Saúde , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle
15.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep ; 21(11): 63, 2021 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705122

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Behavioral therapies are proven treatments for many neurologic conditions. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has posed significant challenges for conducting behavioral research. This article aims to (1) highlight the challenges of running behavioral clinical trials during the pandemic, (2) suggest approaches to maximize generalizability of pandemic-era studies, and (3) offer strategies for successful behavioral trials beyond the pandemic. RECENT FINDINGS: Thousands of clinical trials have been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, from undergoing protocol revisions to suspension altogether. Furthermore, for ongoing trials, recruitment of diverse populations has suffered, thereby exacerbating existing inequities in clinical research. Patient adherence and retention have been affected by a myriad of pandemic-era restraints, and medical, psychiatric, and other complications from the pandemic have the potential to have long-term effects on pandemic-era study results. In the development of post-pandemic study protocols, attention should be given to designing studies that incorporate successful aspects of pre-pandemic and pandemic-era strategies to (1) broaden recruitment using new techniques, (2) improve access for diverse populations, (3) expand protocols to include virtual and in-person participation, and (4) increase patient adherence and retention.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neurologia , Pesquisa Comportamental , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 55(5): 1017-1033, set.-out. 2021. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356834

RESUMO

Abstract In recent years, an increasing number of studies adopting the experimental method have appeared in Public Administration journals. It has been argued that the advantage of experiments in behavioral sciences is that researchers can control contextual factors while investigating the effect of manipulations on a variable of interest. Another point is that experiments can be replicated and, thus, increase confidence in research results. However, replications are rarely undertaken, especially in the behavioral sciences. This article examines the results of the "Open Science Reproducibility Project: Psychology," which replicated 100 experiments previously published in leading Psychology journals. Based on the findings of this project, we present seven recommendations to Public Administration scholars that can improve the quality of their experiments.


Resumen En los últimos años, han aparecido en revistas de Administración Pública un número creciente de estudios que adoptan el método experimental. Se ha argumentado que la ventaja de los experimentos en las ciencias del comportamiento es que permiten a los investigadores controlar los factores contextuales mientras investigan el efecto de las manipulaciones en una variable de interés. Otro argumento es que los experimentos se pueden reproducir y, por tanto, aumentar la confianza en los resultados de la investigación. Sin embargo, las repeticiones rara vez se realizan, especialmente en las ciencias del comportamiento. En este artículo examinamos los resultados del Open Science Reproducibility Project: Psychology, que repitió 100 experimentos publicados anteriormente en las principales revistas de Psicología. Con base en los hallazgos de este proyecto, presentamos siete recomendaciones a los académicos del área de Administración Pública que pueden mejorar la calidad de sus experimentos.


Resumo: Nos últimos anos, um número crescente de estudos adotando o método experimental tem surgido em periódicos de Administração Pública. Tem-se argumentado que a vantagem dos experimentos nas ciências comportamentais é que este permite aos pesquisadores controlar os fatores contextuais enquanto investigam o efeito das manipulações em uma variável de interesse. Outro argumento é que os experimentos podem ser replicados e, assim, aumentar a confiança nos resultados da pesquisa. No entanto, replicações raramente são realizadas, especialmente nas ciências comportamentais. Neste artigo, examinamos os resultados do Open Science Reproducibility Project: Psychology, que replicou 100 experimentos publicados anteriormente nas principais revistas de Psicologia. Com base nas conclusões deste projeto, apresentamos sete recomendações a acadêmicos da área de Administração Pública que podem melhorar a qualidade de seus experimentos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pesquisa , Ciências do Comportamento , Administração Pública , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pesquisa Comportamental
18.
STAR Protoc ; 2(4): 100827, 2021 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585161

RESUMO

Sleep behavior is characterized by long-term quiescence and increased arousal threshold, and it is homeostatically regulated. The sleep rebound after deprivation is utilized to verify the abilities to maintain homeostasis. This protocol shows how to build a programmed mechanic oscillation system and detailed procedures to conduct sleep deprivation in Drosophila. This deprivation system is featured by its programming flexibility. The knowledge of electronic circuits and a certain level of programming are both required to fulfill this protocol. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Jin et al. (2021).


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Pesquisa Comportamental , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila/fisiologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Animais , Pesquisa Comportamental/instrumentação , Pesquisa Comportamental/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Homeostase/fisiologia , Masculino
20.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(Suppl 2): S125-S134, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515771

RESUMO

As people age, they experience typical age-graded challenges and opportunities, for example, their own retirement, changes in their social networks, or a decline in health condition. The extent to which people successfully process, respond to, and act on these challenges and opportunities is highly important for their health, at the core of which the WHO sees the possibility of "doing what one has reason to value." In this article, we posit that individuals can play an active role in determining whether they can, in response to these age-graded influences, continue doing what they have reason to value, and that they can do so by deploying the self-regulatory processes of goal setting (including reengagement in new goals after disengaging from a previous goal), goal pursuit, and goal disengagement. We discuss the role of these self-regulatory processes in three important goal domains: work/retirement, interpersonal relationships, and health. Across these domains, we consider typical challenges and opportunities including the increased availability of daily time in old age, the long past that lies behind older adults, and their limited future time perspective. Finally, we derive open research questions that may be studied to better understand how the very old may self-regulate their response to age-graded influences.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Envelhecimento Saudável , Relações Interpessoais , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Autocontrole/psicologia , Logro , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pesquisa Comportamental , Objetivos , Nível de Saúde , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Humanos , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...