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1.
Behav Brain Res ; 437: 114151, 2023 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36216142

RESUMO

Temporal order memory refers to the ability to remember the order of occurrence of items across time. It is a critical feature of episodic memory that is often tested in rodents using spontaneous object recognition paradigms. However, impact of aging over performances of temporal order memory decline is barely known. Herein, we characterized here the effect of normal aging on the temporal order memory performances in NMRI mice between 3 and 19months of age, with an inter-session interval of 24h.We found that temporal order memory was impaired as soon as7 months of age. These results provide strong evidence that temporal order memory is particularly vulnerable to the deleterious effect of normal aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Transtornos da Memória , Animais , Camundongos , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Memória Episódica , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Reconhecimento Psicológico
2.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 226: 105550, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36179531

RESUMO

Recollection, rather than familiarity, seems to play a crucial part in sustaining children's reading comprehension. However, the roles of recollection and familiarity in both word reading and reading comprehension have yet to be fully understood. In this study, we examined estimates of recollection and familiarity in a working memory updating task using an adaptation of the process dissociation procedure. Our study involved 204 children aged 9-11 years. We administered a keeping track task in which lists of words belonging to various semantic categories (e.g., animals) were presented. The children had to follow two sets of instructions: (a) inclusion, which involved saying whether they had seen a word during the previous learning phase, and b) exclusion, which involved saying whether a word was the last one they had seen that belonged to a given category. Our results showed that recollection contributed to explain reading comprehension, but not word reading, performance. Familiarity, instead, did not predict either of the reading measures (word reading or reading comprehension). We discuss these findings in terms of the importance of considering recollection when studying reading processes during development. Alternative explanations considering the role of WM executive functioning are also considered.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Leitura , Humanos , Compreensão , Rememoração Mental , Reconhecimento Psicológico
3.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 1272, 2022 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36402843

RESUMO

Auditory recognition is a crucial cognitive process that relies on the organization of single elements over time. However, little is known about the spatiotemporal dynamics underlying the conscious recognition of auditory sequences varying in complexity. To study this, we asked 71 participants to learn and recognize simple tonal musical sequences and matched complex atonal sequences while their brain activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Results reveal qualitative changes in neural activity dependent on stimulus complexity: recognition of tonal sequences engages hippocampal and cingulate areas, whereas recognition of atonal sequences mainly activates the auditory processing network. Our findings reveal the involvement of a cortico-subcortical brain network for auditory recognition and support the idea that stimulus complexity qualitatively alters the neural pathways of recognition memory.


Assuntos
Magnetoencefalografia , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia/métodos , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Percepção Auditiva , Encéfalo/fisiologia
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(21)2022 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36365786

RESUMO

In recent years, the focus of facial expression recognition (FER) has gradually shifted from laboratory settings to challenging natural scenes. This requires a great deal of real-world facial expression data. However, most existing real-world databases are based on European-American cultures, and only one is for Asian cultures. This is mainly because the data on European-American expressions are more readily accessed and publicly available online. Owing to the diversity of huge data, FER in European-American cultures has recently developed rapidly. In contrast, the development of FER in Asian cultures is limited by the data. To narrow this gap, we construct a challenging real-world East Asian facial expression (EAFE) database, which contains 10,000 images collected from 113 Chinese, Japanese, and Korean movies and five search engines. We apply three neural network baselines including VGG-16, ResNet-50, and Inception-V3 to classify the images in EAFE. Then, we conduct two sets of experiments to find the optimal learning rate schedule and loss function. Finally, by training with the cosine learning rate schedule and island loss, ResNet-50 can achieve the best accuracy of 80.53% on the testing set, proving that the database is challenging. In addition, we used the Microsoft Cognitive Face API to extract facial attributes in EAFE, so that the database can also be used for facial recognition and attribute analysis. The release of the EAFE can encourage more research on Asian FER in natural scenes and can also promote the development of FER in cross-cultural domains.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Humanos , Face , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Bases de Dados Factuais
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(21)2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36365819

