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1.
J Anim Sci ; 1012023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638080

RESUMO

Previous studies investigated the biochemical basis of dark-cutting conditions at elevated muscle pH (above 6), but the molecular basis at slightly above normal pH (between 5.6 and 5.8) is still unclear. The objective was to determine protein and metabolite profiles to elucidate postmortem muscle darkening at slightly elevated pH. Loins were selected based on the criteria established in our laboratory before sample collections, such as pH less than 5.8, L* values (muscle lightness) less than 38, and not discounted by the grader (high-pH beef with dark color are discounted and not sold in retail stores). Six bright red loins (longissimus lumborum) at normal-pH (average pH = 5.57) and six dark-colored strip loins at slightly elevated pH (average pH = 5.70) from A maturity carcasses were obtained within 72-h postmortem from a commercial beef purveyor. Surface color, oxygen consumption, metmyoglobin reducing activity, protein, and metabolite profiles were determined on normal-pH and dark-colored steaks at slightly elevated pH. Enzymes related to glycogen metabolism and glycolytic pathways were more differently abundant than metabolites associated with these pathways. The results indicated that oxygen consumption and metmyoglobin reducing activity were greater (P < 0.05) in darker steaks than normal-pH steaks. Enzymes involved with glycogen catabolic pathways and glycogen storage disease showed lower abundance in dark beef. The tricarboxylic acid metabolite, aconitic acid, was overabundant in darker-colored beef than normal-pH beef, but glucose derivative metabolites were less abundant. The majority of glycogenolytic proteins and metabolites reported as overabundant in the previous dark-cutting studies at high pH (>6.4) also did not show significant differences in the current study. Therefore, our data suggest enzymes involved in glycogen metabolism, in part, create a threshold for muscle darkening than metabolites.


A bright cherry-red color beef is ideal during meat retail and carcass grading. Any deviation from a bright red color, such as dark red color, at the interface of the 12th and 13th rib-eye area leads to carcass discounts. Various studies have determined protein, metabolite, and mitochondrial profiles to understand the biochemical basis of dark-cutting beef (muscle pH greater than 6); however, limited knowledge is currently available on muscle darkening at a slightly elevated pH. Bright red loins at normal muscle pH and darker color loins at slightly elevated pH (not discounted by a grader) were collected 72-h postmortem from a commercial beef purveyor. Surface color, oxygen consumption, metmyoglobin reducing activity, protein, and metabolite profiles were determined on normal-pH and dark-colored steaks at slightly elevated pH. The results indicated that oxygen consumption and metmyoglobin reducing activity were greater in darker steaks than normal-pH steaks. Furthermore, the protein abundance profiles of enzymes related to glycogen metabolism and glycolytic pathways were more differently abundant than metabolites associated with these pathways. Understanding the factors involved in the occurrence of dark color steaks help to minimize losses due to discount carcasses.


Assuntos
Metamioglobina , Carne Vermelha , Bovinos , Animais , Metamioglobina/química , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Carne Vermelha/análise , Proteômica , Cor , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Carne
2.
J Anim Sci ; 1012023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592743

RESUMO

The contribution of dairy steers to the U.S. fed beef supply has increased from 6.9% to 16.3% over the last two decades; in part, due to declining beef cow numbers and the increased use of sexed dairy semen to produce genetically superior replacement heifers from the best dairy cows. Raising dairy cattle for beef production offers unique opportunities and challenges when compared with feeding cattle from beef breeds. Dairy steers offer predictable and uniform finishing cattle performance (ADG, DMI, G:F) as a group and more desirable quality grades on average compared with their beef steer counterparts. However, dairy steers have lesser dressing percentages and yield 2%-12% less red meat compared with beef steers due to a greater ratio of bone to muscle, internal fat, organ size, and gastrointestinal tract weight. In addition, carcasses from dairy steers can present problems in the beef packing industry, with Holstein carcasses being longer and Jersey carcasses being lighter weight than carcasses from beef breeds. Beef × dairy crossbreeding strategies are being implemented on some dairy farms to increase the income generated from dairy bull calves, while beef × dairy crossbreeding strategies can also improve the G:F and red meat yield of beef produced from the U.S. dairy herd. This alternative model of beef production from the dairy herd is not without its challenges and has resulted in variable results thus far. Successful adoption of beef × dairy crossbreeding in the cattle industry will depend on the proper selection of beef sires that excel in calving ease, growth, muscling, and marbling traits to complement the dairy genetics involved in beef production.