RESUMO

Speech recognition refers to the capability of software or hardware to receive a speech signal, identify the speaker's features in the speech signal, and recognize the speaker thereafter. In general, the speech recognition process involves three main steps: acoustic processing, feature extraction, and classification/recognition. The purpose of feature extraction is to illustrate a speech signal using a predetermined number of signal components. This is because all information in the acoustic signal is excessively cumbersome to handle, and some information is irrelevant in the identification task. This study proposes a machine learning-based approach that performs feature parameter extraction from speech signals to improve the performance of speech recognition applications in real-time smart city environments. Moreover, the principle of mapping a block of main memory to the cache is used efficiently to reduce computing time. The block size of cache memory is a parameter that strongly affects the cache performance. In particular, the implementation of such processes in real-time systems requires a high computation speed. Processing speed plays an important role in speech recognition in real-time systems. It requires the use of modern technologies and fast algorithms that increase the acceleration in extracting the feature parameters from speech signals. Problems with overclocking during the digital processing of speech signals have yet to be completely resolved. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method successfully extracts the signal features and achieves seamless classification performance compared to other conventional speech recognition algorithms.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Fala , Algoritmos , Acústica , Reconhecimento Psicológico
6.
Neuroreport ; 33(18): 791-798, 2022 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367796

RESUMO

Studies have revealed that memory performance can be affected by perceived gaze direction. However, it remains unclear whether direct gaze promotes or hinders word memory, and the effect of gaze direction on memory of words with different concreteness requires investigation. In the study phase, concrete and abstract words were presented on direct- or averted-gaze faces, and participants were instructed to judge gaze direction and memorize words. In the test phase, participants were asked to discriminate whether a word was old or new. Electroencephalogram recordings were taken in both phases. Behavioral and time-frequency results verified the direct-gaze memory advantage, showing that memory performance was better in the direct-gaze condition than the averted-gaze condition for both concrete and abstract words. Event-related potential results showed that in both direct- and averted-gaze conditions, the early old/new effects (FN400) associated with familiarity were only elicited for concrete words but not abstract words. The late old/new effects (LPC) associated with recollection were elicited in all conditions. More importantly, concrete words elicited greater LPC than abstract words in the direct-gaze condition, whereas there was no such significant LPC difference in the averted-gaze condition. Topographic map analysis found that neural generators between concrete and abstract words differed in the direct-gaze condition but not in the averted-gaze condition. The study supports the hypothesis that direct-gaze promotes memory performance. Furthermore, it is mainly in memory recollection that gaze direction affects words with different concreteness.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Humanos , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Memória/fisiologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18896, 2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344573

RESUMO

People more accurately remember faces of their own racial group compared to faces of other racial groups; this phenomenon is called the other-race effect. To date, numerous researchers have devoted themselves to exploring the reasons for this other-race effect, and they have posited several theoretical explanations. One integrated explanation is the categorization-individuation model, which addresses two primary ways (categorization and individuation) of racial face processing and emphasizes the emergence of these two ways during the encoding stage. Learning-recognition and racial categorization tasks are two classical tasks used to explore racial face processing. Event-related potentials can facilitate investigation of the encoding differences of own- and other-race faces under these two typical task demands. Unfortunately, to date, results have been mixed. In the current study, we investigated whether categorization and individuation differ for own- and other-race faces during the encoding stage by using racial categorization and learning-recognition tasks. We found that task demands not only influence the encoding of racial faces, but also have a more profound effect in the encoding stage of recognition tasks for other-race faces. More specifically, own-race faces demonstrate deeper structural encoding than other-race faces, with less attentional involvement. Moreover, recognitions tasks might ask for more individual-level encoding, requiring more attentional resources in the early stage that may be maintained until relatively late stages. Our results provide some evidence concerning task selection for future racial face studies and establish a groundwork for a unified interpretation of racial face encoding.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Brancos , Humanos , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Potenciais Evocados , Grupos Raciais , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos
8.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276061, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350821

RESUMO

Previous research shows that teams with diverse backgrounds and skills can outperform homogeneous teams. However, people often prefer to work with others who are similar and familiar to them and fail to assemble teams with high diversity levels. We study the team formation problem by considering a pool of individuals with different skills and characteristics, and a social network that captures the familiarity among these individuals. The goal is to assign all individuals to diverse teams based on their social connections, thereby allowing them to preserve a level of familiarity. We formulate this team formation problem as a multi-objective optimization problem to split members into well-connected and diverse teams within a social network. We implement this problem employing the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II), which finds team combinations with high familiarity and diversity levels in O(n2) time. We tested this algorithm on three empirically collected team formation datasets and against three benchmark algorithms. The experimental results confirm that the proposed algorithm successfully formed teams that have both diversity in member attributes and previous connections between members. We discuss the benefits of using computational approaches to augment team formation and composition.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Psicológico , Rede Social , Humanos , Algoritmos
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19073, 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36351956

RESUMO

In this paper, we investigate brain activity associated with complex visual tasks, showing that electroencephalography (EEG) data can help computer vision in reliably recognizing actions from video footage that is used to stimulate human observers. Notably, we consider not only typical "explicit" video action benchmarks, but also more complex data sequences in which action concepts are only referred to, implicitly. To this end, we consider a challenging action recognition benchmark dataset-Moments in Time-whose video sequences do not explicitly visualize actions, but only implicitly refer to them (e.g., fireworks in the sky as an extreme example of "flying"). We employ such videos as stimuli and involve a large sample of subjects to collect a high-definition, multi-modal EEG and video data, designed for understanding action concepts. We discover an agreement among brain activities of different subjects stimulated by the same video footage. We name it as subjects consensus, and we design a computational pipeline to transfer knowledge from EEG to video, sharply boosting the recognition performance.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Humanos , Consenso , Encéfalo
10.
J Clin Neurosci ; 106: 219-225, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Facial emotion perception and recognition (FEPR) deficits are the sources of disability, impaired social relationship, and reduced quality of life. Studies of unilateral acute ischemic stroke (AIS) remain controversial about FEPR deficits. METHODS: Clinical and neurocognitive data were collected and analyzed among normal controls (NC) and AIS patients with left brain damage (LBD), right brain damage (RBD), and infratentorial brain damage (IBD). To assess FEPR, all participants completed a localization test (the Southeastern China Brief Affect Recognition Test). Correlation analyses were conducted between the FEPR deficits and cognitive functions. RESULTS: Compared with NC, all three groups of AIS patients reported significant FEPR deficits. Although no statistical difference in FEPR deficits were observed among the LBD, RBD and IBD patients, the deficit patterns were markedly different. FEPR deficits were positively correlated with cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: FEPR deficits may occur in AIS patients and are associated with impaired cognitive functions, where the cerebral hemispheres and the infratentorial brain are jointly involved. Early recognition and early intervention of FEPR deficits in AIS patients are critical for post-stroke rehabilitation, reconstruction of social function and improvement in life quality.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , AVC Isquêmico , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Testes Neuropsicológicos
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20078, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418918

RESUMO

According to legislation, objects are typically classified as weapons if they are offensive per se (referred to here as proper) and if they are adapted for use as weapons or carried with the intent of causing injury (referred to here as improper), with specific regulations on their usage and possession in public spaces. However, little evidence exists on the validity of this distinction in psychology, despite a widespread recognition of the importance of psychological states and subjective perceptions in risk assessment. We conducted an online survey to evaluate hazard perceptions in relation to three dimensions (dangerousness, frequency of events, controllability) of three object categories: proper weapons, improper weapons, and everyday objects. The data from our 300 respondents reveal that the three categories of objects differ from one another on the three dimensions. Moreover, hazard perceptions differ between males and females for improper weapons but less so for proper weapons. These findings suggest that proper and improper weapons are two psychologically distinct categories, albeit with fuzzy boundaries. Investigations into their differential properties may thus help improve risk assessment in security contexts.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Psicológico , Armas , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Perigoso
12.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 1569911, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36317074

RESUMO

With the characteristic of high recognition rate and strong network robustness, convolutional neural network has now become the most mainstream method in the field of crop disease recognition. Aiming at the problems with insufficient numbers of labeled samples, complex backgrounds of sample images, and difficult extraction of useful feature information, a novel algorithm is proposed in this study based on attention mechanisms and convolutional neural networks for cassava leaf recognition. Specifically, a combined data augmentation strategy for datasets is used to prevent single distribution of image datasets, and then the PDRNet (plant disease recognition network) combining channel attention mechanism and spatial attention mechanism is proposed. The algorithm is designed as follows. Firstly, an attention module embedded in the network layer is deployed to establish remote dependence on each feature layer, strengthen the key feature information, and suppress the interference feature information, such as background noise. Secondly, a stochastic depth learning strategy is formulated to accelerate the training and inference of the network. And finally, a transfer learning method is adopted to load the pretrained weights into the model proposed in this study, with the recognition accuracy of the model enhanced by means of detailed parameter adjustments and dynamic changes in the learning rate. A large number of comparative experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can deliver a recognition accuracy of 99.56% on the cassava disease image dataset, reaching the state-of-the-art level among CNN-based methods in terms of accuracy.