The number of dairy steers contributing to the U.S. fed beef supply has increased from 6.9% to 16.3% over the last two decades. Raising dairy cattle breeds for beef production offers unique opportunities and challenges when compared with feeding beef cattle breeds. Dairy steers offer predictable and uniform finishing cattle performance (ADG, DMI, G:F) as a group and more desirable quality grades on average compared with their beef steer counterparts. Dairy steers yield less red meat compared with beef steers due to a greater ratio of bone to muscle, internal fat, organ size, and gastrointestinal tract weight. The use of growth-promoting technologies such as hormonal implants and ß-adrenergic agonists can help improve finishing cattle performance and increase the red meat yield of dairy-influenced steers. In addition, beef × dairy crossbreeding strategies are being implemented on some dairy farms to increase the income generated from bull calves, while beef × dairy crossbreeding strategies can also improve the gain:feed and red meat yield of beef produced from the U.S. dairy herd. Successful adoption of beef × dairy crossbreeding in the cattle industry will depend on the proper selection of beef sires to complement the challenges and opportunities experienced with dairy genetics for beef production. Early calfhood management practices should be investigated further to determine their impacts on the subsequent finishing performance and carcass characteristics of calves produced by dairy farms for beef production.


Assuntos
Carne Vermelha , Bovinos/genética , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Desmame , Hibridização Genética , Músculos , Sêmen , Carne , Composição Corporal
3.
Euro Surveill ; 28(2)2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36695482

RESUMO

The French National Reference Centre for Escherichia coli, Shigella and Salmonella (FNRC-ESS) detected two human clusters of 33 cases (median age: 10 years; 17 females) infected by Salmonella enterica serotype Bovismorbificans, ST142, HC5_243255 (EnteroBase HierCC­cgMLST scheme) in September-November 2020 and of 11 cases (median age: 11 years; seven males) infected by S. enterica serotype 4,12:i:-, ST34, HC5_198125 in October-December 2020. Epidemiological investigations conducted by Santé publique France linked these outbreaks to the consumption of dried pork sausages from the same manufacturer. S. Bovismorbificans and S. 4,12:i:- were isolated by the National Reference Laboratory from different food samples, but both strains were identified in a single food sample only by qPCR. Three recalls and withdrawals of dried pork products were issued by the French general directorate of food of the French ministry for agriculture and food in November 2020, affecting eight supermarket chains. A notification on the European Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed and a European urgent enquiry on the Epidemic Intelligence Information System for Food and Waterborne Diseases and Zoonoses (EPIS-FWD) were launched. No cases were reported outside France. Outbreaks caused by multiple serotypes of Salmonella may go undetected by protocols in standard procedures in microbiology laboratories.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Suínos , Criança , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Sorogrupo , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/microbiologia , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , França/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(2)2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36692335

RESUMO

Reports of Salmonella enterica I serotype 4,[5],12:i:- infections resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphamethoxazole, and tetracycline (ASSuT) have been increasing. We analyzed data from 5 national surveillance systems to describe the epidemiology, resistance traits, and genetics of infections with this Salmonella strain in the United States. We found ASSuT-resistant Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- increased from 1.1% of Salmonella infections during 2009-2013 to 2.6% during 2014-2018; the proportion of Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- isolates without this resistance pattern declined from 3.1% to 2.4% during the same timeframe. Among isolates sequenced during 2015-2018, a total of 69% were in the same phylogenetic clade. Within that clade, 77% of isolates had genetic determinants of ASSuT resistance, and 16% had genetic determinants of decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, or azithromycin. Among outbreaks related to the multidrug-resistant clade, 63% were associated with pork consumption or contact with swine. Preventing Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- carriage in swine would likely avert human infections with this strain.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Salmonella enterica , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Animais , Humanos , Suínos , Sorogrupo , Filogenia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Salmonella , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675084

RESUMO

Dry-cured pork products, such as dry-cured ham, undergo an extensive proteolysis during manufacturing process which determines the organoleptic properties of the final product. As a result of endogenous pork muscle endo- and exopeptidases, many medium- and short-chain peptides are released from muscle proteins. Many of them have been isolated, identified, and characterized, and some peptides have been reported to exert relevant bioactivity with potential benefit for human health. However, little attention has been given to di- and tripeptides, which are far less known, although they have received increasing attention in recent years due to their high potential relevance in terms of bioactivity and role in taste development. This review gathers the current knowledge about di- and tripeptides, regarding their bioactivity and sensory properties and focusing on their generation during long-term processing such as dry-cured pork meats.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Suínos , Humanos , Carne de Porco/análise , Peptídeos , Proteólise , Proteínas Musculares/química , Produtos da Carne/análise , Carne/análise
6.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678183