Assuntos
Manihot , Redes Neurais de Computação , Algoritmos , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Projetos de Pesquisa
13.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6508, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316315

RESUMO

Our memories form a tapestry of events, people, and places, woven across the decades of our lives. However, research has often been limited in assessing the nature of episodic memory by using artificial stimuli and short time scales. The explosion of social media enables new ways to examine the neural representations of naturalistic episodic memories, for features like the memory's age, location, memory strength, and emotions. We recruited 23 users of a video diary app ("1 s Everyday"), who had recorded 9266 daily memory videos spanning up to 7 years. During a 3 T fMRI scan, participants viewed 300 of their memory videos intermixed with 300 from another individual. We find that memory features are tightly interrelated, highlighting the need to test them in conjunction, and discover a multidimensional topography in medial parietal cortex, with subregions sensitive to a memory's age, strength, and the familiarity of the people and places involved.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Humanos , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem , Rememoração Mental
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20178, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418497

RESUMO

Event-related potentials (ERPs) and the oculomotor inhibition (OMI) in response to visual transients are known to be sensitive to stimulus properties, attention, and expectation. We have recently found that the OMI is also sensitive to face familiarity. In natural vision, stimulation of the visual cortex is generated primarily by saccades, and it has been recently suggested that fixation-related potentials (FRPs) share similar components with the ERPs. Here, we investigated whether FRPs and microsaccade inhibition (OMI) in free viewing are sensitive to face familiarity. Observers freely watched a slideshow of seven unfamiliar and one familiar facial images presented randomly for 4-s periods, with multiple images per identity. We measured the occipital fixation-related N1 relative to the P1 magnitude as well as the associated fixation-triggered OMI. We found that the average N1-P1 was significantly smaller and the OMI was shorter for the familiar face, compared with any of the seven unfamiliar faces. Moreover, the P1 was suppressed across saccades for the familiar but not for the unfamiliar faces. Our results highlight the sensitivity of the occipital FRPs to stimulus properties such as face familiarity and advance our understanding of the integration process across successive saccades in natural vision.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Movimentos Sacádicos , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276436, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342906

RESUMO

In the field of surface electromyography (sEMG) gesture recognition, how to improve recognition accuracy has been a research hotspot. The rapid development of deep learning provides a new solution to this problem. At present, the main applications of deep learning for sEMG gesture feature extraction are based on convolutional neural network (CNN) structures to capture spatial morphological information of the multichannel sEMG or based on long short-term memory network (LSTM) to extract time-dependent information of the single-channel sEMG. However, there are few methods to comprehensively consider the distribution area of the sEMG signal acquisition electrode sensor and the arrangement of the sEMG signal morphological features and electrode spatial features. In this paper, a novel multi-stream feature fusion network (MSFF-Net) model is proposed for sEMG gesture recognition. The model adopts a divide-and-conquer strategy to learn the relationship between different muscle regions and specific gestures. Firstly, a multi-stream convolutional neural network (Multi-stream CNN) and a convolutional block attention module integrated with a resblock (ResCBAM) are used to extract multi-dimensional spatial features from signal morphology, electrode space, and feature map space. Then the learned multi-view depth features are fused by a view aggregation network consisting of an early fusion network and a late fusion network. The results of all subjects and gesture movement validation experiments in the sEMG signal acquired from 12 sensors provided by NinaPro's DB2 and DB4 sub-databases show that the proposed model in this paper has better performance in terms of gesture recognition accuracy compared with the existing models.