RESUMO

The dietary role of meat is under scrutiny for health and environmental reasons, yet a growing body of evidence proposes that advice to limit red meat consumption is unnecessarily restrictive. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of 'fresh beef and lamb' in the diet of the population (5-90 years) in Ireland and its association with markers of nutrition and health status. Analyses are based on data from three nationally representative dietary surveys in the Republic of Ireland. Dietary intake data were estimated using food records, and nutrient intakes were estimated based on UK and Irish food composition tables. Biochemical samples were collected and analysed using standard procedures. 'Fresh beef and lamb' (defined as beef/lamb that had not undergone any preserving process other than chilling/freezing/quick-freezing) was consumed by 68-84% of the population and intakes ranged from 19 to 43 g/d across age groups. It made important contributions to intakes of protein, monounsaturated fat, vitamins D, B12, niacin, iron and zinc while also contributing relatively small proportions of total fat, saturated fat and salt. Higher consumption of 'fresh beef and lamb' was associated with higher intakes of protein, niacin, vitamins B6, B12, zinc and potassium (but also total fat) and lower intakes of carbohydrate and total sugars (but also dietary fibre). In adults, older adults and WCBA, higher consumption of 'fresh beef and lamb' was not associated with increased risk factors of cardio-metabolic diseases nor was it associated with better or poorer nutritional status for vitamins D, B12 or iron. This study adds to the evidence base on the contribution of 'fresh beef and lamb' in the diet and may be useful to policymakers updating guidance for healthy diets from sustainable food systems.


Assuntos
Niacina , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Bovinos , Ovinos , Estado Nutricional , Irlanda , Ingestão de Alimentos , Dieta , Vitaminas , Zinco , Ferro , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Gorduras na Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar
7.
Food Chem ; 409: 135337, 2023 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587514

RESUMO

This work investigated the effects of oil-modified crosslinked starch (Oil-CTS) as a fat replacer on the gel properties, water distribution, microstructures, and fatty acid composition of pork meat batter. Results showed that the replacement of pork back fat by Oil-CTS could improve the gel performance in terms of rheological property, texture, and water-holding capacity (WHC), and reduce the water mobility of pork meat gels, which caused by the formation of a more ordered and denser protein network structure. Additionally, when the fat was replaced by Oil-CTS partially or totally (25-100 %), the total fat content in pork meat gels decreased by 16.5-82 % and the saturated fatty acids (SFAs) content decreased from 5.87 g/100 g in untreated sample to 1.17-4.88 g/100 g in starch-replacing-fat samples, indicating Oil-CTS could be used as a fat replacer to prepare the low-fat meat products.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Suínos , Amido , Água/química , Produtos da Carne/análise , Ácidos Graxos , Géis
8.
Meat Sci ; 197: 109076, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535231

RESUMO

This study assessed the capability of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to predict intramuscular fat (IMF) content of beef longissimus steaks against chemical IMF as the gold standard. DEXA performance of fat% prediction was assessed using a leave-one-out cross validation method among Angus and Nellore steaks, which generated a chemical fat% range of 14.05-36.82% and 2.46-7.84%, respectively, and using pooled data. There was a significant positive association between DEXA predicted fat and chemical fat content. However, higher precision was found for pooled data (R2 = 0.95, RMSECV = 1.95) and Angus (R2 = 0.75, RMSECV = 2.39) than Nellore (R2 = 0.15, RMSECV = 1.22) group. Accuracy also had the same response with average slope values close to 1 for pooled data and Angus and a lower value (0.42) for Nellore group. DEXA precisely predicts IMF content across a wide range of fat content. However, its precision and accuracy of prediction within low-fat content samples are lower than in high-fat content.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Bovinos , Tecido Adiposo/química , Absorciometria de Fóton , Carne Vermelha/análise , Músculos Paraespinais , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Músculo Esquelético/química
9.
Meat Sci ; 197: 109077, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549079

RESUMO

This study compares minced carcass chemical composition and meat quality of castrated (CM), immunocastrated (IM) and entire male (EM), and female (FE) pigs at 70, 100 and 120 kg target body weights (TBW) (n = 80; 20 per sex). Sex affected fat, protein, and moisture content of the minced carcasses. Carcass fatty acid (FA) composition was affected by sex, with higher saturated and monounsaturated FA content in CM than in FE, IM and EM, and higher polyunsaturated FA in CM than in EM, with FE and IM in between. Except for intramuscular fat, which was higher in CM than in FE and EM, no significant differences between sexes were found in meat quality. TBW affected carcass chemical composition and some meat quality traits. An interaction between sex and TBW was found with IM approaching EM or CM depending on TBW.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Suínos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Carne/análise
10.
Meat Sci ; 197: 109078, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549078

RESUMO

The effects of κ-carrageenan gum (KG) on the 3D printability and rheological properties of pork pastes were investigated in this study. There were five groups with different levels of KG (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 g/kg) named as KG-0, KG-2, KG-4, KG-6, and KG-8, respectively. The addition of KG increased the yield stress, viscosity, shear stress, recovery percentage, storage modulus, loss modulus, and initial and average flow forces (P < 0.05). The results of low-field nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that addition of KG reduced T21 and T22 (P < 0.05). The best printing parameters were obtained by accuracy and stability results: printing filling percent, 90%; printing speed, 35 mm⋅s-1; layer height, 2 mm; nozzle diameter, 1.55 mm, and KG addition level, 6 g/kg. KG addition improved the hardness, springiness, chewiness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, and density, respectively (P < 0.05). The results suggested that KG addition improved the rheological properties and 3D printability of the pork pastes.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Suínos , Carragenina , Viscosidade , Reologia
11.
Food Chem ; 408: 135159, 2023 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549165

RESUMO

Garlic diallyl disulfide (DAD) nano-emulsions consisting of soy proteins were constructed, and their effects on physicochemical properties and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) formation in roasted pork were investigated. DAD was well encapsulated by soy proteins with a mean particle of 400-700 nm. Applying DAD nano-emulsions to pork patties significantly altered the color and texture of roasted pork, with a slight increase in brightness and decreases in redness and yellowness. The flavor determination demonstrated that sulfur-containing compound levels in encapsulated DAD were significantly reduced, particularly 7S group compounds, indicating an effective shielding effect on the irritating odor of garlic oil by protein. The levels of three HAAs (MeIQx, PhIP, and Harman) were significantly reduced by DAD nano-emulsion exposure (51.84 %, 76.80 %, and 48.70 %, respectively). This study provides a new method for inhibiting HAA formation and improving the sensory qualities of meat products.


Assuntos
Alho , Compostos Heterocíclicos , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Suínos , Alho/química , Proteínas de Soja , Culinária/métodos , Antioxidantes/química , Aminas/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Carne/análise
12.
Meat Sci ; 197: 109079, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36563497

RESUMO

Based on the Meat Standards Australia (MSA) methodology, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the eating quality of grass-fed Angus x Salers beef by French consumers, across different muscle cuts (m. triceps brachii caput longum, m. longissimus dorsi et thoracis and m. rectus abdominis), ageing times (5 and 14 days) and muscle slicing and grilling methods (being distinguished by 2 different sides on the grill), and to further quantify whether the MSA model could predict the eating quality of the meat produced by these lean crossbred animals. The results showed that French consumers can discern significant differences in eating quality traits across muscle cuts but not between ageing times and muscle slicing methods. In this study, the accuracy of eating quality score (MQ4)-assigned MSA grade was 64.5%. Due to the lack of MSA data on these lean crossbred animals, the prediction of eating quality from carcass characteristics was less accurate than usual. However, these results do indicate that the MSA sensory testing protocol, the MQ4 calculation and the MSA quality grades could be used to support a consumer-based quality grading system in France.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Bovinos , Carne , França , Austrália , Reto do Abdome
13.
Food Chem ; 408: 135193, 2023 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36563617

RESUMO

Though stewed beef is favored by consumers, the impact of the domestic high-pressure stewing method on beef has received little attention. This study characterized the beef cooked under varied pressures in the household pressure cooker by analytical instruments, sensory evaluation, and multiple intelligent sensory technologies. Totally, 165 volatile compounds were identified by SPME-GC-TOF-MS, with more detected in samples with higher pressure. The glutamic acid contributed significantly to the umami taste of beef (TAV > 1.25). The meaty and fatty odor, hardness, chewiness, and sweet taste contributed to the overall liking of stewed beef (P < 0.05). The multiple-target BPNN model based on fused data from multiple intelligent sensory technologies could simultaneously predict sensory perception intensities with a satisfying performance (R2 > 0.9340), but could not efficiently predict subjective overall liking scores. The study guides the domestic cooking of beef stew and quantitative sensory prediction based on multiple intelligent sensory techniques.