Assuntos
Gestos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Humanos , Eletromiografia/métodos , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Eletrodos , Algoritmos , Mãos/fisiologia
16.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 3214255, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348654

RESUMO

The Arabic syntactic diacritics restoration problem is often solved using long short-term memory (LSTM) networks. Handcrafted features are used to augment these LSTM networks or taggers to improve performance. A transformer-based machine learning technique known as bidirectional encoder representations from transformers (BERT) has become the state-of-the-art method for natural language understanding in recent years. In this paper, we present a novel tagger based on BERT models to restore Arabic syntactic diacritics. We formulated the syntactic diacritics restoration as a token sequence classification task similar to named-entity recognition (NER). Using the Arabic TreeBank (ATB) corpus, the developed BERT tagger achieves a 1.36% absolute case-ending error rate (CEER) over other systems.


Assuntos
Idioma , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Aprendizado de Máquina , Memória de Longo Prazo , Reconhecimento Psicológico
17.
Chem Senses ; 472022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334272

RESUMO

Odor identification is a common assessment of olfaction, and it is affected in a large number of diseases. Identification abilities decline with age, but little is known about whether there are perceptual odor features that can be used to predict identification. Here, we analyzed data from a large, population-based sample of 2,479 adults, aged 60 years or above, from the Swedish National study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen. Participants performed both free and cued odor identification tests. In a separate experiment, we assessed perceived pleasantness, familiarity, intensity, and edibility of all odors in the first sample, and examined how odor identification performance is associated with these variables. The analysis showed that high-intensity odors are easier to identify than low-intensity odors overall, but also that they are more susceptible to the negative repercussions of old age. This result indicates that sensory decline is a major aspect of age-dependent odor identification impairment, and suggests a framework where identification likelihood is proportional to the perceived intensity of the odor. Additional analyses further showed that high-performing individuals can discriminate target odors from distractors along the pleasantness and edibility dimensions and that unpleasant and inedible odors show smaller age-related differences in identification. Altogether, these results may guide further development and optimization of brief and efficient odor identification tests as well as influence the design of odorous products targeted toward older consumers.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Olfato , Adulto , Humanos , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Envelhecimento , Emoções
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18756, 2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335225

RESUMO

Deciphering the human spatial cognition system involves the development of simple tasks to assess how our brain works with shapes and forms. Prior studies in the mental rotation field disclosed a clockwise rotation bias on how basic stimuli are perceived and processed. However, there is a lack of a substantial scientific background for complex stimuli and how factors like sex or aging could influence them. Regarding the latter point, it is well known that our spatial skills tend to decline as we grow older. Hence, the hippocampal system is especially sensitive to aging. These neural changes underlie difficulties for the elderly in landmark orientation or mental rotation tasks. Thus, our study aimed to check whether the effect of clockwise and anticlockwise rotations in the spatial recognition of complex environments could be modulated by aging. To do so, 40 young adults and 40 old adults performed the ASMRT, a virtual spatial memory recognition test. Results showed that young adults outperformed old adults in all difficulty conditions (i.e., encoding one or three boxes positions). In addition, old adults were affected more than young adults by rotation direction, showing better performance in clockwise rotations. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that aging is particularly affected by the direction of rotation. We suggest that clockwise bias could be linked with the cognitive decline associated with aging. Future studies could address this with brain imaging measures.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Idoso , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Cognição , Percepção Espacial
19.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 13(2): 2135195, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36325256

RESUMO

Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are often associated with stress and anxiety-related disorders in adulthood, and learning and memory deficits have been suggested as a potential link between ACEs and psychopathology. Objective: In this preregistered study, the impact of social threat learning on the processing, encoding, and recognition of unknown faces as well as their contextual settings was measured by recognition performance and event-related brain potentials. Method: Sixty-four individuals with ACEs encoded neutral faces within threatening or safe context conditions. During recognition, participants had to decide whether a face was new or had been previously presented in what context (item-source memory), looking at old and new faces. For visual working memory, participants had to detect changes in low and high load conditions during contextual threat or safety. Results: Results showed a successful induction of threat expectation in persons with ACEs. In terms of face and source recognition, overall recognition of safe and new faces was better compared to threatening face-compounds, with more socially anxious individuals having an advantage in remembering threatening faces. For working memory, an effect of task load was found on performance, irrespective of threat or safety context. Regarding electrocortical activity, an old/new recognition effect and threat-selective processing of face-context information was observed during both encoding and recognition. Moreover, neural activity associated with change detection was found for faces in a threatening context, but only at high task load, suggesting reduced capacity for faces in potentially harmful situations when cognitive resources are limited. Conclusion: While individuals with ACE showed intact social threat and safety learning overall, threat-selective face processing was observed for item/source memory, and a threatening context required more processing resources for visual working memory. Further research is needed to investigate the psychophysiological processes involved in functional and dysfunctional memory systems and their importance as vulnerability factors for stress-related disorders.