Assuntos
Quimiometria , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Bovinos , Carne Vermelha/análise , Paladar , Sensação , Carne/análise , Culinária/métodos , Comportamento do Consumidor
14.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 92: 106267, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36543047

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of ultrasound curing with various working modes and frequency combinations, including mono-, dual- and tri-frequency, on the content of NaCl and tenderness of pork loins (Longissimus dorsi). The physical qualities, myoglobin, moisture migration, distribution, and microstructure of pork were also evaluated. The results displayed that the NaCl content of samples cured by simultaneous ultrasound (100 W/L) working mode with a frequency combination of 20, 40, and 60 kHz was higher than that of other ultrasound working modes. The effect of ultrasonic brining was significantly better than the static curing when the saline solution was >35 mL. In addition, the samples cured by simultaneous ultrasound had better physical qualities, including more pickling absorptivity, less cooking loss, and lower hardness, tenderness, and chewiness value. The intensity of lightness was reduced, although redness and yellowness remained unaltered compared to static curing. The myoglobin content decreased drastically without changing the oxygenation level, and the relaxation time of T2b and T21 was delayed. The microstructure indicated that the ultrasonic treatment could promote changes in meat texture. Overall, the simultaneous ultrasound at various frequencies could efficiently accelerate NaCl penetration and improve pork quality.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Suínos , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Ultrassom , Mioglobina
15.
J Proteomics ; 273: 104792, 2023 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535620

RESUMO

We aimed to evaluate the relationships between meat or carcass properties and the abundance of 29 proteins quantified in two muscles, Longissimus thoracis and Rectus abdominis, of Rouge des Prés cows. The relative abundance of the proteins was evaluated using a high throughput immunological method: the Reverse Phase Protein array. A combination of univariate and multivariate analyses has shown that small HSPs (CRYAB, HSPB6), fast glycolytic metabolic and structural proteins (MYH1, ENO3, ENO1, TPI1) when assayed both in RA and LT, were related to meat tenderness, marbling, ultimate pH, as well as carcass fat-to-lean ratio or conformation score. In addition to some small HSP, ALDH1A1 and TRIM72 contributed to the molecular signature of muscular and carcass adiposity. MYH1 and HSPA1A were among the top proteins related to carcass traits. We thus shortened the list to 10 putative biomarkers to be considered in future tools to manage both meat and carcass properties. SIGNIFICANCE: In three aspects this manuscript is notable. First, this is the first proteomics study that aims to evaluate putative biomarkers of both meat and carcass qualities that are of economic importance for the beef industry. Second, the relationship between the abundance of proteins and the carcass or meat traits were evaluated by a combination of univariate and multivariate analyses on 48 cows that are representative of the biological variability of the traits. Third, we provide a short list of ten proteins to be tested in a larger population to feed the pipeline of biomarker discovery.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético , Carne Vermelha , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Músculo Esquelético/química , Carne/análise , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/análise , Análise Multivariada , Carne Vermelha/análise
16.
Meat Sci ; 197: 109053, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493555

RESUMO

To test the hypothesis that lambs fed freeze-dried Nannochloropsis oceanica (NO) biomass will have a higher deposition of EPA in tissues than those fed other Nannochloropsis EPA-sources, we fed 28 lambs with one of four diets: i) C, control, without EPA; ii) O, with 1.2% Nannochloropsis oil; iii) SD, with 12.3% spray-dried NO biomass; iv) FD, with 9.2% freeze-dried NO biomass. Dry matter intake, growth, tissues fatty acid composition, oxidative stability and sensory traits of the resultant meat were evaluated. The EPA was highest in tissues of lambs fed SD and FD compared with O but was similar between SD and FD. Total trans-18:1 did not differ among treatments, but the t10/t11-18:1 ratio decreased with all EPA containing diets. EPA diets were also supplemented with Vitamin E preventing the lipid oxidation in EPA-enriched meat and the meat sensory traits were not affected although occasionally some off-flavours were detected in FD meat.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Microalgas , Carne Vermelha , Ovinos , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta/veterinária , Carne Vermelha/análise , Ácidos Graxos , Carne/análise , Ração Animal/análise
17.
Meat Sci ; 197: 109070, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36508862

RESUMO

This study investigated the physicochemical characteristics of pork emulsion gels manufactured from hot-boned (HB) pork and winter mushroom powder in the absence of phosphate. It was found that compared to cold-boned (CB) pork, HB pork had a higher pH and exhibited a higher myofibrillar protein solubility with a lower actomyosin content (P < 0.05). Four types of pork gels were prepared, namely CB pork without phosphate, CB pork with phosphate (CBP), HB pork without phosphate, and HB pork with winter mushroom powder but without phosphate (HBW). The total exuded fluid was comparable for the CBP and HBW gels on all storage days. In addition, the HB and HBW gels had similar springiness and cohesiveness properties to the CBP gel (P > 0.05). These results indicate that the quality of pork gels manufactured in the absence of phosphate can be improved by the use of HB pork and with the incorporation of winter mushroom powder.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Suínos , Fosfatos , Culinária , Pós , Emulsões , Géis
18.
Meat Sci ; 197: 109056, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36512855

RESUMO

To investigate if bushfire exposure is associated with increased loin pH, this study analysed temporal and geospatial data on fire incidence in South-Eastern Australia together with beef carcase quality and production records for fire affected animals (n = 451,299). Two outcomes were modelled: 1) loin pH at time of grading, and 2) the incidence of "high pH" defects (pH > 5.70). For both models, decreasing "time since closest fire" and "distance of property from closest fire" were associated with increasing loin pH and increased incidence of high pH carcases(p < 0.05 for all); interactions for "distance from the closest fire" with feed type (grain vs grass) and "days of fire exposure" with HGP (hormonal growth promotant) treatment (yes vs no) (p < 0.05 for both) indicate high pH outcomes were exacerbated in grass-fed and HGP treated cattle. It is concluded that exposure to bushfire is associated with increasing pH but the extent and magnitude of these increases are modulated by production factors.


Assuntos
Carne Vermelha , Bovinos , Animais , Carne Vermelha/análise , Músculos Paraespinais , Grão Comestível , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
19.
Meat Sci ; 197: 109074, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36525917

RESUMO

Genetic and feeding factors were combined to improve various quality attributes of pork. Thirty Duroc (D) and thirty Pietrain NN (P) female crossbreeds received a control (C) or an R diet including extruded faba bean and linseed, from 30 to 115 kg. Growth, feed efficiency and slaughter weight were higher for P vs. D pigs and for R vs. C pigs. D pigs had fatter carcasses than P, whereas feeding did not affect carcass fatness. Compared with P, loin meat from D pigs had lower drip, higher ultimate pH and lipid content, and higher marbling, tenderness and juiciness scores (P < 0.05). R feeding did not modify sensory traits but improved pork nutritional value by markedly reducing n-6:n-3 and saturated:n-3 fatty acid ratios (P < 0.001). Combining D genotype and R diet is a favorable strategy for sensory, nutritional, technological properties and societal image of pork through relocation of feed resources, but requires a better market valorization to be implemented.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Suínos/genética , Feminino , Animais , Tecido Adiposo , Carne , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Composição Corporal , Ração Animal
20.
Meat Sci ; 197: 109073, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36525918

RESUMO

For exploring the effect of protein S-nitrosylation on the energy metabolism of early postmortem pork (within 24 h postmortem), the six Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle homogenates were treated with nitric oxide donor (NOR-3, (±)-(E)-4-Ethyl-2-(E)-hydroxyimino-5-nitro-3-hexenamide), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor (L-NAME, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride) and control (0.1 M K2HPO4, pH 7.4) in the in vitro buffer system for 24 h, respectively. The western blotting result showed that NOR-3 treatment led to a greater level of protein S-nitrosylation (p < 0.05). However, S-nitrosylation levels had no significant difference between L-NAME and control groups (p > 0.05). In addition, results showed that 16 significantly differential energy metabolites were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and clearly separated among three groups in the principal component analysis. Four pathways (glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, purine metabolism and pentose phosphate pathway) related to energy metabolism were significantly influenced by different levels of protein S-nitrosylation. Furthermore, the correlation analysis of metabolites demonstrated that metabolites were in dynamic equilibrium with each other. These results indicate that protein S-nitrosylation can participate in and regulate energy metabolism postmortem pork through glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Suínos , Carne de Porco/análise , Carne Vermelha/análise , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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