Antecedentes: Las experiencias adversas en la infancia (ACEs, por su sigla en inglés) estan a menudo asociadas con trastornos relacionados con el estrés y la ansiedad en la edad adulta, y los déficits de aprendizaje y memoria han sido sugeridos como un vínculo potencial entre las ACEs y la psicopatología.Objetivo: En este estudio previamente registrado, el impacto del aprendizaje de amenazas sociales en el procesamiento, la codificación y el reconocimiento de rostros desconocidos, así como sus entornos contextuales, se midió mediante el rendimiento y los potenciales cerebrales relacionados con los eventos.Método: Sesenta y cuatro personas con ACEs codificaron rostros neutrales dentro de condiciones de contextos amenazantes o seguros. Durante el reconocimiento, los participantes tenían que decidir si una cara era nueva o se había presentado previamente en qué contexto (elemento-fuente de memoria), mirando caras antiguas y nuevas. Para la memoria de trabajo visual, los participantes tenían que detectar cambios en las condiciones de carga baja y alta durante la amenaza contextual o la seguridad.Resultados: Los resultados mostraron una inducción exitosa de la expectativa de amenaza en personas con ACEs. En términos de reconocimiento de rostros y fuentes, el reconocimiento general de rostros seguros y nuevos fue mejor en comparación con los compuestos de rostros amenazantes, y las personas más ansiosas socialmente tenían una ventaja para recordar rostros amenazantes. Para la memoria de trabajo, se encontró un efecto de la carga de tareas en el rendimiento, independientemente de la amenaza o el contexto de seguridad. Con respecto a la actividad electrocortical, se observó un efecto de reconocimiento antiguo/nuevo y un procesamiento selectivo de amenazas de la información del contexto facial durante la codificación y el reconocimiento. Además, se encontró actividad neuronal asociada con la detección de cambios para rostros en un contexto amenazante, pero solo con una gran carga de tareas, lo que sugiere una capacidad reducida para rostros en situaciones potencialmente dañinas cuando los recursos cognitivos son limitados.Conclusión: Si bien las personas con ACE mostraron un aprendizaje intacto de amenazas sociales y seguridad en general, se observó un procesamiento facial selectivo de amenazas para la memoria de elementos/fuentes, y un contexto amenazante requería más recursos de procesamiento para la memoria de trabajo visual. Se necesita más investigación para investigar los procesos psicofisiológicos involucrados en los sistemas de memoria funcional y disfuncional y su importancia como factores de vulnerabilidad para los trastornos relacionados con el estrés.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Humanos , Adulto , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia
20.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(11): 4404-4416, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36251884

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Studies of speech and text interruption indicate that the interruption rate influences the perceptual information available, from whole words at slow rates to subphonemic cues at faster interruptions rates. In young adults, the benefit obtained from text supplementation of speech may depend on the type of perceptual information available in either modality. Age commonly reduces temporal aspects of information processing, which may influence the benefit older adults obtain from text-supplemented speech across interruption rates. METHOD: Older adults were tested unimodally and multimodally with spoken and printed sentences that were interrupted by silence or white space at various rates. RESULTS: Results demonstrate U-shaped performance-rate functions for all modality conditions, with minimal performance around interruption rates of 2-4 Hz. Comparison to previous studies with younger adults indicates overall poorer recognition for interrupted materials by the older adults. However, as a group, older adults can integrate information between the two modalities to a similar degree as younger adults. Individual differences in multimodal integration were noted. CONCLUSION: Overall, these results indicate that older adults, while demonstrating poorer overall performance in comparison to younger adults, successfully combine distributed partial information across speech and text modalities to facilitate sentence recognition.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Fala , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Idoso , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Fatores Etários , Suplementos Nutricionais
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